ENGLISHMain English Grammar

ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE RULES (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

Active Voice = जब किसी वाक्य का subject कोई कार्य करता है तो उस वाक्य को Active Voice में होना कहा जाता है.

Passive Voice = जब किसी वाक्य के subject पर कोई कार्य किया जाता  है तो उस वाक्य को Passive Voice में होना कहा जाता है; ऐसे वाक्यों में subject कुछ नहीं करता.

इन दो वाक्यों को पढ़िए और इस बात को समझिये:

a) Ranjan writes a letter.
b) A letter is written by Ranjan.

[देखिये दूसरे वाक्य की verb ‘is written’ है. जैसा कई हम देख रहे हैं इस verb की रचना ‘be + V3’ है. जब किसी वाक्य की verb की रचना ऐसी होती है तो उस वाक्य को Passive Voice में होना कहा जाता है. कभी-कभी Passive Voice के वाक्य की रचना ‘get + V3’ होती है; परन्तु Standard English में इस रचना वाले वाक्यों को शुद्ध नहीं माना जाता. रचना ‘be + V3’  को छोड़ कर शेष सभी रचनाओं वाले वाक्य Active Voice में होते हैं.]

So, the Hindi translation of the above two sentences is:

a) Ranjan writes a letter. (रंजन एक पत्र लिखता है.)
b) A letter is written by Ranjan. (रंजन द्वारा एक पत्र लिखा जाता है.)

NOTE: From the above we can say that verb form ‘BE+V3’ is in the passive voice and all other verb forms are in the active voice.

1. Active Voice और Passive Voice में मूलभूत बदलाव के नियम 

कई बार हमें Active Voice के वाक्य को Passive Voice के वाक्य में बदलना होता है; या फिर इसका विपरीत करना होता है. ऐसा करने के लिए हमें वाक्य में कुछ बदलाव लाने होते हैं; चलो देखते हैं वे बदलाव क्या होते है:

i) Active Voice के वाक्य की verb का object Passive Voice के वाक्य का subject बन जाता है; और Active Voice का subject Passive Voice के वाक्य में preposition ‘by’ अथवा किसी और उपयुक्त preposition का object बन जाता है; लेकिन कभी-कभी preposition के उस object का वाक्य में उल्लेख करना  आवश्यक नहीं होता.

ii) Active Voice के वाक्य की verb की form Passive Voice के वाक्य में ‘be + V3’ हो जाती है.

iii) Active Voice के वाक्य का tense Passive Voice के वाक्य में वही रहता है; अर्थात tense नहीं बदलता.

iv) वाक्य के प्रकार में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; अर्थात Active Voice का sentence यदि Assertive Sentence है तो Passive Voice का sentence भी Assertive Sentence ही रहेगा. यदि Interrogative Sentence है तो वह Interrogative Sentence ही रहेगा.

v) Future Continuous Tense और सभी प्रकार के Perfect Continuous Tenses को Passive Voice में नहीं बदला जा सकता.

चलिए इन बातों को कुछ उदाहरणों से समझते है:

a) Renu loves Geeta.
= Geeta is loved by Renu.

[हम देख रहे हैं Active Voice के वाक्य का object Geeta है, और tense Present Simple Tense है. अब Passive Voice का वाक्य देखिये; इस वाक्य का subject Geeta बन जाता है और verb BE (यहाँ IS) Present Simple Tense में ही रही.]

b) Rahul is writing a book.
= A book is being written by Rahul.

[Active Voice के वाक्य की verb ‘is writing’, अर्थात इसका tense Present Continuous Tense है. ध्यान रहे कि continuous tenses को Passive Voice में बदलते समय verb ‘be + being’ का रूप ‘be + being + V3’ हो जाता है. अतः Passive Voice में ये verb ‘is being written’ हो गयी है.]

c) The peon opened the gate.
= The gate was opened by the peon.

d) Raju was eating a banana.
= A banana was being eaten by Raju.

e) I shall play badminton in the evening.
= Badminton will be played by me in the evening.

[Active Voice के वाक्य का tense Future Simple Tense है; अतः नियम के अनुसार यहाँ हमें ‘be’ का Future Simple Tense चाहिए, निसंदेह ये होगा या तो ‘shall be’ या फिर ‘will be’. लेकिन shall का use तो सिर्फ प्रथम पुरुष (first person) के लिए होता है; और हमें यहाँ चाहिए badminton के लिए, अतः यहाँ ‘will be’ use होगा.]

f) I have finished my homework.
= My homework has been finished by me.

[Active Voice के वाक्य का tense Present Perfect Tense है; अतः नियम के अनुसार यहाँ हमें ‘be’ का Present Perfect Tense चाहिए, निसंदेह ये होगा या तो ‘has been’ या ‘have been’. लेकिन have का use तो ‘I’अथवा plural subjects के साथ होता है, और हमें यहाँ चाहिए homework के लिए, अतः यहाँ ‘has been’ use होगा.]

g) The king reviewed the troops in the maidan.
= The troops were reviewed by the king in the maidan.

h) The legend tells us how the city received its name.
= We are told by the legend how the city received its name.

i) All desire wealth and some acquire it.
= Wealth is desired by all and acquired by some.

[Passive Voice के वाक्य को देखिये. इसमें subject wealth की दो verb हैं desired और acquired जो and से जुड़ी हुईं हैं. जब  किसी subject की दो verb होती हैं तो उनकी helping verb उनमें से सिर्फ पहले वाली के साथ use की जाती है; अतः helping verb ‘is’ को दूसरे वाली verb के साथ दोहराया नहीं जाएगा.]

j) Alas! We shall hear her voice no more.
= Alas! Her voice will be heard no more.
OR Alas! Her voice will not be heard anymore.

[Active Voice का sentence Exclamatory Sentence है; अतः Passive Voice का sentence भी Exclamatory Sentence ही बनाया जायेगा क्योंकि voice change में वाक्य के प्रकार में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता.]

k) Do not insult the poor.
= Let the poor not be insulted.

2. Active Voice और Passive Voice में ‘modal verbs’ को कैसे बदला जाता है 

अगर Active Voice के वाक्य में किसी modal verb का use हुआ है तो Passive Voice के वाक्य में वह ‘modal verb + main verb’ बदल कर ‘modal + be + V3’ बन जाती है.]

a) Rohit must shut the door.
= The door must be shut by Rohit.

b) Rani ought to have told him.
= He ought to have been told by Rani.

c) You have to pay fifty-paise postage.
= Fifty-paise postage has to be paid by you. [HAVE TO एक modal verb होती है.]

d) You have to type this letter immediately.
= This letter has to be typed by you immediately.

3. कभी-कभी Passive Voice के object के साथ preposition ‘by’ की अपेक्षा prepositions With, To, In, At, etc. भी use होते हैं  

A) आमतौर पर Passive Voice के object से पहले preposition ‘by’ तब use किया जाता जब verb कोई action होती है; लेकिन verb यदि मस्तिष्क की कोई दशा या स्थिति को व्यक्त कर रही हो तो preposition ‘by’ use नहीं किया जाता बल्कि कोई और preposition use होता है; जैसे

i) I know her.
=She is known to me.

ii) He annoys me.
I am annoyed with him.

iii) She vexes me.
= I am vexed at her.

NOTE: KNOW, ANNOY और VEX actions नहीं हैं बल्कि ये किसी के मस्तिष्क की अवस्थाएं हैं.

B) किसी Active Voice के वाक्य का subject यदि कोई व्यक्ति नहीं होता तो Passive Voice के object से पहले preposition ‘by’ को छोड़ कर कोई और preposition use होता है; जैसे

i) Smoke filled the room.
= The room was filled with smoke.

ii) Paint covered the lock.
= The lock was covered with paint.

iii) The boy’s work pleased the teacher.
= The teacher was pleased with the boy’s work.

iv) His behavior annoyed me,
= I was annoyed with his behavior.

v) The book has greatly interested me.
= I have been greatly interested in this book.

4. ऐसी verbs को Passive Voice में कैसे बदला जाये जिनका अर्थ ही passive होता है 

Verbs को दो वर्गों में बांटा जा सकता है; एक तो वे जिनका अर्थ active होता है जैसे कि इस वाक्य में — ‘The peon opened the gate.’ इस वाक्य का subject PEON है, और gate को खोलने का कार्य वही करता है, अर्थात subject action में है. तो हम कह सकते है कि verb OPEN का अर्थ active है.

दूसरी तरह की verb का अर्थ passive होता है जैसे कि इस वाक्य में — ‘The surface feels smooth.’ इस वाक्य का subject SURFACE है और verb FEELS है; अब कोई SURFACE तो कुछ FEEL कर नहीं सकता, अर्थात इस वाक्य में subject action में नहीं है. ऐसी verbs को passive verbs कहा जाता है. ऐसी verbs को Passive Voice के वाक्यों में निम्न प्रकार से बदला जाता है:

a) The rose smells sweet.
=The rose is sweet when it is smelt.

b) The grapes tasted sour.
= The grapes were sour when they were tasted.

c) At least the play reads well.
= At least the play affects the readers well when it is read.

d) This book reads easily.
= This book can be read easily.

e) The house is building.
= The house is being built.

f) The meal is eating.
= The meal is being eaten.

g) The drums are beating.
= The drums are being beaten.

5. जब Active Voice के subject को Passive Voice के वाक्य में उल्लेख करने की आवश्यकता नहीं पड़ती 

निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में Active Voice के subject को Passive Voice के object के रूप में हमें आमतौर पर उल्लेख करने की आवश्यकता नहीं होती:

i) जब किसी Active Voice के वाक्य में action को करने वाला व्यक्ति स्वत: ही स्पष्ट (obvious) हो.
ii) जब Active Voice के वाक्य का subject कोई अनिश्चित (vague) व्यक्ति हो जैसे कि One, Someone, They, We, आदि.

Examples:

a) The police arrested the thief.
= The thief was arrested.

[इस वाक्य में हमें Active Voice के subject POLICE का उल्लेख करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है क्योंकि किसी चोर की गिरफ्तारी POLICE ही करती है; अर्थात ये स्वत: ही स्पष्ट (obvious) है.]

b) People suspect him of receiving stolen goods.
= He is suspected of receiving stolen goods.

