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Conditional Sentences (Explained in Hindi & English)

Conditional Sentences का प्रयोग (Explained in Hindi)

यदि किसी sentence में एक कार्य का होना दूसरे कार्य पर निर्भर करता है तो ऐसे sentence को conditional sentence कहा जाता है; जैसे

If you work hard, you’ll pass the examination.

[इस वाक्य में ‘if you work hard’ इस वाक्य के दूसरे वाले कार्य ‘परीक्षा में पास होना’ के लिए एक condition है.]

ऐसे वाक्यों के दो part होते है; एक तो ‘if-clause’ और दूसरा ‘main clause’. इस वाक्य को देखिये:

If I win the lottery, I will  buy a new house.

[इस वाक्य में ’If I win the lottery’ ‘if-clause’ है, और ‘I will buy a new house’ ‘main clause’ है.].

NOTE: इन दोनों clauses में से कोई भी clause किसी वाक्य की शुरुआत में प्रयुक्त किया जा सकता है; जैसे

If you work hard, you’ll pass the examination.
= You’ll pass the examination, if you work hard.

1. Type-I Conditional Sentences

Type-I Conditional Sentences में ‘if-clause’ की verb का tense Present Simple Tense होता है; और ‘main clause’ की verb का tense Future Simple Tense होता है.

Type-I Conditional Sentences का use किसी condition के पूरा होने पर उसके परिणाम की भविष्य के समय की कोई कल्पना करने के लिए किया जाता है; जबकि उस कल्पित स्थिति  के पूरा होने की काफी सम्भावना होती है; जैसे

If she reads this book, she will pass. (यदि वह यह किताब पढ़ेगी, तो पास करेगी।)
[इस वाक्य में condition है ‘if she reads this book’. और कल्पना की गयी है कि अगर ये condition पूरी हो जाती है तो ‘वह पास हो जाएगी.]
ऐसे ही कुछ अन्य उदाहरण:
a) If it rains today, I shall remain at home. (यदि आज बारिश होगी, तो मैं घर पर ही रहूंगा।)
b) If Ram runs fast, he will win the race. (यदि राम तेज दौड़ेगा, तो वह दौड़ जीत जाएगा।)
c) If she comes here, I shall not come. (यदि वह यहां आयेगी, तो मैं नहीं आऊंगा।)
d) If I go, I shall not come back here. (अगर मैं जाऊंगा, तो दोबारा यहां वापस नहीं आऊंगा।)
e) If the taxi doesn’t come soon, I’ll drop you there in my car. (यदि टैक्सी जल्द ही नहीं आयगी, तो मैं तुम्हें वहां अपनी कार में छोड़ दूंगा।)

ऊपर बताये गये नियम में परिवर्तन भी सम्भव है; देखते हैं कब:

A) ‘Main clause’ में परिवर्तन

i) Main clause में ‘will/shall’ के स्थान पर ‘may/can’ का use

Main clause में ‘will/shall’ के स्थान पर ‘may/can’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; ‘may’ का use  ‘अनुमति’ के लिए और ‘can’ का use ‘अनुमति अथवा किसी कार्य को करने की क्षमता (permission or ability)’ के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If we go out, we can usually get the car. (= यदि हम बाहर जाते हैं तो आमतौर पर हमें कार ले जाने की अनुमति मिल जाती है.)
b) If your homework is complete you may/can leave. (= यदि तुम्हारा गृहकार्य पूरा हो जायेगा तो तुम्हें जाने की अनुमति है.)
c) If it stops raining we can go out. (इस वाक्य में बाहर जाने की अनुमति भी हो सकती है अथवा बाहर जाने की क्षमता (ability) भी.)

ii) Main clause में ‘will/shall’ के स्थान पर ‘may/might’ का use

Main clause में ‘will/shall’ का use निश्चितताओं (certainties) के लिए किया जाता है; जबकि ‘may/might’ का use सम्भावनाओं (possibilities) के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If it rains we may/might not go for the morning walk. (= यदि बरसात होगी तो सम्भवतः हम सुबह की सैर के लिए ना जाएँ.)
b) If Preeti rings, I may/might ask her to visit me in the evening today. (यदि प्रीति फ़ोन करेगी तो सम्भवतः मैं उसको आज शाम को मेरे यहाँ आने को कहूँ.)

iii) Main clause में ‘will/shall’ के स्थान पर ‘must/should’ का use

आदेश देने, प्रार्थना करने अथवा कोई सलाह देने के के लिए Main clause में ‘will/shall’ के स्थान पर ‘must/should’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If he calls you you must/should go. (आदेश/सलाह)
b) If he calls you you had better go. (सलाह)
c) If he calls you go positively. (आदेश)
d) If you see Ram in the evening could you ask him to ring me? (प्रार्थना)

iv) Future Perfect Tense in the main clause

किसी condition के पूरा हो जाने पर उसके सम्भावित परिणामों को व्यक्त करने के लिए main clause में Future Perfect Tense का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

If we don’t get the contract, we’ll have wasted a lot of time and money. (यदि हमें अनुबन्ध नहीं मिलेगा तो हमारा काफी समय और पैसा बर्बाद हो चुका होगा.) 

B) ‘If-clause’ में परिवर्तन

i) If + will/would

कुछ करने की इच्छा को व्यक्त करने के लिए ‘if + will/would’ का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) If he’ll listen to me I’ll be able to help him. (= यदि मेरी बात सुनने को वह राजी हुआ तभी मैं उसकी मदद कर पाऊंगा.)
b) If Jai would tell me what he wants for his dinner I’d cook it for him. (= यदि जय ने मुझसे ये बताने की इच्छा व्यक्त  की कि उसको dinner में क्या चाहिए तो उसके लिए मैं वही बनाउंगी.)

NOTE-I: कुछ मना करने (refuse) के लिए ‘If + won’t’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If he won’t listen to me I can’t help him. (= यदि उसने मेरी बात सुनने को मना किया  अथवा वह मेरी बात सुनने को राजी ही नहीं हुआ तो मैं उसकी कोई मदद नहीं कर पाऊंगा.)
b) If they won’t accept a cheque we’ll have to pay cash. (= यदि वह check से भुगतान नहीं लेगा तो हमें नकद भुगतान करना पड़ेगा.)

NOTE-II:  किसी बात पर अनुचित ढंग से अड़े रहना के लिए ‘If + will’ का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

If you will play the drums all night no wonder the neighbours complain. (= यदि तुम रात भर ड्रम बजाते ही रहोगे तो तो पड़ोसी तो complain करेंगे ही.)

ii) नम्रता पूर्वक विनती करने के लिए ‘If + will/would’ का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) If you will/would stay for a while I’ll bring the beer for you. (= कृपया थोड़ी देर रुकें ताकि मैं आपके लिए बियर ला सकूं.)

b) I would be very grateful if you would make the arrangements for me. (मैं आपका बहुत आभारी हूँगा यदि आप मेरे लिए इन्तमाजात करोगे; अर्थात कृपया मेरे लिए इन्तमाजात कर दो.)

iii) If + would like/care

किसी इच्छा की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए ‘if + would like/care’ का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) If you would like to come I’ll get a ticket for you.
b) If you’d care to see my photo album I’ll bring it with me next time.
c) If he’d like to leave his car here he can.