[इस वाक्य में हमें Active Voice के subject PEOPLE का उल्लेख करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है क्योंकि इससे यही नहीं पता लग रहा कि goods को किन लोगों ने चुराया है; अर्थात ये अनिश्चित (vague) subject है; .]

c) People suppose that they are living in Delhi.
= They are supposed to be living in Delhi.

d) One sees this sort of advertisement everywhere.
= This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere.

e) Someone picked my pocket in the bus.
= My pocket was picked in the bus.

f) A Mr Rohan has bought the house next door.
= The house next door has been bought.

[जब किसी व्यक्ति के नाम के पहले article ‘A’ का use होता है तो वह व्यक्ति अनिश्चित (vague) बन जाता है. A Mr Rohan = मोहन नाम का कोई व्यक्ति]

g) Our state government is building a new public library.
= A new public library is being built.

h) They sell TVs here.
= TVs are sold here.

[THEY यहाँ कोई आदमी विशेष नहीं हैं, ये अनिश्चित आदमी हैं; अर्थात किसी स्थान के दूकानदार.]

i) They asked me my name.
= I was asked my name. OR My name was asked.

j) They opened the theatre only last month.
= The theatre was opened only last month.

k) We will execute all orders promptly.
= All orders will be executed promptly.

l) One should keep one’s promises.
= Promises should be kept.

m) We expect good news.
= Good news is expected.

n) Circumstances will oblige me to go.
= I shall be obliged to go.

o) The rules forbid passengers to cross the railway line.
= Passengers are forbidden to cross the railway line.

NOTE-I: YOU, WE, THEY कोई विशिष्ट व्यक्ति (specific persons) के रूप में भी use किये जा सकते हैं और अनिश्चित व्यक्तियों (vague people) के रूप में भी. वाक्य को पढने पर यह पता लग जाता है. तो यह इस बात पर निर्भर करेगा कि इनका Passive Voice के वाक्य में उल्लेख किया जाए अथवा नहीं.

NOTE-II: Passive Voice में ‘By phrase’ के उल्लेख करने के नियम का इतना सख्ती से पालन करना कोई जरूरी नहीं होता है. Passive Voice में इसका उल्लेख किया भी गया है तो वाक्य अशुद्ध नहीं है. लेकिन कभी-कभी ‘by phrase’ का उल्लेख करना आवश्यक होता है; जैसे

a) Mr Prakash Gautam teaches us English
= English is taught to us by Mr Prakash Gautam.

[इस वाक्य में ‘By phrase’ का उल्लेख करना आवश्यक है क्योंकि Active Voice के वाक्य का subject Prakash Gautam एक निश्चित व्यक्ति है.]

b) Someone brought me a gift.
= I was brought a gift.
OR I was brought a gift by someone.

6. ऐसे वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलने के नियम जब Active Voice के वाक्य में कोई Possessive Adjective दिया हुआ हो

कभी-कभी Active Voice के वाक्य में subject का कोई possessive adjective (my, our, your, his, her, their, its, one’s) भी दिया हुआ होता है. ऐसे वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलते हुए अक्सर उस possessive adjective को हटा दिया जाता है और उसके स्थान पर article THE का use किया जाता है; हालाँकि THE का use कभी-कभी आवश्यक नहीं भी होता है; जैसे

a) We had already taken our meals.
= The meals had already been taken by us.

b) One must do one’s duty.
= Duty must be done.

7. ऐसे वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलने के नियम जब Active Voice के वाक्य में दो object दिए गये हों  

Active Voice के वाक्य की verb के जब दो object होते हैं तो उस वाक्य के Passive Voice के वाक्य का subject उन दोनों objects में से किसी भी object को बनाया जा सकता है. बस ध्यान ये रखना होता है कि किसी व्यक्ति वाले object (Indirect Object) को अगर subject बनाते हैं तो वस्तु वाले object (Direct Object) से पहले preposition TO और FOR में से जो भी उपयुक्त हो उसको लगाना होता है; जैसे 

a) The guard refused him admittance.
=He was refused admittance by the guard.
OR Admittance was refused to him by the guard.

b) I bought my son a pen.
= My son was bought a pen.
OR A pen was bought for my son.

c) He promised me a gift.
= I was promised a gift.
OR A gift was promised to me.

d) You could give it to me.
= I could be given it by you.
OR It could be given to me by you.

NOTE: लेकिन यदि वे दोनों object जब एक ही व्यक्ति को प्रदर्शित करते हैं तो वाक्य का केवल एक ही Passive Voice बनाया जा सकता है वो भी केवल person वाले object से; जैसे

a) They made him king.
= He was made king.

[यहाँ दोनों object HIM और KING एक ही व्यक्ति को प्रदर्शित कर रहे हैं.]

b) We elected Hari captain.
=Hari was elected captain.

[यहाँ दोनों object HARIऔर CAPTAIN एक ही व्यक्ति को प्रदर्शित कर रहे हैं.]

8. ऐसे वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलना जब कोई verb हमेशा कोई न कोई preposition लेती है 

यदि कोई verb अपने साथ हमेशा कोई लेती है तो

के वाक्य में भी उस preposition को verb के साथ ही रखा जाता है; जैसे

a) You can play with these cubs quite safely.
= These cubs can be played with quite safely.

b) We must write to him.
= He must be written to.

c) They threw away the old newspapers.
= The old newspapers were thrown away.

d) They looked after the children well.
= The children were well looked after.

e) They laughed at all his warnings and objected to all his proposals.
= All his warnings were laughed at and proposals objected to.

f) You can never hear of a happy millionaire.
= A happy millionaire can never be heard of.

NOTE: कुछ verb जो अपने साथ preposition use लेती हैं:

look at, look after, look down upon, look into, laugh at, smile at, deride at, mock at, fire at

9. प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों (Interrogative Sentences) को कैसे Passive Voice में बदला जाता है 

यदि Active Voice का कोई वाक्य किसी helping verb से शुरू होता है तो Passive Voice का वाक्य भी किसी helping verb से शुरू होता है; यदि वह modal verb से शुरू होता है तो Passive Voice का वाक्य भी modal verb से शुरू होता है, और यदि WH family के किसी शब्द शुरू से होता है तो Passive Voice का वाक्य भी WH family के किसी शब्द से ही शुरू होता है; जैसे 

a) Who did this?
= By whom was this done?

[इस वाक्य का object ‘this’ है; इसलिए Passive Voice का subject ‘this ही बनेगा. क्योंकि Passive Voice का वाक्य भी प्रश्नवाचक (interrogative) बनना है, अतः helping verb ‘was’ ‘this’ के पहले आएगी और main verb ‘done’ ‘this’ के बाद में. 

क्योंकि Active Voice के वाक्य का subject ‘who’ है; अतः यह Passive Voice के वाक्य का object बनेगा. ‘Who’ का objective case ‘whom’ होता है, और हमें ये पता ही है कि Passive Voice के object के पहले ‘by’ का use होता है; अतः ये ‘by whom’ होगा. क्योंकि Active Voice का वाक्य प्रश्नवाचक है जो WH family के word से शुरू हो रहा है, इसलिए Passive Voice का वाक्य भी WH family के word से ही शुरू होगा. अतः Passive Voice का वाक्य ‘by whom’ से शुरू होगा.]

b) Whom have you invited?
= Who has been invited by you?

[यदि किसी वाक्य में helping verb भी दे रखी हो subject हमेशा helping verb और main verb के बीच में दिया होता है; अर्थात Active Voice के वाक्य का subject ‘you’ है. इसलिए ये Passive Voice का object बनेगा, अर्थात ये ‘by you’ होगा. शब्द ‘whom’ हमेशा ही किसी वाक्य का object होता है, इसलिए Passive Voice के वाक्य का ये subject बनेगा. WHOM का subjective case WHO होता है; अतः Passive Voice के वाक्य का subject ‘who’ बनेगा.]

c) Who teaches you Mathematics?
= By whom are you taught Mathematics?
OR By whom is Mathematics taught to you?

d) Who taught you such tricks as these?
= By whom were you taught such tricks as these?
OR By whom were such tricks as these taught to you?

e) Why did your brother write such a letter?
= Why was such a letter written by your brother?

f) When will you return my camera?
=When will my camera be returned?

g) Shall I ever forget those happy days?
= Will those happy days ever be forgot/forgotten?

h) Do you understand my meaning?
= Is my meaning understood?

i) What did they stole?
= What was stolen?

j) What makes these holes?
= By what are these holes made?

k) How else would you learn it?
= How else would it be learnt by you?

[IMPORTANT: यदि Active Voice के किसी वाक्य का subject कोई प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम (interrogative pronoun) जैसे कि ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘which’, आदि हो और उसको Passive Voice के वाक्य में किसी preposition की आवश्यकता हो तो उस preposition को प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम (interrogative pronoun) से पहले रखा जाता है; वाक्य के अंत में नहीं. देखा गया है की लोग ऐसा कर देते हैं; ये बोलचाल की भाषा तक तो चलता है लेकिन Standard English में ये अशुद्ध होता हो; जैसे

INCORRECT: Who are you taught by?
CORRECT: By whom are you taught.]

10. आज्ञासूचक वाक्य (Imperative Sentences) को कैसे Passive Voice में बदला जाता है

1. Orders/Instructions/warnings

a) Do it at once.
= You are ordered to do it at once.
= You are asked to do it at once.
= You are told to do it at once.
= Let it be done at once.

b) Bring a glass of water.
= You are ordered to bring a glass of water.
= You are asked to bring a glass of water.
= You are told to bring a glass of water.
= Let a glass of water be brought.

NOTE-I: Active Voice का वाक्य यदि नकारात्मक (negative) तो LET के साथ उसको Passive Voice के वाक्य में ऐसे बदला जाता है:

Let + object + not + be + v3; e.g.

a) Do not beat the dog.
= Let the dog not be beaten.

b) Don’t touch it.
= Let it not be touched.

NOTE-II: Active Voice के वाक्य में यदि object न दिया गया हो तो Passive Voice के वाक्य को ‘you’ से आरंभ किया जाता है; उसको ‘let’ से आरंभि किया ही नहीं जा सकता; जैसे 

a) Work hard.
= You are advised to work hard.

b) Get out.
= You are ordered to get out.

NOTE-III: शब्द ‘tell’ का अर्थ ये भी होता है ‘किसी को कुछ करने के लिए कहना’. इसलिए शब्द ‘tell’ को आज्ञासूचक वाक्यों (Imperative Sentences) के Passive Voice में भी किया जाता है.