NOTE: यदि हम ‘would like’ का कोई object नहीं लिखना चाहते हैं तो सिर्फ सिर्फ ‘like’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) If you like I’ll get a ticket for you but
= If you’d like a ticket I’ll get one for you.

b) If he likes he can leave his car here but
= If he’d like to leave his car here he can.

iv) If + should

यदि किसी कार्य के होने की सम्भावना तो है लेकिन उसके होने के अवसर बहुत कम हैं तो ‘if + should’ का use भी किया जा सकता है. ऐसा आमतौर पर आज्ञासूचक (imperative) clauses के साथ किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If you should have any difficulty in getting the treatment, dial the given helpline number. (यदि उपचार पाने में कोई परेशानी हो भी जाये तो helpline को फ़ोन कीजियेगा.)
b) If these eggs should arrive broken please inform the shopkeeper at once. (यदि ये अंडे टूटी हुई अवस्था में पहुँच भी जाएँ तो कृपया तुरंत दूकानदार को बताइएगा.)

v) ‘if-clause’ में Present Perfect Tense का use

यदि कोई कार्य पूर्ण हो चुका हो तो ‘if-clause’ में Present Perfect Tense का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) If you have read the book, return it to the library.
b) If they have not visited the zoo we had better go their today itself. 

2. Type-II Conditional Sentences

Type-II Conditional Sentences में ‘if-clause’ की verb का tense Past Simple Tense होता है; और ‘main clause’ की verb Present Conditional (would + V1) में होती है.

Type-II Conditional Sentences का use present अथवा future की किसी स्थिति के सम्भावित परिणाम के बारे में उल्लेख करने के लिए किया जाता है. ‘If-clause’ में Past Simple Tense का use वास्तव में किसी past time की स्थिति/घटना को बताने के लिए नहीं किया जाता; बल्कि ये unreal past (subjunctive) होता है जो किसी बात की अवास्तविकता अथवा असंभवता को इंगित करता है.

a) If people complained, things would change.

[= अर्थात लोगों ने वास्तव में कोई complaint की नहीं है. यदि वे complaint करते तो उसके परिणाम से बात कुछ अलग तरह की होती. इस वाक्य में ‘if-clause’ में दी गयी condition अवास्तविक है क्योंकि complaint हुई ही नहीं; और इस condition का परिणाम future  time का संभावित परिणाम है.)

b) If a thief entered my room at night I would scream.

[= रात को यदि मेरे कमरे में कोई चोर घुस आता तो main चिल्लाता. अर्थात मेरे कमरे में कोई चोर घुसा ही नहीं ये अवास्तविक है.]

c) If you decided to take the exam, you would have to register by 31 March.
d) If I were you, I would call Sonia and apologize.
e) If Raju had more time, he would attend the cooking class next week. (= Raju does not have more time, so he will not attend the cooking class next week.)
f) If Vipin were here, he would go with us to Agra on Thursday.

ऊपर बताये गये नियम में परिवर्तन भी सम्भव है; देखते हैं कब:

A) ‘Main clause’ में परिवर्तन

i) Main clause में ‘would’ के स्थान पर ‘might/could’ का use’

Main clause में ‘would’ के स्थान पर ‘might/could’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; ‘would’ का use  किसी कार्य की निश्चितता (certainty) के लिए और ‘might’ का use किसी बात की सम्भावना/अनुमति के लिए और ‘could’ का use किसी कार्य को करने की क्षमता/अनुमति के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If you tried again you would pass.

[= यदि तुम फिर से प्रयत्न करते तो तुम पास हो जाते; अर्थात निश्चित परिणाम.]

b) If you tried again you might pass.

[= यदि तुम फिर से प्रयत्न करते तो शायद तुम पास हो जाते; अर्थात संभावित परिणाम.]

c) If I won the lottery, I could buy a new house.

[= यदि मैं lottery जीत जाता तो मैं एक नया घर खरीद सकता था; अर्थात घर खरीदने की क्षमता आ जाती.]

d) If you had a phone, you could call me every day.

(= यदि तुम्हारे पास एक फ़ोन होता तो तुम हर रोज मुझे फ़ोन कर सकते थे. इसका अर्थ ये भी हो सकता है कि तुम्हारे अंदर फ़ोन करने की क्षमता आ जाती; और यह भी हो सकता है कि तुम्हें फ़ोन करने के लिए अनुमति मिल जाती.)

ii) ‘Main clause’ में ‘would’ के स्थान पर ‘would/might/could + ing form’ का use

Continuous actions के लिए ‘main clause’ में ‘would/might/could’ के साथ ing form का use किया जाता है; जैसे

If I were on holiday I would/might be touring England as you did.
(= मैं छुट्टी पर नहीं हूँ, अगर होता तो मैं भी तुम्हारी तरह इंगलैंड में घूम रहा होता.)

B) ‘If-clause’ में परिवर्तन

i) ‘If-clause’ में Past Simple Tense के स्थान पर Past Continuous Tense का use

Type-II Conditional Sentences के ‘if-clause’ में condition यदि किसी ऐसे कार्य की हो जो काल्पनिक रूप में जारी हो (imaginary continuing action) तो ‘if-clause’ में Past Simple Tense के स्थान पर Past Continuous Tense का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If instead of writing you were typing this letter, it would be much better.
b) If my car was working I would/could leave you at Pooja’s house.

ii) ‘If-clause’ में Past Simple Tense के स्थान पर ‘would’ का use

‘If-clause’ में दी गयी condition के सत्य होने के बारे में हमें यदि शंका हो तो ‘if-clause’ में Past Simple Tense के स्थान पर ‘would’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

If it really would save the city, I’d stop using my car tomorrow.

[इस वाक्य में city के save होने के बारे में मुझे शंका है.]

3. Type-III Conditional Sentences

Type-III Conditional Sentences में ‘if-clause’ की verb का tense Past Perfect Tense होता है; और ‘main clause’ की verb Perfect Conditional (would have + V3) में होती है. ऐसे वाक्यों में condition का परिणाम घटित नहीं होता क्योंकि दी गयी condition पूरी हुई ही नहीं हुई; जैसे

a) If I had known that you were reading I would not have come.