2. Requests

a) Save my life, please.
= You are requested to save my life.

b) Kindly vacate the house.
= You are requested to vacate the house. [To use ‘kindly requested’ is incorrect.]

c) Do it for me, please.
= You are requested to do it for me.

[‘kindly requested’ कहना अशुद्ध होता है.]

3. Advice

a) Help the needy people.
= You are advised to help the needy people. OR The needy people should be helped.

[यह एक advice है, order नहीं. अतः आप इस वाक्य के Passive Voice में verb ‘tell’, ‘ask’, ‘order’ use नहीं कर सकते.]

b) Love the poor.
= You are advised to love the poor. OR The poor should be loved.

c) Hate the seven deadly sins.
= The seven deadly sins should be hated.

11. Active Voice के वाक्य की verb यदि LET हो तो उस वाक्य को Passive Voice में कैसे बदला जाता है 

Verb LET के अर्थ कई सारे होते हैं; अतः Active Voice के वाक्य की verb यदि LET हो तो उसको Passive Voice में बदलने का कोई एक तरीका नहीं है. ऐसे वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिए ये देखा जाता है कि Active Voice के वाक्य में इसका अर्थ क्या है.

Verb LET को निम्नलिखित अर्थों के लिए use किया जाता है:

i) let = आज्ञा देना
ii) let = सुझाव देना
iii) let = पार्थना (request) करना
iv let = कोई इच्छा व्यक्त करना
v) let = कोई भवन, कमरा, आदि किराये पर देना

a) Let him drive the car.
= Let the car be driven by him.
= He may be allowed to drive the car.

b) Let the dog be in.
= You are asked/requested to let the dog be in.

c) Let me go.
= I may be allowed to go.
= You are requested to let me go.

d) Let him do this work.
= Let this work be done by him.
= You are requested to let him do this work

e) Let’s finish the job. (suggestion)
= The job should be finished.

f) Let us lie for a while. (suggestion)
= It is suggested that we should lie for a while.

g) Let us beat our swords into ploughshares. (wish)
= Let all swords be beaten into ploughshares.
= May all swords be beaten into ploughshares.

[‘swords to ploughshares’ = तलवारें छोड़ कर शांतिपूर्ण कार्यों में लग जाना

h) The farmer let me live in a caravan behind his barn.
= I was permitted/allowed to live in a caravan behind his barn by the farmer.

(Caravan = चलते-फिरते घर जैसी गाड़ी)

i) Her Dad never lets her have ice-cream.
= She is never allowed/permitted to have ice-cream by her father.

NOTE: Verb ‘let’ की कोई passive form नहीं होती; जैसे

INCORRECT: He was let go.
CORRECT: He was allowed to go.

INCORRECT: He was let to enter India as a political refugee.
CORRECT: He was allowed to enter India as a political refugee.

12. Passive Voice के वाक्यों को IT से कब आरम्भ किया जा सकता है  

Active Voice के वाक्य की verb यदि Say, Think, Feel, Consider, Hope, Expect, आदि हो और इनके साथ यदि infinitive + object’ हो अथवा कोई ‘that-clause’ हो तो ऐसे वाक्य को Passive Voice में बदलने के नियम:

CASE-I: जब इनमे से किसी verb के साथ ‘infinitive + object’ दिया हुआ हो

It +  verb की passive form + by-phrase + that + दिए गये subject की pronoun + will/would + V1.

अथवा

Infinitive का object  + verb की passive form + infinitive की passive form + by-phrase

Examples:

a) Pakistan expect to win the match.
= It is expected by Pakistan that they will win the match.
= The match is expected to be won by Pakistan.

b) The Greeks expected to win the international trophy.
= It was expected by the Greeks that they would win the international trophy.
= The international trophy was expected to be won by Pakistan.

NOTE: Verb Propose, Decide, Need, आदि का passive ऊपर बताई गयी विधि से थोडा अलग प्रकार से बनाया जाता है; जैसे

They propose to build a dam for irrigation.
= It is proposed that a dam should be built for irrigation.
= It is proposed that a dam be built for irrigation.
= It is proposed to build a dam for irrigation.
= A dam is proposed to be built for irrigation.

 He decided to sell the house.
= He decided that the house be/should be sold.
= It was decided by him that the house be/should be sold.

CASE-II: जब इनमे से किसी verb के साथ ‘that-clause’ दिया हुआ हो

It + main clause की verb की passive form + that-clause यूँ का यूँ जैसा की वाक्य में दिया हुआ है

अथवा

That-clause का subject + main clause की verb की passive form + that-clause की verb की to-infinitive  + दिया हुआ object/adjective

Examples:

a) People consider that Mohan is a fool.
= It is considered that Mohan is a fool.
= Mohan is considered to be a fool.

b) People said that he was jealous of her.
= It was said that he was jealous of her.
= He was said to be jealous of her.

c) People say he is handsome.
= It is said that he is handsome.
= He is said to be handsome.

d) They know he has an idea.
= It is known that he has an idea.
= He is known to have an idea.

e) They think that I am dying.
= It is thought that I am dying.
= I am thought to be dying.

f) People felt that the social workers were doing valuable work.
= It was felt that the social workers were doing valuable work.
= The social workers were felt to be doing valuable work.

g) They report that she came back/has come back.
= It is reported that she came back/has come back.
= She is reported to have come back.

h) Everyone thought that the Government had shown very little regard for public opinion.
= It was thought that the Government had shown very little regard for public opinion.
= The Government was thought to have shown very little regard for public opinion.

i) They say that she will resign.
= It is said that she will resign.
= She is said to be going to resign.

j) The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent.
= It will be learned/learnt with astonishment that war is imminent.
= War will be learned/learnt to be imminent with astonishment.

NOTE-I: वाक्य ‘c’ और ‘d’ की verbs ‘say’ और ‘know’ के बाद के clause वास्तव में ‘that-clause’ ही हैं क्योंकि इन verbs के बाद शब्द THAT का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है. अतः नीचे दिए गये वाक्य बिल्कुल एक ही बात है:

a) People say he is handsome.
b) People say that he is handsome.

NOTE-II: ऐसे वाक्यों में हमारे लिए सबसे बड़ी समस्या होती है की infinitive अपनी simple form (to + V1) use की जाये अथवा perfect form (to + have + V3) में.

‘Main clause’ और ‘that-clause’ की verb का समय-सन्दर्भ (time-reference) एक ही है तो simple infinitive (to V1) को use किया जाता है; और यदि समय-सन्दर्भ (time-reference) अलग-अलग है तो perfect infinitive (to + have + V3) को use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) They say that that he knows Katrina Kaif.
= He is said to know Katrina Kaif.

b) They said that he knew Katrina Kaif.
= He was said to know Katrina Kaif.

[पहले वाक्य के ‘that-clause’ की verb ‘knows’ है; और ‘main clause’ की verb ‘said’ है. तो स्पष्ट है कि इन दोनों ही verbs का time-reference एक ही है; अतः Passive Voice के वाक्य में simple infinitive (to + V1) का use होगा; अर्थात to know का use होगा.

दूसरे वाक्य के ‘that-clause’ की verb ‘knew’ है; और ‘main clause’ की verb ‘say’ है. तो स्पष्ट है कि इन दोनों ही verbs का time-reference एक ही है; अतः Passive Voice के वाक्य में simple infinitive (to + V1) का use होगा; अर्थात to know का use होगा.

a) They think that he acted foolishly.
= He is thought to have acted foolishly.

b) They thought that he had acted foolishly.
= He was thought to have acted foolishly.

[पहले वाक्य के ‘that-clause’ की verb ‘acted’ है; और ‘main clause’ की verb ‘think’ है. तो स्पष्ट है कि इन दोनों ही verbs का time-reference अलग अलग है; अतः Passive Voice के वाक्य में perfect infinitive (to + have + V3) का use होगा; अर्थात to have acted का use होगा.

दूसरे वाक्य के ‘that-clause’ की verb ‘had acted’ है; और ‘main clause’ की verb ‘thought’ है. तो स्पष्ट है कि इन दोनों ही verbs का time-reference अलग अलग है; अतः Passive Voice के वाक्य में perfect infinitive (to + have + V3) का use होगा; अर्थात to have acted का use होगा.]

CASE-III: जब verb ‘expect’ के साथ ‘object + infinitive + object’ हो तो उस वाक्य का Passive Voice इस तरह बनता है:

IT + verb की passive form + of + दिया हुआ object + दिया हुआ infinitive phrase

Example:

I expected him to give us financial aid.
= It was expected of him to give us financial aid.

NOTE: ऐसे वाक्यों में ‘by phrase’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

I expected him to give us financial aid.
= It was expected of him to give us financial aid.
= It was expected of him by me to give us financial aid.

13. Active Voice के वाक्य का आरम्भ यदि phrase ‘It is time’ से होता है तो उसको Passive Voice में कैसे बदला जाता है 

Phrase ‘It is time’ से शुरू होने वाले वाक्यों का Passive voice ऐसे बनाया जाता है:

‘It is time + for + noun/pronoun + to be + V3’; e.g.

a) It is time to close the shop.
= It is time for the shop to be closed.

b) It is time to give the final warning.
= It is time for the final warning to be given.

14. Active Voice के वाक्य का आरम्भ यदि phrase ‘There + be’ से होता है तो उसको Passive Voice में कैसे बदला जाता है

Phrase ‘There + be’ से शुरू होने वाले वाक्यों का Passive voice ऐसे बनाया जाता है:

‘There + be + noun/pronoun + to be + V3’, e.g.

a) There are five letters to write.
= There are five letters to be written.

b) There is no time to lose.
= There is no time to be lost.

15. ‘Infinitive (to + V1)’ को Passive Voice में बदलना 

A) Subject + verb + infinitive + object

उपरोक्त संरचना वाले Active Voice के वाक्य को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिए infinitive (to + V1) का object Passive Voice के वाक्य का subject बना जाता है और infinitive की form passive form हो जाती है.  Active Voice के वाक्य की verb Passive Voice वैसी की वैसी रहती है; जैसे

a) His colleagues started to respect Hari.
= Hari started to be respected by his colleagues.

b) People came to recognize her as the leading actress soon.
= She came to be recognized as the leading actress soon.

c) He is to do it.
= It is to be done by him.

d) Someone seems to have made a mistake.
= A mistake seems to have been made by someone.

e) I’m going to bring him here.
= He is going to be brought here by me.

NOTE: ऐसे प्रश्नवाचक (interrogative) वाक्यों का Passive voice

a) Why did your father refuse to give the money to you?
= Why was the money refused to be given to you by your father?

b) Why did the team captain hoped to select Jadeja?
= Why did Jadeja hoped to be selected by the team captain?

WARNING: Passive Voice का subject यदि कोई person नहीं है तो question word के साथ helping verb IS/WAS का use किया जाता है (पहले वाला वाक्य देखिये); और subject यदि कोई person है तो question word के साथ helping verb DO/DID का use किया जाता है (दूसरे वाला वाक्य देखिये).

B) Subject + verb + object + infinitive + object

उपरोक्त संरचना में verbs Liking, Loving, Wanting, Wishing, आदि से सम्बन्धित होती हैं. ऐसी संरचना वाले वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिए Active Voice के वाक्य के subject और verb को वैसा का वैसा रखा जाता है; और infinitive की form passive बन जाती है. लेकिन इस बात का ध्यान रखना होता है कि यदि वाक्य के subject का person और infinitive के object का person अलग-अलग होते हैं तो Passive Voice के वाक्य में infinitive के object को भी verb के साथ रखा जाता है; जैसे

a) He doesn’t like people to call him a cheat.
= He doesn’t like to be called a cheat.

[Active Voice के वाक्य का subject (he) और infinitive का object (him) एक ही व्यक्ति है, अर्थात ये अलग-अलग नहीं हैं.]

b) He wants someone to take photographs.
= He wants photographs to be taken.

[Active Voice के वाक्य का subject (he) और infinitive का object (photographs)  अलग-अलग हैं. हैं.]

C) Subject + verb + object + infinitive

उपरोक्त संरचना में verbs Command, Request, Advice, Invitation, आदि से सम्बन्धित होती हैं. ऐसी संरचना वाले वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिए Active Voice के वाक्य के verb का object Passive Voice के वाक्य का subject बन जाता है.; और verb की form passive में बन जाती है. Infinitive में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

a) He invited me to go.
=I was invited to go.

b) Mr Rajat taught Rohit to sing.
= Rohit was taught to sing.

c) My boss gave me a journal to read.
= I was given a journal to read by my boss.
= A journal was given to me to read by my boss.

D) Advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + object + infinitive + object

उपरोक्त संरचना का Passive Voice निम्नलिखित प्रकार से बनाया जाता है; जैसे

Verb का object + verb की passive form + infinitive + infinitive का object

अथवा

Subject + verb + that + Infinitive का object + should + passive Infinitive without TO

He urged the employers to increase the salary.
= The employers were urged to increase the salary.
OR He urged that the salary should be increased.

E) Agree/be anxious/be determined/determine/demand + infinitive + object

उपरोक्त संरचना का Passive Voice आमतौर पर ऐसे बनाया जाता है:

‘Verb + that-should + infinitive की passive form’; e.g.

They demanded to withdraw all troops.
= They demanded that all troops should be withdrawn.

F) Active infinitive और passive infinitive के use में अंतर 

यदि action करने वाला किसी वाक्य का subject है तो infinitive active form (to + V1) में use की जाती है; लेकिन यदि कार्य करने वाला किसी वाक्य का subject नहीं है अथवा उस वाक्य में कोई action है ही नहीं तो infinitive passive form (to + be + V3) में use की जाती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: I have work to be done.
CORRECT: I have work to do.

INCORRECT: I have two shirts to be washed.
CORRECT: I have two shirts to wash.

[इन दोनों वाक्यों में action करने वाला व्यक्ति subject ‘I’ है; अतः इन दोनों वाक्यों में infinitive की active form का use हुआ है.]

INCORRECT: Mahatma Gandhi was a man to admire.
CORRECT: Mahatma Gandhi was a man to be admired.

[इस वाक्य में  कोई action है ही नहीं; अतः इस वाक्य में infinitive की passive form का use हुआ है.]

NOTE: इसी प्रकार, यदि किसी वाक्य का subject ऐसा है की वह कोई action कर ही नहीं रहा बल्कि action उस subject पर ही हुआ है तो infinitive की passive form ही use की जाती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: These sheets are to wash.
CORRECT: These sheets are to be washed.

INCORRECT: The letter is to post.
CORRECT: The letter is to be posted.

G) Passive Voice में infinitive का use

Active Voice के वाक्यों में verbs Bid, Make, See, Watch, Hear, Feel, Let, आदि के साथ bare infinitive (बिना TO के V1) use की जाती हैं; परन्तु Passive Voice में verb LET को छोड़कर ऊपर दी गयी सभी verbs के साथ full infinitive (to + V1) use की जाती हैं; जैसे

a) We saw them go out.
= They were seen to go out.

b) He made us work.
= We were made to work.

c) They let us go.
= We were let go.

16. Rules of converting ‘Gerund (ing form)’ into Passive Voice

A) (Sub + verb + obj + gerund) अथवा (Sub + verb + obj + gerund + obj)

ऐसी संरचनाओं का Passive Voice इस तरह से बनाया जाता है:

Verb का object + verb की passive form + gerund + gerund का object

a) They saw him climbing over the fence.
= He was seen climbing over the fence.

b) I saw him opening the box.
= He was seen opening the box.

B) Sub + verb + obj + gerund + obj + to

ऐसी संरचना का Passive Voice इस तरह से बनाया जाता है:

Subject + verb + gerund की passive form

I remember them taking me to the zoo.
= I remember being taken to the zoo.

C) Sub + verb + gerund + obj

ऐसी संरचना का Passive Voice इस तरह से बनाया जाता है:

Subject + verb + object + gerund की passive form

I enjoyed taking the children to the garden.
= I enjoyed the children being taken to the garden.

D) Advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + gerund + obj; और  ‘Advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest
+ gerund + object’

ऐसी संरचनाओं का Passive Voice इस तरह से बनाया जाता है: ‘that – should’ का use करके बनाया जाता है; जैसे

He recommended using bullet-proof glass.
= He recommended that bullet-proof glass should be used.

F) It/they + need + gerund

ऐसी संरचना का Passive Voice इस तरह से बनाया जाता है:

It/they + need + gerund की infinitive बनाकर उसकी passive form

It needs washing.
=It needs to be washed.

17. शब्द is/are Suppose’ को Passive Voice में बदलने के नियम 

‘Is/are supposed’ का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब हमें किसी से किसी कार्य को करने की उम्मीद होती है; अथवा किसी को कुछ होने का विश्वास होता है ; इसको Passive Voice में कैसे बदला जाता है उसके कुछ उदाहरण:

a) You are supposed to know how to drive.
= It is your duty to know how to drive. OR You should know how to drive.
= People believe you know how to drive. (belief)

b) You are supposed to have finished your homework by now.
= You should have finished your homework by now.
= We believe you have finished your homework.

c) He is supposed to have escaped disguised as a woman.
= People suppose/believe that he has escaped disguised as a woman.

d) You are supposed to be working.
= You should be working.

e)You are supposed to have been working.
= You should have been working.

18. Some Sentences in Passive Voice to Active Voice 

a) The telephone lines have been cut.
= Someone has cut the telephone lines.

b) The 1972 Asian Games were held in Delhi, India.
= They held the 1972 Asian Games in Delhi, India.

c) Without effort nothing can be gained.
= Without effort one/we/you can gain nothing.
OR Without effort one/we/you cannot gain anything.

d) Why should I be suspected by you?
= Why should you suspect me?

e) The information is kept on our computer.
= We keep the information on our computer.

f) My purse was lost.
= I lost my purse.

g) He was refused admittance.
= They refused him admittance.

h) Our army has been defeated.
= The enemy has defeated our army.

i) It is said that the thief stole several wallets.
= They say that the thief stole several wallets.

j) The pigeons are said to carry a lot of diseases.
= People think that the pigeons carry a lot of diseases.

19. Typical question on Active Voice and Passive Voice

a) We admire the brave.
= The brave are admired.

b) You must endure what you cannot cure.
= What cannot be cured must be endured.

c) He will be greatly surprised if he is chosen.
= He will be greatly surprised if they choose him.

d) The ship was set on fire and abandoned by the crew.
= The crew set the ship on fire and abandoned it.

e) I feel people have taken advantage of me.
= I feel I have been taken advantage of.

f) In future, they won’t bring letters to the house, and we shall have to collect them from the post office.
= In future, letters won’t be brought to the house, and they will have to be collected from the
post office.

g) We kill and injure many people on the road every day. Can’t we do something about this?
= Many people are killed and injured on the road every day. Can’t something be done about this?

h) We need not type this letter.
= This letter need not be typed.

i) Nobody has used this room for ages.
= This room has not been used for ages.

j) You are supposed to obey him.
= It is your duty to obey him.

k) Get someone to mend it.
= Have it mended.

l) I’m employing a man to tile the bathroom.
= I’m having the bathroom tiled.

m) It’s a little too loose; you had better ask your tailor to take it in.
= It’s a little too loose; you had better have it taken in.
OR It’s a little too loose; your tailor had better been asked to take it in.

n) He likes people to call him ‘sir’.
= He likes to be called ‘sir’.

o) You will have to get someone to see to it.
= You will have to have it to be seen to.
OR You will have to get it to be seen to. OR It will have to be seen to.

p) You have to see it to believe it.
= It has to be seen to be believed.

q) You order me about and I am tired of it.
= I am tired of being ordered about.

r) We don’t allow smoking.
= Smoking is not allowed.

s) No one can do anything unless someone gives us accurate information.
= Nothing can be done unless we are given accurate information.

t) He wants that he should be treated as king.
= He wants to be treated as king.

u) May she live long!
= It is prayed that she lives long!

Causative Verbs – Active and Passive Voice)

Verb की causative form तब use की जाती है जब हमें खुद को कोई कार्य करना नहीं होता; बल्कि किसी अन्य व्यक्ति से अपना कार्य करवाते हैं. Causative verbs तीन होती हैं — have, let और make. ये तीनों ही verb अपने objects के साथ bare infinitive (बिना TO के V1) लेती हैं.

ये ध्यान रखने की बात है कि ऐसे ही अर्थों वाली कुछ और verb भी होती हैं; लेकिन वे causative verb नहीं होतीं. वे verb हैं — get, force, allow और cause, आदि. इन सभी verbs के साथ full infinitive (to + V1) use होती है; causative verbs की तरह bare infinitive नहीं.