[इस वाक्य में condition ‘किसी बात के बारे में पता होना है (if I had known)’ है; अर्थात मैं जानता ही नहीं था की तुम पढ़ रहे थे — यदि मैं जानता तो मैं आया ये घटित नहीं होता.]

b) If I had seen you I would have stopped my car.

[इस वाक्य में condition ‘मेरा तुमको देखना (if I had seen you)’ है; अर्थात मैंने तुम्हें देखा ही नहीं — यदि मैंने तुमको देख लिया होता तो मैंने अपनी कार नहीं रोकी ये घटित नहीं होता.]

NOTE: ‘If-clause’ में से ‘if’ को हटा कर उसके स्थान पर ‘had’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

If I hadn’t overslept, I wouldn’t have been late for work.
= Hadn’t I overslept, I wouldn’t have been late for work.

If I had known you had a test today, I wouldn’t have let you go to the movies.
= Had I known you had a test today, I wouldn’t have let you go to the movies.

ऊपर बताये गये नियम में परिवर्तन भी सम्भव है; देखते हैं कब:

A) ‘Main clause’ में परिवर्तन

i) Main clause में ‘would have + V3‘ ‘के स्थान पर ‘could/might have + V3‘ का use

क्षमता (ability), सम्भावना (possibility) अथवा अनुमति (permission) के लिए Type-III Conditional Sentences के main clauses में ‘would have + V3‘ के स्थान पर ‘could have + V3‘ अथवा ‘might have + V3‘ का use किया जाता है. क्योंकि इन वाक्यों के ‘if-clause’ में Past Perfect Tense का use होता है इसलिए can अथवा may का use करना अशुद्ध होगा; जैसे

a) If she had been there, she could have helped you. [क्षमता]
b) If she had been there, she might have helped you. [सम्भावना]
c) If your leg had been right we could have allowed you to leave. [अनुमति]

B) ‘If-clause’ में परिवर्तन

i) ‘If-clause’ में Past Perfect Tense के स्थान पर Past Perfect Continuous Tense का use

Type-III Conditional Sentences के ‘if-clause’ में हमें घटना की निरन्तरता दिखाने के लिए Past Perfect Tense के स्थान पर Past Perfect Continuous Tense का use करने की आवश्यकता होती है; जैसे

If my leg had not been bleeding I would have been relieved from hospital. (= यदि मेरे पैर से खून नहीं बह रहा होता तो मुझे अस्पताल से छुट्टी मिल गयी होती.)

4. Mixed Conditional Sentences

कभी-कभी Type-II और Type-III के Conditional Sentences को mix करके लिखा जाता है; ऐसे वाक्य न तो Type-II और न ही Type-III Conditional Sentence होते हैं. ऐसा तब किया जाता है जब किसी वाक्य के main clause और if-clause का time अलग-अलग होता है. ऐसे वाक्यों को Mixed Conditional Sentence कहा जाता है. Mixed Conditional Sentence निम्न दो प्रकार के होते हैं:

A) वर्तमान समय में परिणाम (Present Result)

i) किसी past condition का वर्तमान समय में परिणाम (Present Result of a Past Condition)

इस तरह के Mixed Conditional Sentences में ‘if-clause’ का tense Past Perfect Tense होता है; और ‘main clause’ की verb Present Conditional (would + V1) में होती है.

ऐसे Mixed Conditional Sentence में ‘if-clause’ में बताई गयी condition अवास्तविक past condition (unreal past condition) होती है; और उस condition का अपेक्षित परिणाम वर्तमान समय में होता है. ऐसे वाक्य एक ऐसी स्थिति को बताते हैं जो past और present दोनों स्थितियों के लिए असत्य होती है; जैसे

a) If I had won the lottery, I would be rich.

[= यदि मैंने lottery जीत ली होती तो मैं धनवान होता; अर्थात न तो मैंने lottery जीती और न ही मैं धनवान बना. ये past और present दोनों  स्थितियों के लिए असत्य है.]

b) If I had taken English in high school, I would have more job opportunities.

[= यदि मैंने high school में English ले ली होती तो मेरे पास job पाने के और भी अधिक अवसर होते अर्थात न तो मैंने high school में English ली और न ही मुझे job पाने के और भी अधिक अवसर मिले. ये past और present दोनों  स्थितियों के लिए असत्य है.]

c) If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn’t need a visa to work here.

d) If I had studied I would have my driving license.

e) If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket.

NOTE-I: इस तरह के Mixed Conditional Sentences में ‘if-clause’ में बताई गयी condition का अपेक्षित परिणाम future समय का भी हो सकता है; जैसे

a) If she had signed up for the trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow.

[पिछले  सप्ताह यदि वह trip पर आने को सहमत हो जाती तो कल वह हमारे साथ होती. अर्थात न पिछले  सप्ताह वह trip पर आने को सहमत हुई और इसलिए कल वह हमारे साथ नहीं होगी. यह ‘if-clause’ में बताई गयी condition का future समय का अपेक्षित परिणाम है.]

b) If Mukesh had gotten the job instead of Jitan, he would be moving to London.

c) If Dinesh hadn’t wasted his Diwali bonus gambling in Goa, he would be going to Mexico with us next month.

NOTE-II: ‘if-clause’ में दी गयी condition के परिणाम की निश्चितता के स्तर (degree of certainty), अनुमति, आदि के लिए ‘main clause’ में ‘would’ के स्थान पर ‘could’, ‘might’, आदि का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
b) I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
c) If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

ii) किसी future condition का वर्तमान समय में परिणाम (Present Result of a Future Condition)

a) If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited.

[यदि मैं आज रात को होने जा रहे concert में जा रहा होता तो main बहुत उत्तेजना में होता. अर्थात मैं वहां नहीं जा रहा इसलिए मुझमें कोई उत्तेजना  नहीं होगी. यह ‘if-clause’ में बताई गयी future समय की condition का वर्तमान समय में परिणाम है.]

b) If Radha were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous.

c) If Raman didn’t come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed.

B) भूतकाल में परिणाम Past Result

i) किसी present condition का भूतकाल में परिणाम (Past Result of a Present Condition)

इस तरह के Mixed Conditional Sentences में ‘if-clause’ का tense Past Simple Tense होता है; और ‘main clause’ की verb Perfect Conditional (would + have + V3) में होती है.

ऐसे Mixed Conditional Sentence में ‘if-clause’ में बताई गयी condition अवास्तविक present condition (unreal present condition) होती है; और उस condition का अपेक्षित परिणाम past के समय में होता है. ऐसे वाक्य एक ऐसी स्थिति को बताते हैं जो present और past दोनों स्थितियों के लिए असत्य होती है; जैसे

a) If I were you, I would have bought the red dress.