Causative संरचनाएं दो तरह की होती हैं:

a) Active Causative संरचनाएं
b) Passive Causative संरचनाएं

1. Active Causative

Verbs Let, Make, and Have का active pattern

Subject (person) + have/let/make + object (person) + bare Infinitive (V1 without TO)

इन verbs के use में अंतर:

LET

Verb LET का use तब किया जाता है जब हम किसी को कुछ करने की permission दे देते हैं; जैसे

a) She lets me borrow her book. (= वह मुझे अपनी पुस्तक लेने देती है.)
b) Their employer lets them leave early on Fridays in the summer. (= उनके नियोक्ता (employers) उनको गर्मियों में शुक्रवार को जल्दी जाने देते हैं.)

MAKE

Verb MAKE का use तब किया जाता है जब हम किसी को कुछ करने के लिए बाध्य करते हैं; जैसे

a) My wife made me write a letter for her mother. (= मेरी पत्नी ने अपनी माँ के पास भेजने के लिए एक पत्र लिखवाया.)
b) My mother makes me do my home work. (= मेरी माँ ने मुझसे मेरा homework करवाया.)

HAVE

Verb HAVE का use तब किया जाता है जब हम किसी से कोई कार्य अधिकारपूर्वक करवाते हैं; जैसे

a) My English teacher has me do the homework in a week. (= मेरे अध्यापक मुझसे हर सप्ताह मुझसे मेरा homework करवाते है.)
b) The production manager had the technicians modify the electrical outlets.

Verbs ‘have’, ‘let’ और ‘make’ के इस तरह के use के कुछ और उदहारण:

a) I had my friends tell me what happened. (not told)
b) She will let her friend borrow her new jacket. (not borrows or will borrow)
c) Mark’s teacher makes him do homework every day. (not does)
d) Sudha made her husband sell their house.
e) Sudha will have her husband sell their house.
f) Sudha let her husband sell their house.
g) Have Ritu call.
h) Let the dogs go outside after dinner.
i) Make her secretary type out the report.

NOTE-I: Causative वाक्यों का subject आमतौर पर कोई व्यक्ति होता है; परन्तु कभी-कभी subject कोई thing भी हो सकता है; जैसे

a) The heavy rain made the paint peel off the building.
b) The phone message made him feel nervous.
c) We let the dogs run wild at the beach.

a) Have Ritu call
b) Let the dogs go outside after dinner.
c) Make her secretary type out the report.

NOTE-II: Non-Causative Verbs: Get, Force, Allow, and Cause, आदि की संरचना

Subject + Get/force/allow/cause + object (person) + full infinitive (TO + V1)

जैसा कि ऊपर बताया गया है ऐसे ही अर्थों वाली कुछ और verb भी होती हैं; लेकिन वे causative verb नहीं होतीं. वे verb हैं — get, force, allow और cause, आदि. क्योंकि ये verb true causative verbs नहीं होतीं इन सभी verbs के साथ full infinitive (to + V1) use होती है; causative verbs की तरह bare infinitive नहीं; जैसे

a) He got his friend to help him move.
b) My mother forces me to practice the piano every day.
c) Our teacher is going to allow us to go home early today.
d) The test is causing them to panic. It’s really difficult.
e) Sudha wants her husband to sell their house.
f) Sudha will allow her husband to sell their house.
g) Sudha persuaded her husband to sell their house.

2. The Passive Causative

Passive Causative क्या होता है?

Passive causative के लिए आमतौर पर दो verbs का use किया जाता है. वे हैं: HAVE और GET. इसके अतिरिक्त causative verbs के Passive Voice में कोई agent नहीं होता. Action verb का रूप Past Participle (V3) होता है और object इसके पहले आता है; जैसे

Causative verbs के Passive Voice की संरचना:

Subject (person) + have/get + object (thing) + past participle (V3)

उदहारण:
a) He had his car repaired. (इस वाक्य में action ‘repair’ है; देखिये वाक्य में इसकी V3 use की गयी है.)
b) She got her hair cut yesterday. (इस वाक्य में action ‘cut’ है; देखिये वाक्य में इसकी V3 use की गयी है. Verb ‘cut’ की V3 ‘cut’ ही होती है.)
c) My sister got her nails done.
d) Sudha had their house sold by her husband.
e) Sudha got their house sold by her husband.

Active Causative and Passive causative में अंतर समझने के लिए निम्नलिखित examples को देखिये:

1. Active Causative: The manager had the assistant write the report.
Passive Causative: The report was/got written.

2. Active Causative: I had someone clean my house.
Active Causative: I had/got my house cleaned.

NOTE-I: परन्तु, verb GET के बाद यदि किसी व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा (personal noun) का use हुआ है तो full infinitive (to + V1) का use किया जाता है; Past Participle (V3) का नहीं; जैसे 

Compare

a) I got the house painted.
b) I got John to paint the house.

NOTE-II: इसके अतरिक्त causative sentence की सरंचना में modal verb का use भी किया जा सकता है; ऐसे में modal verb किसी सुझाव (suggestion) को व्यक्त करती है; जैसे Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, e.g.

a) You should have your hair cut.
b) He should get his decision changed.
c) She will have the food cooked.

NOTE-III: Need & Want

Passive Causative वाक्यों में verb need और want का use भी किया जा सकता है. कभी-कभी Passive Causative verb had/got का use जरूरी नहीं होता; जैसे

a) I need/want to have my hair cut. (Active structure)
b) I need/want my hair cut. (Passive structure)

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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE RULES (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

Active Voice = When the person or the thing in the subject does something is called active voice; in other words the subject of the sentence is in action in the active voice.

Passive Voice = When something is done to the subject of the sentence is called passive voice; means the person or the thing of the subject does not perform the action denoted by the verb in the passive voice.

Read these two sentences and compare

a) Ranjan writes a letter.
b) A letter is written by Ranjan.

[Obviously the verb in the second sentence is ‘is written’. We see that the structure of the verb here is ‘be + V3’. When such is the structure of the verb the sentence is said to be in the passive voice. Sometimes the structure of the passive verb is ‘get + V3’. But ‘get + V3’ construction is not normally used in standard English. All other verb forms except an exception or two are said to be in the active voice.]

So, the Hindi translation of the above two sentences is:

a) Ranjan writes a letter. (रंजन एक पत्र लिखता है.)
b) A letter is written by Ranjan. (रंजन द्वारा एक पत्र लिखा जाता है.)

NOTE: From the above we can say that verb form ‘BE+V3’ is in the passive voice and all other verb forms are in the active voice.

1. Basic changes in Active Voice and Passive Voice

At times we have to change a sentence in the active voice into a sentence in the passive voice. Let’s see what changes are necessary.

i) The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence, and the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the preposition ‘by’ or any other suitable preposition in the passive sentence; sometimes this object does not need to be mentioned in the passive.
ii) The verb of the active becomes in form of ‘be + V3’.
iii) The tense of the active sentence does not change at all. The tense of the verb in the active is denoted by an appropriate form of only ‘be’ in the passive voice; V3 of the passive does not affect the tense form.
iv) The type of sentence does not change; means it remains the same i.e. Assertive Sentence remains Assertive, Interrogative remains Interrogative and so on.
v) Future Continuous Tense and all Perfect Continuous Tenses i.e. Present/Past/Future Perfect Continuous Tenses cannot be converted into passive.

Examples:

a) Renu loves Geeta.
= Geeta is loved by Renu.

[You see Geeta is the object of the active sentence and the tense is present simple. In the passive, as said above, the object Geeta becomes the subject of the sentence in the passive, and the verb BE (here IS) is in the present simple tense.]

b) Rahul is writing a book.
= A book is being written by Rahul.

[The verb in the active sentence is ‘is writing’, means present continuous. In continuous tenses the continuous form of BE in the passive is ‘be + being’; hence the verb of the passive voice will be ‘Is being written’ here.]

c) The peon opened the gate.
= The gate was opened by the peon.

d) Raju was eating a banana.
= A banana was being eaten by Raju.

e) I shall play badminton in the evening.
= Badminton will be played by me in the evening.

[The tense in the active, we see, is future simple; so we need future simple of BE, of course it is ‘shall be’ or ‘will be’. But we use ‘shall’ with the first person i.e. I or WE, but here our subject is ‘badminton’ (not in the first person), so we need ‘will be’.]

f) I have finished my homework.
= My homework has been finished by me.

[The tense in the active is present perfect, so the present perfect of BE is needed. It will be ‘has been’ or ‘have been’. We use HAVE with I, We or You, so HAS BEEN is required here.]

g) Little strokes fell great oaks.
= Great oaks are felled by little strokes.

[The verb FELL is second form of the verb FALL and first form of the verb FELL itself. The verb FALL is an intransitive verb, means without having an object, whereas the verb FELL is a transitive verb, means having an object. Here the object ‘great oaks’ is given, therefore it’s the first form, means the present simple tense. Note the three forms of the two verbs here: ‘fall fell fallen’ and ‘fell felled felled’]

h) The king reviewed the troops in the maidan.
= The troops were reviewed by the king in the maidan.

i) The legend tells us how the city received its name.
= We are told by the legend how the city received its name.

j) All desire wealth and some acquire it.
= Wealth is desired by all and acquired by some.

[When the same subject is associated with two or more verbs (Here the subject ‘wealth’ has two verbs ‘desire’ and ‘acquire’), we use the helping verb only with the first one, so IS won’t again be used before the verb ‘acquired’.]

k) Alas! We shall hear her voice no more.
= Alas! Her voice will be heard no more.
OR Alas! Her voice will not be heard anymore.

[The sentence in the active voice is exclamatory, so in the passive also it will remain exclamatory as type of a sentence remains the same in both the voices.]

l) Do not insult the poor.
= Let the poor not be insulted.

2. Change of MODALS in Active Voice and Passive Voice

If a sentence in the active voice has a modal, its passive is made by that MODAL + BE + V3.

a) Rohit must shut the door.
= The door must be shut by Rohit.

b) Rani ought to have told him.
= He ought to have been told by Rani.

c) You have to pay fifty-paise postage.
= Fifty-paise postage has to be paid by you. [HAVE TO is a modal verb.]

d) You have to type this letter immediately.
= This letter has to be typed by you immediately.

3. When prepositions With, To, In, At, etc. are used instead of BY with the object of the Passive Voice

A) Normally we use a preposition other than BY when the subject of the active sentence is a person and its verb is not an action, rather it tells the state of mind or feeling or a situation; e.g.

i) I know her.
=She is known to me.

ii) He annoys me.
I am annoyed with him.

iii) She vexes me.
= I am vexed at her.

NOTE: Verbs KNOW, ANNOY and VEX are not actions, rather they are states.

B) With certain verbs we use a preposition other than BY when the subject of the active sentence is not a person; e.g.

i) Smoke filled the room.
= The room was filled with smoke.

ii) Paint covered the lock.
= The lock was covered with paint.

iii) The boy’s work pleased the teacher.
= The teacher was pleased with the boy’s work.

iv) His behavior annoyed me,
= I was annoyed with his behavior.

v) The book has greatly interested me.
= I have been greatly interested in this book.

NOTE: Different verbs take different prepositions. The verb ANNOY takes WITH when used for a person, and it takes AT when used for a thing. See some other verbs to know which prepositions they take:

amazed at decorated with ornamented with known to
astonished at embodied in startled at vexed at
contained in engulfed in surprised at
covered with filled with thronged with
crammed with included in tired of

4. How to convert active verbs which are passive in meaning

You can categorise verbs in two ways, one that have active meanings, means the subject is in action, like in the sentence ‘The peon opened the gate.’ In this sentence the subject of the sentence PEON himself opens the gate, so you can say the verb OPEN here has active meaning.

Second type of verbs are passive in sense, like in the sentence ‘The surface feels smooth.’ the subject ‘the surface’ can’t feel anything, such verbs are said to have passive meaning. The passive voice of such verbs is formed like this:

a) The rose smells sweet.
=The rose is sweet when it is smelt.

b) The grapes tasted sour.
= The grapes were sour when they were tasted.

c) At least the play reads well.
= At least the play affects the readers well when it is read.

d) This book reads easily.
= This book can be read easily.

e) The house is building.
= The house is being built.

f) The meal is eating.
= The meal is being eaten.

g) The drums are beating.
= The drums are being beaten.

5. When the subject of the Active Voice does not need to mentioned in the the Passive Voice

We normally do not need to mention the subject of the active voice while converting it into the passive voice in the following situations.

i) When the doer of the action i.e. subject of the active voice is obvious.
ii) When the subject of the active voice is vague like People, One, Someone, They, We, etc.

EXAMPLES

a) The police arrested the thief.
= The thief was arrested.

b) People suspect him of receiving stolen goods.
= He is suspected of receiving stolen goods.

c) People suppose that they are living in Delhi.
= They are supposed to be living in Delhi.

d) One sees this sort of advertisement everywhere.
= This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere.

e) Someone picked my pocket in the bus.
= My pocket was picked in the bus.

f) A Mr Rohan has bought the house next door.
= The house next door has been bought.

[When name of a person is preceded by ‘A’ it becomes vague, and therefore it’s not mentioned in the passive voice.]

g) Our state government is building a new public library.
= A new public library is being built.

h) They sell TVs here.
= TVs are sold here.

[THEY is not specific here, here THEY means shopkeepers of a particular place.]

i) They asked me my name.
= I was asked my name. OR My name was asked.

j) They opened the theatre only last month.
= The theatre was opened only last month.

k) We will execute all orders promptly.
= All orders will be executed promptly.

l) One should keep one’s promises.
= Promises should be kept.

m) We expect good news.
= Good news is expected.

n) Circumstances will oblige me to go.
= I shall be obliged to go.

o) The rules forbid passengers to cross the railway line.
= Passengers are forbidden to cross the railway line.

NOTE-I: Subjects YOU, WE, THEY can both be specific persons, or people in general. Therefore it depends on the meaning these words have in a sentence. That meaning will decide whether or not they should be used in the passive.

NOTE-II: The BY rule sometimes is not followed so rigidly. Normally when the performer of the action is not so important to mention or it’s vague, normally we do not mention the ‘by phrase’, but even if it’s mentioned in the passive it won’t be wrong. Sometimes ‘by phrase’ is necessary to mention.

Read these examples:

a) Mr Prakash Gautam teaches us English = English is taught to us by Mr Prakash Gautam. (‘By phrase’ is necessary here as the subject of the active voice is clear.)

b) Someone brought me a gift. = I was brought a gift. OR I was brought a gift by someone.

From the examination point of you, it all depends on the given answer options. If both types of options are there in the passive choose ‘by phrase’.

6. Rules of converting sentences into the Passive Voice when the objects has Possessive Adjective in the Active Voice

Sometimes possessive adjective (my, our, your, his, her, their, its, one’s) of the subject is mentioned in the object of the active voice. While converting such a sentence into the passive, normally we remove that possessive adjective and replace it with the article THE, though THE sometimes is not necessary; e.g.

a) We had already taken our meals.
= The meals had already been taken by us.

b) One must do one’s duty.
= Duty must be done.

7. Rules of converting sentences into the Passive Voice when there are two objects in the Active Voice 

Verbs that take two objects in the active voice, can be changed into passive with either of the objects as subject of the passive. But if the object denoting a person is not made the subject of the passive, a suitable preposition out of TO and FOR is put before it.

a) The guard refused him admittance.
=He was refused admittance by the guard.
OR Admittance was refused to him by the guard.

b) I bought my son a pen.
= My son was bought a pen.
OR A pen was bought for my son.

c) He promised me a gift.
= I was promised a gift.
OR A gift was promised to me.

d) You could give it to me.
= I could be given it by you.
OR It could be given to me by you.

NOTE: But when the two objects are the same person we can form only one passive; that too with the person as subject only; e.g.

a) They made him king.
= He was made king.

[Here HIM and KING are representing the same person.]

b) We elected Hari captain.
=Hari was elected captain.

[Here HARI and CAPTAIN are representing the same person.]

8. Rules of converting sentences into Passive Voice when a verb always takes a certain Preposition

When ‘Verb + preposition’ is there in the active, the preposition remains immediately after the verb in the passive also; e.g.

a) You can play with these cubs quite safely.
= These cubs can be played with quite safely.

b) We must write to him.
= He must be written to.

c) They threw away the old newspapers.
= The old newspapers were thrown away.

d) They looked after the children well.
= The children were well looked after.

e) They laughed at all his warnings and objected to all his proposals.
= All his warnings were laughed at and proposals objected to.

f) You can never hear of a happy millionaire.
= A happy millionaire can never be heard of.

NOTE: Some of the verbs that take a preposition with them:

look at, look after, look down upon, look into, laugh at, smile at, deride at, mock at, fire at

9. Rules of converting Interrogative Sentences into Passive Voice

If the sentence in the active voice begins with a helping verb/modal, the passive sentence also begins with a helping verb/modal. If the sentence in the active voice begins with a WH family word, the passive sentence also begins with a WH family word.

a) Who did this?
= By whom was this done?

[In the above sentence ‘this’ is the object; therefore ‘this’ will become the subject of the passive. As we need a question in the passive also, the helping verb should come before the subject and the main verb after it. So the helping verb ‘was’ will come before ‘this’ and the main verb ‘done’ after.

As ‘who’ is the subject of the active, it will become the object of the passive, the objective case of ‘who’ is ‘whom’; also the preposition ‘by’ precedes the object in the passive, so it will be ‘by whom’. As it’s a WH word question in the active, in passive also WH word is needed. Therefore the passive sentence will begin with ‘by whom’.]

b) Whom have you invited?
= Who has been invited by you?

[In an interrogative sentence the subject is always the word given between the helping verb and the main verb, means YOU is the subject of this sentence. Therefore subjective form of ‘whom’ will become the subject of the passive. Subjective form of ‘whom’ is ‘who’, so ‘who’ will be the subject of the passive.]

c) Who teaches you Mathematics?
= By whom are you taught Mathematics?
OR By whom is Mathematics taught to you?

d) Who taught you such tricks as these?
= By whom were you taught such tricks as these?
OR By whom were such tricks as these taught to you?

e) Why did your brother write such a letter?
= Why was such a letter written by your brother?

f) When will you return my camera?
=When will my camera be returned?

g) Shall I ever forget those happy days?
= Will those happy days ever be forgot/forgotten?

h) Do you understand my meaning?
= Is my meaning understood?

i) What did they stole?
= What was stolen?

j) What makes these holes?
= By what are these holes made?

k) How else would you learn it?
= How else would it be learnt by you?

[IMPORTANT: When an interrogative pronoun such as ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘which’, etc. is the subject of a sentence and it needs a preposition in the passive, we put the preposition before it, not to the end of the sentence. The preposition in such a case is often taken to the end of the sentence, but it happens only in the informal English. Therefore it’s wrong to say ‘Who are you taught by?’. The correct sentence is ‘By whom are you taught?’]

10. Rules of converting Imperative Sentences into Passive Voice

1. Orders/Instructions/warnings

a) Do it at once.
= You are ordered to do it at once.
= You are asked to do it at once.
= You are told to do it at once.
= Let it be done at once.

b) Bring a glass of water.
= You are ordered to bring a glass of water.
= You are asked to bring a glass of water.
= You are told to bring a glass of water.
= Let a glass of water be brought.

NOTE-I: When the active voice is in the negative, the passive voice with LET is formed in the form of:

Let + object + not + be + v3; e.g.

a) Do not beat the dog.
= Let the dog not be beaten.

b) Don’t touch it.
= Let it not be touched.

NOTE-II: When the object of the verb is not mentioned, we begin the passive form with ‘you’, not ‘let’; e.g.

a) Work hard.
= You are advised to work hard.

b) Get out.
= You are ordered to get out.

NOTE-III: In one of the meanings both ‘ask’ and ‘tell’ = to order or instruct somebody to do something. In this meaning both of them must be followed by an object + to-infinitive. In the passive as the object becomes the subject, so it’s not used immediately after ‘ask’ and ‘tell’.

2. Requests

a) Save my life, please.
= You are requested to save my life.

b) Kindly vacate the house.
= You are requested to vacate the house. [To use ‘kindly requested’ is incorrect.]

c) Do it for me, please.
= You are requested to do it for me.
[To use ‘kindly requested’ is incorrect.]

3. Advice

a) Help the needy people.
= You are advised to help the needy people. OR The needy people should be helped.

[This is advice, not an order, so you can’t use ‘tell’, ‘ask’, ‘order’ in the passive here.]

b) Love the poor.
= You are advised to love the poor. OR The poor should be loved.

c) Hate the seven deadly sins.
= The seven deadly sins should be hated.

11. Rules of converting LET into Passive Voice 

The verb LET is used for various meanings, so it has no fixed pattern while converting sentences into the passive. So we covert an active sentence having LET according to the meaning it has in that particular sentence.