[= यदि मैं तुम्हारी  जगह होता तो मैंने लाल वाली ड्रेस खरीद ली होती; अर्थात न तो तुम्हारी जगह मैं था और न ही मैंने लाल वाली ड्रेस खरीदी. ये present और past दोनों  स्थितियों के लिए असत्य है.]

b) If the students had more time, they would have finished their work yesterday.

c) If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday.

d) If Rahul spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you.

e) If I didn’t have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night.

ii) किसी future condition का भूतकाल में परिणाम (Past Result of a Future Condition)

a) If I weren’t going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work.

[= यदि मैं अगले सप्ताह मैं business trip पर नहीं जा रहा होता तो मैंने office में उस नये काम को ले लिया होता; अर्थात अगले सप्ताह  मैं business trip पर जा रहा हूँ इसलिए मैं उस नये काम को नहीं लिया. ये future और past दोनों  स्थितियों के लिए असत्य है.]

b) If my parents weren’t coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Shimla.

c) If Reena weren’t making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.

5. Zero Conditional Sentences

Zero Conditional Sentences के दोनों clauses में Present Simple Tense का use होता है. ऐसे वाक्यों में ‘if-clause’ में दी गयी condition हमेशा पूरी होती ही होती है क्योंकि ऐसे वाक्य एक सामान्य सत्य (general truth) को प्रदर्शित करते हैं; जैसे

a) If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.
b) If people eat too much, they get fat.
c) If water reaches 100 degrees, it always boils.
d) Plants die if they don’t get enough water.
e) If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.
f) If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars.
g) People die if they don’t eat.
h) You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.
i) Snakes bite if they are scared.
j) If babies are hungry, they cry.

NOTE-I: Zero Conditional Sentences में ‘if’ के स्थान पर ‘when’ का use भी किया जा सकता है क्योंकि ऐसे वाक्य हमेशा एक सामान्य सत्य (general truth) को प्रदर्शित करते हैं; जैसे

If you heat ice, it melts.
= When you heat ice it melts.

NOTE-II: Zero Conditional Sentences को निर्देश (instructions) देने के लिए भी use किया जाता है; जब ऐसा होता है तो ‘main clauses’ में imperative clauses को use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) If Rohit phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema.
b) Ask Raman if you’re not sure what to do.
c) If you want to come, call me before 5:00.
d) Meet me here if we get separated.

‘Zero Conditionals’ और ‘Type-I Conditionals’ में अंतर

Type-I Conditional Sentences में main clause में वर्णित स्थिति काल्पनिक होती है; इसका पूरा होना ‘if-clause’ में वर्णित शर्त के पूरा होने पर निर्भर होता है. परंतु Zero Conditional Sentences में कोई कल्पना नहीं होती; परिणाम होता ही होता है. ये समझने के लिए निम्नलिखित वाक्य पढ़िए:

1. If Ruchi runs fast she’ll reach the station in time.

[यह एक Type-I Conditional Sentence है. क्योंकि इसके main clause में वर्णित स्थिति ‘रूचि का station पर समय पर पहुंचना’ इस बात पर निर्भर करेगा  कि वह तेज दोड़े, फिर भी पता नहीं वह पहंच पायेगी भी या नहीं; अर्थात स्थिति काल्पनिक है.]

2. If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.

[यह एक Zero Conditional Sentence है क्योंकि इसके main clause में वर्णित स्थिति ‘पानी का ठोस होने में बदलना’ एक सामान्य सच्च (general truth) है; अगर पानी को जमाया जायेगा तो वो ठोस पदार्थ में बदलेगा ही बदलेगा.]

NOTE: Type-I Conditional Sentences में ‘if’ को ‘when’ से नहीं बदला जा सकता; जबकि Zero Conditional Sentences में ‘if’ और ‘when’ दोनों को एक-दूसरे के साथ बदला जा सकता है.

6. निम्नलिखित का use करके भी Conditional Sentences को बनाया जा सकता है:  

A) when C) if + were E) unless G) or, otherwise
B) if + should D) so long as, provided that, on condition that F) until H) supposing

A) WHEN
 ‘When’ का use भविष्य की निश्चितताओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जबकि ‘if’ का use किसी सम्भावना अथवा अवास्तविक स्थिति को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

i) When I see Madhu, I’ll ask her to visit you. (अर्थात निश्चित तौर पर मैं मधु से मिलने वाला हूँ.)
ii) If I see Madhu, I’ll ask her to visit you. (अर्थात यह संभव है कि मैं मधु से मिलूं; ये मुझे पक्के से पता नहीं.)

NOTE: Future के लिए ‘when’ के साथ Present Simple Tense अथवा Present Perfect Tense का use किया जाता है, किसी future tense का नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: When the new park will open, I’ll go there every day.
CORRECT: When the new park opens, I’ll go there every day.

INCORRECT: When I’ll finish my homework, I’m going to have breakfast.
CORRECT: When I’ve finished my homework, I’m going to have breakfast.’

B) IF + SHOULD
यदि कुछ आकस्मिक (by chance) घटित होना हो तो ‘if’ के साथ ‘should’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) If you should meet Sonika, can you ask her to phone me?

[= यदि by chance तुम्हारी मुलकात सोनिका से होनी हो कृपया उसको मुझे फ़ोन करने को कहना.]

ii) If the government should ever decide to make a flyover here, I want it would finish it quickly.

[यदि by chance सरकार यहाँ flyover बनाने का निर्णय ले तो main चाहूँगा कि वह इसको शीघ्रता से बनाने का काम समाप्त करे.]

NOTE: ‘If-clause’ में से ‘if’ को हटा कर उसके स्थान पर ‘should’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

If you should meet Sonika, can you ask her to phone me?
= Should you meet Sonika, can you ask her to phone me?

C) ‘IF WERE’ or ‘WERE’
‘If + subject + was/were’ के स्थान पर वाक्य के आरम्भ में ‘if’ को हटा कर verb ‘were’ का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

i) If she was selected she would join.
= Were she selected she would join.

ii) If Rohit was here he’d know what to do.
= Were Rohit here he’d know what to do.

iii) “If I were you I would attend the meeting.
= “Were I you I would attend the meeting.

NOTE-I: जब verb को वाक्य के आरम्भ में रखा जाता है तो verb ‘were’ को use किया जाता है; ‘was’ को नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Was I Rohan I would meet her.
CORRECT: Were I Rohan I would meet her.

NOTE-II: IF + WERE TO

जब हम ऐसी घटनाओं के बारे में बात करते हैं जो शायद घटित हो जाएँ जबकि उनके घटित होने की सम्भावना नहीं होती है तो हम conditional sentences में ‘if + were to’ का use कर सकते हैं; जैसे

If the Prime Minister were to resign, there would have to be a general election within 30 days.

NOTE-III: Conditions में यदि ‘if’ के साथ Past Simple Tense का use हुआ हो तो ‘if’ के स्थान पर ‘were’ का use करके main verb की V1 के पहले ‘to’ का use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

i) If we gave up the fight now, it would mean the end of democracy in our country.
= Were we to give up the fight now, it would mean the end of democracy in our country.

ii) If the economy slowed down too quickly, there would be major problems.
= Were the economy to slow down too quickly, there would be major problems.

D) So long as, Provided, Only if, On condition that

कभी-कभी कोई कार्य किसी स्थिति विशेष (condition) में ही किया जा सकता है. ऐसी स्थिति में  conditional clause ‘if’ के स्थान पर ‘so long as’, ‘provided (that)’, ‘only if’, ‘on condition that, आदि से शुरू किया जा सकता है; जैसे

i) You can play here in my room so long as you don’t make a noise.
ii) So long as you don’t drive too fast you can borrow my car.
iii) I’ll come to the party on the condition that you don’t wear that ridiculous
iv) You can get a senior citizen’s reduction provided you’ve got a rail card.
v) Provided that there are enough seats, anyone can come on the trip.

E) UNLESS
कुछ Conditional clauses ‘if’ की अपेक्षा ‘unless’ से भी शुरू किये जा सकते हैं.

i) Unless you have experience you can’t get a job.
= If you do not have experience you can’t get a job.
= Except if you have experience you can’t get a job.

ii) I’ll make dinner unless somebody else wants to.
= I’ll make dinner if nobody else wants to.
= I’ll make dinner except if somebody else wants to.

NOTE-I: उन बातों के लिए जिनका हमें पता है कि वे सत्य हैं  ‘unless’ का use नहीं किया जाता; ऐसी स्थिति में आमतौर पर ‘if’ का ही use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: Unless I had seen you I would not have stopped my car.
CORRECT: If I had not seen you I would not have stopped my car.

[मुझे पता है कि मैंने तुमको देखा था; अर्थात मुझे ये पता है कि ये बात सत्य है. अतः यहाँ ‘unless’ का use अशुद्ध है.]

INCORRECT: I don’t know what we would have done unless we had seen you.
CORRECT: I don’t know what we would have done if we hadn’t seen you.

NOTE-II: ‘Unless’ और ‘if’ का use एक साथ करना अशुद्ध होता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: We’ll go to the park unless if it rains.
CORRECT: We’ll go to the park unless it rains. OR We’ll go to the park if it doesn’t rain.

NOTE-III: क्योंकि ‘unless’ खुद एक नकारात्मक (negative) word है इसके साथ कोई negative verb use नहीं की जा सकती; परन्तु दूसरे वाले clause में negative verb use की भी जा सकती है और नहीं भी; जैसे

INCORRECT: Unless you do not work hard you will not pass.
CORRECT: Unless you work hard you will not pass.

INCORRECT: They threatened to kill him unless he did not do as they asked.
CORRECT: They threatened to kill him unless he did as they asked.

F) UNTIL
‘Until’ समय को निरुपित करने वाला conjunction है; यह  conjunction conditions को नहीं बताता; अर्थात इसको Conditional Sentences में use नहीं किया जा सकता. ‘Until’ और ’till’ एक ही बात है. Conditions के लिए ‘unless’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

Let’s wait here until/till the rain stops.

i) Wait until I come back. (time)
ii) You will not succeed unless you work hard. (condition)

INCORRECT: You cannot do well until you prepare yourself.
CORRECT: You cannot do well unless you prepare yourself.

INCORRECT: I want to stay here unless she goes back.
CORRECT: I want to stay here until she goes back.

NOTE-I: किसी वाक्य के आरम्भ में ‘until’ का use तो किया जा सकता परन्तु ’till’ का नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Till the talk ended no one left the room.
CORRECT: No one left the room till the talk ended.

NOTE-II: Future के लिए ‘until’ के use के साथ Present Simple Tense अथवा Present Perfect Tense में से जिसकी भी जरुरत हो उसको use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: You have to be ready until Sumit will return.
CORRECT: You have to be ready until Sumit returns.

INCORRECT: We’ll sit here till Radha will have finished.
CORRECT: We’ll sit here till Radha has finished.

NOTE-III: Past की किसी घटना की बात करने के लिए ‘until’ के use के साथ Past Simple Tense अथवा Past Perfect Tense में से जिसकी भी जरुरत हो उसको use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) He was our boss until he retired.
ii) He continued reading the book until I had returned.

NOTE-IV: क्योंकि ‘until’ खुद एक नकारात्मक (negative) word है इसके साथ कोई negative verb use नहीं की जा सकती; परन्तु दूसरे वाले clause में negative verb use की भी जा सकती है और नहीं भी; जैसे

INCORRECT: I’ll wait here until you have not had your breakfast.
CORRECT: I’ll wait here until you have had your breakfast.

INCORRECT: I can’t wait until the summer holidays do not begin.
CORRECT: I can’t wait until the summer holidays begin.

G) OR and OTHERWISE
कभी-कभी ‘or’ और ‘otherwise’ को भी conditions के लिए use किया जाता है; जैसे

You’ve got to do hard work, or you’ll fail the exam.
= If you don’t do work hard, you will fail the exam.

We’d better run, otherwise we’ll miss the train.
= If we do not run, we’ll miss the train.

H) SUPPOSE/SUPPOSING
‘Suppose/Supposing’ को भी conditions के लिए use किया जाता है. ऐसे में ‘Suppose/Supposing’ का अर्थ ‘if’ ही होता है; जैसे

i) Supposing I don’t drive fast, will we still reach on time?
ii) Suppose we miss the train- what will we do then?

Conditional Sentences को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) Type-I Conditional Sentences

Type-I Conditional Sentencesमें tenses change वैसे ही होता है जैसे अब तक हम करते आयें हैं; जैसे

She said, “If you work hard you’ll pass the exam.”
= She said if she worked hard she would pass the exam.

B) Type-II Conditional Sentences

Type-II Conditional Sentences में tense change नहीं होता; जैसे

He said, “If I had a permit I could get a job.”
= He said that if he had a permit he could get a job.

C) Type-III Conditional Sentences

Type-III Conditional Sentences में tense change नहीं होता; जैसे

“If she had loved Jitesh, he said, “she wouldn’t have left him.”
= He said that if she had loved Jitesh she wouldn’t have left him.

D) ‘If-clauses + commands/requests’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

He said, “If you have time, wash the floor.” अथवा He said. “If you have time, would you wash the floor?”
= He told/asked me to wash the floor if I had time. अथवा He said that if I had time I was to wash the floor.

E) ‘If-clauses + expressions’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

i) “If you feel ill,’ she said, “why don’t you go to bed?” अथवा “If you feel ill,” she said, “you’d better go to bed”
= She advised me to go to bed if I felt ill. अथवा She said that if I felt ill I’d better go to bed. or She said that if I felt ill I should go to bed.

ii) “If I were you I’d stop taking pills.” she said.
= She advised me to stop taking pills.