The verb LET is used for the following meanings:

i) to allow/to permit
ii) to suggest
iii) to request
iv to wish
v) to rent an accommodation/rooms/building

a) Let him drive the car.
= Let the car be driven by him.
= He may be allowed to drive the car.

b) Let the dog be in.
= You are asked/requested to let the dog be in.

c) Let me go.
= I may be allowed to go.
= You are requested to let me go.

d) Let him do this work.
= Let this work be done by him.
= You are requested to let him do this work

e) Let’s finish the job. (suggestion)
= The job should be finished.

f) Let us lie for a while. (suggestion)
= It is suggested that we should lie for a while.

g) Let us beat our swords into ploughshares. (wish)
= Let all swords be beaten into ploughshares.
= May all swords be beaten into ploughshares.

[‘swords to ploughshares’ is a concept in which military weapons or technologies are converted for peaceful civilian applications.]

h) The farmer let me live in a caravan behind his barn.
= I was permitted/allowed to live in a caravan behind his barn by the farmer.

(Caravan = a painted wooden vehicle that is pulled by a horse and in which people live)

i) Her Dad never lets her have ice-cream.
= She is never allowed/permitted to have ice-cream by her father.

NOTE: There is no passive form of ‘let’; e.g.

INCORRECT: He was let go.
CORRECT: He was allowed to go.

INCORRECT: He was let to enter India as a political refugee.
CORRECT: He was allowed to enter India as a political refugee.

12. Rules of converting IT into Passive Voice 

In the active voice, when verbs such as Say, Think, Feel, Consider, Hope, Expect, etc. follow an ‘infinitive +object’ or a ‘that-clause’, we can change the active into the passive in the following ways:

CASE-I: When the verb is followed by an ‘infinitive + object’

It + passive form of verb + by-phrase + that + pronoun of the given subject + will/would + V1.

OR

Object  of infinitive + passive form of verb  + passive form of infinitive + by-phrase

Examples:

a) Pakistan expect to win the match.
= It is expected by Pakistan that they will win the match.
= The match is expected to be won by Pakistan.

b) The Greeks expected to win the international trophy.
= It was expected by the Greeks that they would win the international trophy.
= The international trophy was expected to be won by Pakistan.

NOTE: Verbs Propose, Decide, Need, etc. form passives a little differently from above; e.g.

They propose to build a dam for irrigation.
= It is proposed that a dam should be built for irrigation.
= It is proposed that a dam be built for irrigation.
= It is proposed to build a dam for irrigation.
= A dam is proposed to be built for irrigation.

 He decided to sell the house.
= He decided that the house be/should be sold.
= It was decided by him that the house be/should be sold.

CASE-II: When the verb is followed by a THAT-CLAUSE

It + passive verb of the main clause + that-clause as it is

OR

Subject of that-clause + passive verb of the main clause + to-infinitive of the verb of that-clause + given object/adjective

Examples:

a) People consider that Mohan is a fool.
= It is considered that Mohan is a fool.
= Mohan is considered to be a fool.

b) People said that he was jealous of her.
= It was said that he was jealous of her.
= He was said to be jealous of her.

c) People say he is handsome.
= It is said that he is handsome.
= He is said to be handsome.

d) They know he has an idea.
= It is known that he has an idea.
= He is known to have an idea.

e) They think that I am dying.
= It is thought that I am dying.
= I am thought to be dying.

f) People felt that the social workers were doing valuable work.
= It was felt that the social workers were doing valuable work.
= The social workers were felt to be doing valuable work.

g) They report that she came back/has come back.
= It is reported that she came back/has come back.
= She is reported to have come back.

h) Everyone thought that the Government had shown very little regard for public opinion.
= It was thought that the Government had shown very little regard for public opinion.
= The Government was thought to have shown very little regard for public opinion.

i) They say that she will resign.
= It is said that she will resign.
= She is said to be going to resign.

j) The public will learn with astonishment that war is imminent.
= It will be learned/learnt with astonishment that war is imminent.
= War will be learned/learnt to be imminent with astonishment.

NOTE-I: Clauses after the verbs ‘say’ and ‘know’ in sentences 3 and 4 are actually ‘that-clause’ as THAT after these verbs can always be omitted. So both of these sentences are exactly equivalent:

a) People say he is handsome.
b) People say that he is handsome.

NOTE-II: Main problem we face in such a structure is that when we should use the present infinitive (TO + V1), when we should use the perfect infinitive (To + Have + V3).

If the time reference of the verb in the ‘that-clause’ and the ‘main clause’ is the same we use the present infinitive, and if the time reference of the verb in the ‘that-clause’ is of an earlier time than the time reference of the verb of the ‘main clause’ we use the perfect infinitive; e.g.

a) They say that that he knows Katrina Kaif.
= He is said to know Katrina Kaif.

b) They said that he knew Katrina Kaif.
= He was said to know Katrina Kaif.

[In sentence 1 above the verb of the ‘that-clause’ is ‘knows’ and the verb of the main clause is ‘say’. We see that the time reference of both these verbs is the same, so we’ve used the present infinitive (to know) here.

In sentence 2 the verb of the ‘that-clause’ is ‘knew’ and verb of the ‘main clause’ is ‘said’. We see the time reference of both these verbs is the same, so again we’ve used the present infinitive (to know).]

c) They think that he acted foolishly.
= He is thought to have acted foolishly.

d) They thought that he had acted foolishly.
= He was thought to have acted foolishly.

[In sentence 3 above the verb of the ‘that-clause’ is ‘acted’ and the verb of the main clause is ‘think’. We see that the time reference of both these verbs is different, so we’ve used the perfect infinitive (to have acted) here.

In sentence 4 the verb of the ‘that-clause’ is ‘had acted’ and verb of the ‘main clause’ is ‘thought’. We see the time reference of both these verbs is different, so again we’ve used the perfect infinitive (to have acted).]

CASE-III: When the verb ‘expect’ is followed by an ‘object + infinitive + object’ we form passive in the following way:

IT + passive verb + of + given object + given infinitive phrase’

Example:

I expected him to give us financial aid.
= It was expected of him to give us financial aid.

NOTE: In such a case we can also add the ‘by phrase’ to this construction; e.g.

I expected him to give us financial aid.
= It was expected of him to give us financial aid.
= It was expected of him by me to give us financial aid.

13. Rules of converting ‘It is time’ into Passive Voice

Active sentences beginning with ‘It is time’ are converted into passive by ‘It is time + for + noun/pronoun + to be + V3’; e.g.

a) It is time to close the shop.
= It is time for the shop to be closed.

b) It is time to give the final warning.
= It is time for the final warning to be given.

14. Rules of converting ‘There + be’ into Passive Voice

Active sentences beginning with ‘There + be’ are converted into passive by ‘There + Be + Noun/Pronoun + To be + V3’, e.g.

a) There are five letters to write.
= There are five letters to be written.

b) There is no time to lose.
= There is no time to be lost.

15. Rules of converting ‘Infinitive (to + V1)’ into Passive Voice

A) Subject + verb + infinitive + object

In this construction the object of the infinitive in the active voice is taken as the subject of the sentence in the passive and the verb of the active remains to be the same, only infinitive is made into passive; e.g.

a) His colleagues started to respect Hari.
= Hari started to be respected by his colleagues.

b) People came to recognize her as the leading actress soon.
= She came to be recognized as the leading actress soon.

c) He is to do it.
= It is to be done by him.

d) Someone seems to have made a mistake.
= A mistake seems to have been made by someone.

e) I’m going to bring him here.
= He is going to be brought here by me.

NOTE: Passive of such Interrogative Sentences

a) Why did your father refuse to give the money to you?
= Why was the money refused to be given to you by your father?

b) Why did the team captain hoped to select Jadeja?
= Why did Jadeja hoped to be selected by the team captain?

WARNING: If the subject of the passive is not a person we use IS/WAS after the question word (See sentence 1.). And if the subject of the passive is a person we use DO/DID after the question word (See sentence 2.).

B) Subject + verb + object + infinitive + object

In this structure they are verbs of Liking, Loving, Wanting, Wishing, etc. When sentences of this structure are converted into the passive, we retain the subject and the verb of the active as it is, and the infinitive is converted into the passive. But we have to take care here that if the subject of the sentence and object of the infinitive are different we also place that object after the verb; e.g.

a) He doesn’t like people to call him a cheat.
= He doesn’t like to be called a cheat.

[See the subject of the sentence (he) and object of the infinitive (him) are referring to the same person]

b) He wants someone to take photographs.
= He wants photographs to be taken.

[See the subject of the sentence (he) and object of the infinitive (photographs) are different.]

C) Subject + verb + object + infinitive

In this structure they are verbs of Command, Request, Advice, Invitation, etc. When sentences of this structure are converted into the passive, the object of the verb is taken as the subject of the passive sentence and the verb is converted into the passive. The infinitive is kept as it is; e.g.

a) He invited me to go.
=I was invited to go.

b) Mr Rajat taught Rohit to sing.
= Rohit was taught to sing.

c) My boss gave me a journal to read.
= I was given a journal to read by my boss.
= A journal was given to me to read by my boss.

D) Advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + object + infinitive + object

The above structure form its passive in the following two ways:

a) Object of the verb + passive form of verb + infinitive + object of the infinitive
b) Subject + verb + that + object of the infinitive + should + passive infinitive without TO

He urged the employers to increase the salary.
= The employers were urged to increase the salary.
OR He urged that the salary should be increased.

E) Agree/be anxious/be determined/determine/demand + infinitive + object

The above structure is usually expressed in the passive by ‘Verb + that-should + passive infinitive’; e.g.

They demanded to withdraw all troops.
= They demanded that all troops should be withdrawn.

F) Difference between active infinitive and Passive infinitive

If the subject of the sentence is the person who has to do the action, the active infinitive is used; e.g.

INCORRECT: I have work to be done.
CORRECT: I have work to do.

INCORRECT: I have two shirts to be washed.
CORRECT: I have two shirts to wash.

NOTE-I: But if the action is not to be done by the subject, we use that infinitive in the passive; e.g.

INCORRECT: Mahatma Gandhi was a man to admire.
CORRECT: Mahatma Gandhi was a man to be admired.

NOTE-II: Similarly, if the subject of the sentence is such a noun/pronoun that is not doing the action, rather the action is performed on it, we use the infinitive in the passive also; e.g.

INCORRECT: These sheets are to wash.
CORRECT: These sheets are to be washed.