F) ‘If-clauses + questions’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

If-clauses + questions को Indirect Speech में बदलते हुए if-clause को वाक्य के अंत में use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) “If the baby is a girl what will they call her?” he wondered.
= He wondered what they would call the baby if it was a girl.

ii) “If the door is locked what shall I do?” she asked.
= She asked what she would do if the door was locked.

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Conditional Sentences (Explained in English)

If in a sentence there are two actions and one of those actions expresses the condition of the other action, it’s called a conditional sentence; e.g.

If you work hard, you’ll pass the examination.

[In this sentence ‘if you work hard’ is a condition to pass the examination.]

We have five kinds of conditional sentences. There is a different pair of tenses in each kind. They have two parts — the ‘if-clause’ and the ‘main clause’. In the sentence If I win the lottery, I will  buy a new house. ’If I win the lottery’ is the ‘if-clause’, and ‘I will buy a new house’ is the ‘main clause’.

NOTE: Any of these clauses can come first in a sentence; e.g.

If you work hard, you’ll pass the examination.
= You’ll pass the examination, if you work hard.

1. Type-I Conditional Sentences

In Type-I Conditional Sentences the verb in the ‘if-clause’ is in the Present Simple Tense; the verb in the ‘main clause’ is in the Future Simple Tense. We use the Type-I Conditional Sentences to talk about the result of an imaginary future situation, when we believe that imaginary situation is quite likely to happen; e.g.

a) If she runs she’ll reach the station in time.
b) If the weather improves, we’ll go to the park.
c) If the taxi doesn’t come soon, I’ll drop you there in my car.

NOTE: We don’t normally use the modal verb in the conditional clause; e.g.

INCORRECT: If he will walk fast he’ll reach the station in time.
CORRECT: If he walks fast he’ll reach the station in time.

CHANGES IN THE ABOVE RULE

A) Changes in the ‘main clause’

i) ‘May/can’ in the main clause

We can also use ‘may/can/ in the main clause; we use ‘may’ for permission, and ‘can’ for permission or ability; e.g.

a) If we go out, we can usually get the car. (= Every time we go out, it is usually possible to get a person to get the car.)
b) If your homework is complete you may/can leave. (Here it’s permission to leave)
c) If it stops raining we can go out. (‘We can go out’ can be used here for permission and ability both)

ii) ‘May/might’ in the main clause

In the main clause we use ‘will/shall’ for certainties, but for possibilities we use ‘may/might’. We use ‘may’ for a strong possibility, and ‘might’ if the possibility is not strong; e.g.

a) If it rains we may/might not go for the morning walk.
b) If Preeti rings, I may/might ask her to visit me in the evening today.

iii) ‘Must/should’ in the main clause

Instead of ‘will/shall’ we can also use ‘must/should’ or a command, request or advice; e.g.

a) If he calls you you must/should go. (opinion/obligation)
b) If he calls you you had better go. (advice)
c) If he calls you go positively. (command)
d) If you see Ram in the evening could you ask him to ring me? (request)

iv) Future Perfect Tense in the main clause

We can use the Future Perfect Tense in the main clause to express possible results, e.g.

If we don’t get the contract, we’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.

B) Changes in the ‘if-clause’

i) If + will/would

We can use ‘if + will/would’ to show willingness to do something; e.g.

a) If he’ll listen to me I’ll be able to help him. (= If he is willing to listen to me I’ll be able to help him)
b) If Jai would tell me what he wants for his dinner I’d cook it for him. (= She wants to say that if Jai is willing to tell her what he wants for his dinner I’d cook it for him.)

NOTE-I: ‘If + won’t’ is used in this to mean ‘refuse’; e.g.
a) If he won’t listen to me I can’t help him. (= if he is unwilling to listen/If he refuses to listen to me I can’t help him)
b) If they won’t accept a cheque we’ll have to pay cash. (= If they refuse to accept a cheque we’ll have to pay cash)

NOTE-II: ‘If + will’ can be used to express obstinate insistence (किसी बात पर अनुचित ढंग से अड़े रहना)

If you will play the drums all night no wonder the neighbours complain. (= If you insist on playing the drums all night no wonder the neighbours complain)

ii) ‘If + will/would’ for polite requests

We use ‘will/would’ after ‘if’ for polite requests; e.g.

a) If you will/would stay for a while I’ll bring the beer for you. (= Please stay for a while so that I could bring the beer for you.)

b) I would be very grateful if you would make the arrangements for me.

iii) If + would like/care

We can use ‘if + would like/care’ to express a want/wish more politely; e.g.

a) If you would like to come I’ll get a ticket for you.
b) If you’d care to see my photo album I’ll bring it with me next time.
c) If he’d like to leave his car here he can.

NOTE: But if we rearrange such sentences so that ‘would like’ has no object, we can drop the ‘would’: e.g.

a) If you like I’ll get a ticket for you but
= If you’d like a ticket I’ll get one for you.

b) If he likes he can leave his car here but
= If he’d like to leave his car here he can.

iv) If + should

We can use ‘if + should’ to say that the action is possible but not very likely. It is usually combined with an imperative and is chiefly used in written instructions.

a) If you should have any difficulty in getting the treatment, dial the given helpline number.
b) If these eggs should arrive broken please inform the shopkeeper at once.

v) Present Perfect Tense in the ‘if-clause’

We can use the Present Perfect Tense in the ‘if-clause’ if the action is a completed action; e.g.

a) If you have read the book, return it to the library.
b) If they have not visited the zoo we had better go their today itself. 

2. Type-II Conditional Sentences

In Type-II Conditional Sentences the verb in the ‘if-clause’ is in the Past Simple Tense; the verb in the ‘main clause’ is in the present conditional (would + V1).

We use the type-II conditional sentences to talk about the possible result of an imaginary situation in the present or future. The past tense in the ‘if-clause’ is not, actually, a true past, rather it’s an unreal past (subjunctive), which indicates unreality or improbability. We use a past form in the conditional clause to indicate a distance from reality; we do not mean it to be in the past, e.g.

a) If people complained, things would change. (= People don’t complain at the moment; means present tense)
b) If a thief entered my room at night I would scream. (= I don’t expect a thief to come in; means present tense)
c) If you decided to take the exam, you would have to register by 31 March.
d) If I were you, I would call Sonia and apologize. (= I am not you, but you should call Sonia and apologize.)
e) If Raju had more time, he would attend the cooking class next week. (= Raju does not have more time, so he will not attend the cooking class next week.)
f) If Vipin were here, he would go with us to Agra on Thursday. (= Vipin is not here right now, so he will not go with us to Agra on Thursday.)