INCORRECT: The letter is to post.
CORRECT: The letter is to be posted.

G) Infinitives in the Passive

Infinitives in the passive are normally ‘To-infinitives’, but after the verb ‘let’, use of infinitive is without TO. Remember some verbs such as See, Make, Let take bare infinitive (infinitive without TO) in the active voice; but except ‘let’ every other verb in the passive also takes to-infinitive; e.g.

a) We saw them go out.
= They were seen to go out.

b) He made us work.
= We were made to work.

c) They let us go.
= We were let go.

16. Rules of converting ‘Gerund (ing form)’ into Passive Voice

A) (Sub + verb + obj + gerund) or (sub + verb + obj + gerund + obj)

This expression is converted into the passive by ‘Obj of verb + Passive Verb + Gerund + Obj of Gerund’

a) They saw him climbing over the fence.
= He was seen climbing over the fence.

b) I saw him opening the box.
= He was seen opening the box.

B) Sub + verb + obj + gerund + obj + to

‘Verbs + Object + Gerund + Object’ is expressed in the passive by ‘Subject + Verb + Passive Gerund’

I remember them taking me to the zoo.
= I remember being taken to the zoo.

C) Sub + verb + gerund + obj

‘Verb + Gerund + Object’ is expressed in the passive by ‘Subject + Verb + Object + Passive Gerund’

I enjoyed taking the children to the garden.
= I enjoyed the children being taken to the garden.

D) Advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + gerund + obj; & ‘Advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest
+ gerund + object’

This structure is usually expressed in the passive by ‘that – should’

He recommended using bullet-proof glass.
= He recommended that bullet-proof glass should be used.

F) It/they + need + gerund

This structure can be expressed by ‘It/they + need + passive infinitive’

It needs washing.
=It needs to be washed.

17. Rules of converting ‘Suppose’ into Passive Voice

Word ‘Suppose’ in the Active Voice if is followed by the present infinitive of (TO + V1), may convey an idea of duty; or convey an expectation/belief about something. And is not therefore the normal equivalent of ‘suppose’ in the active. So, we can form actives of such a construction in any of the following ways unless we know the exact reasons.

a) You are supposed to know how to drive.
= It is your duty to know how to drive. OR You should know how to drive. (idea of duty)
= People believe you know how to drive. (belief)

b) You are supposed to have finished your homework by now.
= You should have finished your homework by now. (idea of duty)
= We believe you have finished your homework. (belief)

c) He is supposed to have escaped disguised as a woman. (belief)
= People suppose/believe that he has escaped disguised as a woman.

d) You are supposed to be working.
= You should be working.

e)You are supposed to have been working.
= You should have been working.

18. Some Sentences in Passive Voice to Active Voice 

a) The telephone lines have been cut.
= Someone has cut the telephone lines.

b) The 1972 Asian Games were held in Delhi, India.
= They held the 1972 Asian Games in Delhi, India.

c) Without effort nothing can be gained.
= Without effort one/we/you can gain nothing.
OR Without effort one/we/you cannot gain anything.

d) Why should I be suspected by you?
= Why should you suspect me?

e) The information is kept on our computer.
= We keep the information on our computer.

f) My purse was lost.
= I lost my purse.

g) He was refused admittance.
= They refused him admittance.

h) Our army has been defeated.
= The enemy has defeated our army.

i) It is said that the thief stole several wallets.
= They say that the thief stole several wallets.

j) The pigeons are said to carry a lot of diseases.
= People think that the pigeons carry a lot of diseases.

19. Typical question on Active Voice and Passive Voice

a) We admire the brave.
= The brave are admired.

b) You must endure what you cannot cure.
= What cannot be cured must be endured.

c) He will be greatly surprised if he is chosen.
= He will be greatly surprised if they choose him.

d) The ship was set on fire and abandoned by the crew.
= The crew set the ship on fire and abandoned it.

e) I feel people have taken advantage of me.
= I feel I have been taken advantage of.

f) In future, they won’t bring letters to the house, and we shall have to collect them from the post office.
= In future, letters won’t be brought to the house, and they will have to be collected from the
post office.

g) We kill and injure many people on the road every day. Can’t we do something about this?
= Many people are killed and injured on the road every day. Can’t something be done about this?

h) We need not type this letter.
= This letter need not be typed.

i) Nobody has used this room for ages.
= This room has not been used for ages.

j) You are supposed to obey him.
= It is your duty to obey him.

k) Get someone to mend it.
= Have it mended.

l) I’m employing a man to tile the bathroom.
= I’m having the bathroom tiled.

m) It’s a little too loose; you had better ask your tailor to take it in.
= It’s a little too loose; you had better have it taken in.
OR It’s a little too loose; your tailor had better been asked to take it in.

n) He likes people to call him ‘sir’.
= He likes to be called ‘sir’.

o) You will have to get someone to see to it.
= You will have to have it to be seen to.
OR You will have to get it to be seen to. OR It will have to be seen to.

p) You have to see it to believe it.
= It has to be seen to be believed.

q) You order me about and I am tired of it.
= I am tired of being ordered about.

r) We don’t allow smoking.
= Smoking is not allowed.

s) No one can do anything unless someone gives us accurate information.
= Nothing can be done unless we are given accurate information.

t) He wants that he should be treated as king.
= He wants to be treated as king.

u) May she live long!
= It is prayed that she lives long!

Causative Verbs – Active and Passive Voice)

In English, the causative form is used when we don’t do something ourselves, instead we arrange for someone else to do it for us. In other words Causative Verbs are verbs where one person is ‘causing’ another to do something. English has three true causative verbs: HAVE, LET, and MAKE. All these verbs take the base form of verbs (bare infinitives) after their objects.

It’s also important to point out the other verbs with a similar meaning that are not, in fact, causative verbs. Such verbs are GET, FORCE, ALLOW, and CAUSE. They take full infinitive (TO+V1), not bare infinitive (base verb).

Verb की causative form तब use की जाती है जब हमें खुद को कोई कार्य करना नहीं होता; बल्कि किसी अन्य व्यक्ति से अपना कार्य करवाते हैं. Causative verbs तीन होती हैं — have, let और make. ये तीनों ही verb अपने objects के साथ bare infinitive (बिना TO के V1) लेती हैं.

There are two kinds of causative structure:

a) Active Causative structures
b) Passive Causative structures

1. Active Causative

Verbs that take active forms of causative are Let, Make, and Have

Pattern: Subject (person) + have/let/make + object (person) + bare infinitive (V1 without TO)

Difference in their uses:

LET

LET is used when we want to allow someone to do something; e.g.

a) She lets me borrow her book. (= वह मुझे अपनी पुस्तक लेने देती है.)
b) Their employer lets them leave early on Fridays in the summer. (= उनके नियोक्ता (employers) उनको गर्मियों में शुक्रवार को जल्दी जाने देते हैं.)

MAKE

MAKE is used when we want to force someone to do something; e.g.

a) My wife made me write a letter for her mother. (= मेरी पत्नी ने अपनी माँ के पास भेजने के लिए एक पत्र लिखवाया.)
b) My mother makes me do my home work. (= मेरी माँ ने मुझसे मेरा homework करवाया.)

HAVE

HAVE is used when a person wants to use his authority to obtain the result, e.g.

a) My English teacher has me do the homework in a week. (= मेरे अध्यापक मुझसे हर सप्ताह मुझसे मेरा homework करवाते है.)
b) The production manager had the technicians modify the electrical outlets.

Some examples of the use of verbs ‘have’, ‘let’ and ‘make’:

a) I had my friends tell me what happened. (not told)
b) She will let her friend borrow her new jacket. (not borrows or will borrow)
c) Mark’s teacher makes him do homework every day. (not does)
d) Sudha made her husband sell their house.
e) Sudha will have her husband sell their house.
f) Sudha let her husband sell their house.
g) Have Ritu call.
h) Let the dogs go outside after dinner.
i) Make her secretary type out the report.

NOTE-I: The subject and object of causative sentences are usually people, but things are also possible; e.g.

a) The heavy rain made the paint peel off the building.
b) The phone message made him feel nervous.
c) We let the dogs run wild at the beach.

NOTE-II: Non-Causative Verbs: Get, Force, Allow, and Cause

Pattern: Subject + get/force/allow/cause + object (person) + full infinitive (TO + V1)

There are other verbs that have the meaning of cause, but because they aren’t true causative verbs, they take an full infinitive verb form instead of a base verb. Such common verbs are FORCE, CAUSE, GET, and ALLOW; e.g.

a) He got his friend to help him move.
b) My mother forces me to practice the piano every day.
c) Our teacher is going to allow us to go home early today.
d) The test is causing them to panic. It’s really difficult.
e) Sudha wants her husband to sell their house.
f) Sudha will allow her husband to sell their house.
g) Sudha persuaded her husband to sell their house.

2. The Passive Causative

What Is the Passive Causative?

There are two verbs generally used in the passive causative form; they are HAVE and GET. In addition, there is usually no agent in this form; it’s not like in active form which has the agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it.

Pattern: Subject (person) + Have/Get + Object (thing) + Past Participle

Can causative sentences be passive? Yes! The passive causative is quite common for services; e.g.

a) He had his car. (by a mechanic)
b) She got her hair cut yesterday.
c) My sister got her nails done.
d) Sudha had their house sold by her husband.
e) Sudha got their house sold by her husband.

See these example sentences to understand the difference between Active Causative and Passive Causative

1. Active Causative: The manager had the assistant write the report.
Passive Causative: The report was/got written (by the assistant).

2. Active Causative: I had someone clean my house.
Active Causative: I had/got my house cleaned.

NOTE-I: But, if the verb GET followed by personal nouns, past participle can’t be used in it. Instead, we must use TO-INFINITIVE. So it will become just like in active causative form; e.g.

Compare

a) I get the house painted.
b) I get John to paint the house.

NOTE-II: In addition, modal auxiliary verbs may be used with the causative sentence structure. Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, e.g.

a) You should have your hair cut.
b) He should get his decision changed.
c) She will have the food cooked.

NOTE-III: Need & Want

Need and want may be used in passive causative sentences. In some cases, the passive causative verb (HAD/GOT) may be dropped altogether; e.g.

a) I need/want to have my hair cut. (Active structure)
b) I need/want my hair cut. (Passive structure)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

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Prepositions & their uses (Explained in Hindi & English)

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Commonly used prepositions (Explained in Hindi & English)

Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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