CHANGES TO THE ABOVE RULE

A) Changes in the main clause

i) ‘Might/could’ in the main clause

We use ‘would’ in the main clause for a certainty, but for a possibility, ability and permission we use ‘might/could’. ‘Might’ for a possibility/permission and ‘could’ for an ability / permission; e.g.

a) If you tried again you would pass. [means you’ll surely pass] — certain result
b) If you tried again you might pass. [means possibly you’ll pass] — possible result
c) If I won the lottery, I could buy a new house. ( ability)
d) If you had a phone, you could call me every day. (ability or permission)

ii) ‘Would/might/could + ing form’ in the main clause

We can use ing form after ‘would/might/could’ in the main clause for continuous actions; e.g.

If I were on holiday I would/might be touring England as you did.
(= मैं छुट्टी पर नहीं हूँ, अगर होता तो मैं भी तुम्हारी तरह इंगलैंड में घूम रहा होता.)

B) Changes in the if-clause

i) The Past Continuous Tense instead of the Past Simple Tense in the ‘if-clause’

For imaginary continuing actions, instead of the Past Simple Tense in the ‘if-clause’ we can use the Past Continuous Tense; e.g.

a) If instead of writing you were typing this letter, it would be much better.
b) If my car was working I would/could leave you at Pooja’s house.

ii) ‘Would’ in the ‘if-clause’

We sometimes use ‘would’ in the if-clause, especially if we doubt that the result will be the one mentioned; e.g.

If it really would save the city, I’d stop using my car tomorrow.

(= If it really is true that the city would be saved as a result, I would stop using my car, but I doubt it is true.)

3. Type-III Conditional Sentences

In Type-III Conditional Sentences we use verb in the Past Perfect Tense in the ‘if-clause’; and the verb in the main clause is the Perfect Conditional (would + have + V3). In such sentences the condition cannot be fulfilled because action in the ‘if-clause’ never happened.

a) If I had known that you were reading I would not have come. (means I did not know, but I came.)
b) If I had seen you I would have stopped my car. (means I did not see you, so not stopped)

NOTE: We can place ‘had’ first, and omit ‘if’; e.g.

If I hadn’t overslept, I wouldn’t have been late for work.
= Hadn’t I overslept, I wouldn’t have been late for work.

If I had known you had a test today, I wouldn’t have let you go to the movies.
= Had I known you had a test today, I wouldn’t have let you go to the movies.

CHANGES TO THE ABOVE RULE

A) Changes in the ‘main clause’

i) ‘Could/might’ in the main clause

To express an ability or possibility or permission, ‘could’ or ‘might’ may be used instead of ‘would’ in the main clause, but you can’t use ‘can’ or ‘may’ in type-III conditionals; e.g.

a) If she had been there, she could have helped you. (ability)
b) If she had been there, she might have helped you. (possibility)
c) If your leg had been right we could have allowed you to leave. (permission)

B) Changes in the ‘if-clause’

i) Past Perfect Continuous Tense in the ‘if-clause’

To show the continuity of the event we use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense instead of Past Perfect Tense in the ‘if-clause’ ; e.g.

If my leg had not been bleeding I would have been relieved from hospital.

4. Mixed Conditional Sentences

A combination of Type-II and Type-III is possible sometimes.  It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is called a Mixed Conditional Sentence.  There are following two types of mixed conditional sentence:

A) Present Result

i) Present Result of a Past Condition

In this type of mixed conditional sentences, the tense in the ‘if-clause’ is the Past Perfect Tense, and the tense in the main clause is the Present Conditional (would + V1).

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is past in the ‘if-clause’ and present in the ‘main clause’; e.g.

a) If I had won the lottery, I would be rich. (= But I didn’t win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now.

b) If I had taken English in high school, I would have more job opportunities. (= But I didn’t take English in high school and I don’t have many job opportunities.

c) If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn’t need a visa to work here. (= But she wasn’t born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here.

d) If I had studied I would have my driving license. (= but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)

e) If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (= but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

NOTE-I: This type of mixed conditional can also refer a result in the future; e.g.

a) If she had signed up for the trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. (= But she didn’t sign up for the trip last week and she isn’t going to join us tomorrow.)

b) If Mukesh had gotten the job instead of Jitan, he would be moving to London. (= But Mukesh didn’t get the job and he is not going to move to London.)

c) If Dinesh hadn’t wasted his Diwali bonus gambling in Goa, he would be going to Mexico with us next month. (= But Dinesh wasted his Diwali bonus gambling in Goa and he won’t go to Mexico with us next month.

NOTE-II: In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use other modals in the main clause instead of ‘would’ to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome; e.g.

a) If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
b) I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
c) If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

NOTE-III: Sometimes, things that did or did not happen in the past have results which continue still. We do this by using ‘if’ with the Past Perfect Tense, and using ‘would’ in the main clause; e.g.

a) She wouldn’t still be working for us if we hadn’t increased her salary. (We gave her a pay-rise so she is still working for us now.)
b) If I had caught that plane I would be dead now.

ii) Present Result of a Future Condition

a) If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. (= But I am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why I am not excited.)

b) If Radha were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. (= But Radha is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous.)

c) If Raman didn’t come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed. (= But Raman will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy.)

B) Past Result

i) Past Result of a Present Condition

In this type of mixed conditional sentences, the tense in the ‘if-clause’ is the Simple Past Tense, and the tense in the main clause is the Perfect Conditional (would + have + V3). These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result.

In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the ‘if-clause’ is now or always and the time in the ‘main clause’ is before now. For example in the sentence ‘If I wasn’t afraid of spiders I would have picked it up’, ‘If I wasn’t afraid of spiders’ is contrary to present reality. Means I am afraid of spiders. ‘I would have picked it up’ is contrary to past reality. Means I didn’t pick it up.

a) If I were you, I would have bought the red dress. (= I am not you, so I did not buy the red dress in the past.)

b) If the students had more time, they would have finished their work yesterday. (= The students do not have more time, so they did not finish their work yesterday.)

c) If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday. (= But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn’t buy the Ferrari yesterday.)

d) If Rahul spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you. (= But Rahul doesn’t speak Russian and that is why he didn’t translate the letter.)

e) If I didn’t have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night. (= But I have to work a lot and that is why I didn’t go to the party last night.

f) If I didn’t have so much vacation time, I wouldn’t go with you on the cruise to Australia next week. (= But I do have a lot of vacation time and I will go on the trip next week.)

g) If Nitesh weren’t so nice, he wouldn’t be tutoring you in Maths tonight. (= But Nitesh is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight.)

ii) Past Result of a Future Condition

a) If I weren’t going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work. (= But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn’t accept that new assignment at work.)

b) If my parents weren’t coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Shimla. (=But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why I didn’t plan a trip for the two of us to Shimla.)

c) If Reena weren’t making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant. (= But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why I didn’t suggest that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.)

5. Zero Conditional Sentences

In Zero Conditional Sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the Simple Present Tense. This conditional is used when the result will always happen, and it often refers to general truths, such as scientific facts; e.g.

a) If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.
b) If people eat too much, they get fat.
c) If water reaches 100 degrees, it always boils.
d) Plants die if they don’t get enough water.
e) If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.
f) If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars.
g) People die if they don’t eat.
h) You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.
i) Snakes bite if they are scared.
j) If babies are hungry, they cry.

NOTE-I: In zero conditional sentences, you can replace ‘if’ with ‘when’ because both express general truths. The meaning will be unchanged; e.g.

If you heat ice, it melts.
= When you heat ice it melts.

NOTE-II: The zero conditional is also often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the main clause; e.g.

a) If Rohit phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema.
b) Ask Raman if you’re not sure what to do.
c) If you want to come, call me before 5:00.
d) Meet me here if we get separated.

Difference between ‘Zero Conditionals’ and ‘Type-I Conditionals’

In Type-I Conditional Sentences, the situation described in the main clause is imaginary, and that imaginary situation is quite likely to happen if the condition described in the ‘if-clause’ is fulfilled. But in the zero conditional sentences there is no imagination at all, if the condition described in the ‘if-clause’ is fulfilled, the result will always happen. Now compare these sentences.

1. If she runs she’ll reach the station in time.

[This is a type-I conditional sentence, not the zero conditional as the situation of the main clause i.e. ‘reaching the station in time’ might not always happen, sometimes it’s also possible even if she runs she is late to reach the station.]

2. If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.

[This is a zero conditional sentence, not the type-I conditional as the situation of the main clause i.e. ‘change of water into solid’ is a fact and will always happen if someone freezes it. There is no element of imagination (unreality) involved in it.]

NOTE: You can’t replace ‘if’ of type-I conditional sentences with ‘when’, whereas in zero conditional sentences ‘if’ and ‘when’ are replaceable.

6. Conditional Sentences with: 

A) when C) if + were E) unless G) or, otherwise
B) if + should D) so long as, provided that, on condition that F) until H) supposing

A) WHEN
We use ‘when’ for a future certainty whereas we use ‘if’ for a possible or unreal situation; e.g.

i) When I see Madhu, I’ll ask her to visit you. (means I will definitely see Madhu.)
ii) If I see Madhu, I’ll ask her to visit you. (means It’s possible that I’ll meet Madhu. I am not certain about.)

NOTE: For future we use the Present Simple Tense or the Present Perfect Tense with ‘when’ (not the Future Tense); e.g.

INCORRECT: When the new park will open, I’ll go there every day.
CORRECT: When the new park opens, I’ll go there every day.

INCORRECT: When I’ll finish my homework, I’m going to have breakfast.
CORRECT: When I’ve finished my homework, I’m going to have breakfast.’

B) IF + SHOULD
We can use ‘if’ with ‘should’ to refer to events which may happen by chance; e.g.

i) If you should meet Sonika, can you ask her to phone me? (If by chance you meet Sonika.)
ii) If the government should ever decide to make a flyover here, I want it would finish it quickly.

NOTE: We can place ‘should’ first, and omit ‘if’; e.g.

If you should meet Sonika, can you ask her to phone me?
= Should you meet Sonika, can you ask her to phone me?

C) ‘IF WERE’ or ‘WERE’
‘If + subject + was/were’ can be replaced by inversion of the verb ‘were’, and ‘if’ omitted; e.g.

i) If she was selected she would join.
= Were she selected she would join.

ii) If Rohit was here he’d know what to do.
= Were Rohit here he’d know what to do.

iii) “If I were you I would attend the meeting.
= “Were I you I would attend the meeting.

NOTE-I: ‘Were’ (not WAS) is used when the verb is placed first; e.g.

INCORRECT: Was I Rohan I would meet her.
CORRECT: Were I Rohan I would meet her.

NOTE-II:IF + WERE TO

In conditional sentences, we can use ‘if + were to’ when we talk about things that might happen but which we think are unlikely; e.g.

If the Prime Minister were to resign, there would have to be a general election within 30 days.

NOTE-III: In conditions in the Simple Past Tense we can replace ‘if’ by ‘were’ and use ‘to’ before the main verb; e.g.

i) If we gave up the fight now, it would mean the end of democracy in our country.
= Were we to give up the fight now, it would mean the end of democracy in our country.

ii) If the economy slowed down too quickly, there would be major problems.
= Were the economy to slow down too quickly, there would be major problems.

D) So long as, Provided, Only if, On condition that

Sometimes we need to set limits on a situation. In these cases, conditional clauses can begin with phrases such as ‘so long as’, ‘provided (that)’, ‘only if’, ‘on condition that; e.g.

i) You can play here in my room so long as you don’t make a noise.
ii) So long as you don’t drive too fast you can borrow my car.
iii) I’ll come to the party on the condition that you don’t wear that ridiculous
iv) You can get a senior citizen’s reduction provided you’ve got a rail card.
v) Provided that there are enough seats, anyone can come on the trip.

E) UNLESS
Conditional clauses can begin with ‘unless’. Unless = ‘if … not’ or ‘except if’

The verb forms in the examples are similar to sentences with ‘if’. We use the Present Simple Tense in the ‘unless-clause’ and shall, should, will, would, can, could, may or might in the main clause; e.g.

i) Unless you have experience you can’t get a job.
= If you do not have experience you can’t get a job.
= Except if you have experience you can’t get a job.

ii) I’ll make dinner unless somebody else wants to.
= I’ll make dinner if nobody else wants to.
= I’ll make dinner except if somebody else wants to.

NOTE-I: We don’t use ‘unless’ for things that we know to be true, in such a case we normally use ‘if’; e.g.

INCORRECT: Unless I had seen you I would not have stopped my car.
CORRECT: If I had not seen you I would not have stopped my car.

INCORRECT: I don’t know what we would have done unless we had seen you.
CORRECT: I don’t know what we would have done if we hadn’t seen you. (means ‘We did see you.’)

NOTE-II: We don’t use ‘unless’ and ‘if’ together; e.g.

INCORRECT: We’ll go to the park unless if it rains.
CORRECT: We’ll go to the park unless it rains. OR We’ll go to the park if it doesn’t rain.

NOTE-III: As ‘unless’ itself is a negative word, we do not use any negative words with it in the same clause, but the verb of the other clause can be negative or not; e.g.

INCORRECT: Unless you do not work hard you will not pass.
CORRECT: Unless you work hard you will not pass.

INCORRECT: They threatened to kill him unless he did not do as they asked.
CORRECT: They threatened to kill him unless he did as they asked.

NOTE-IV: IF or UNLESS

IF: An ‘if-phrase’ expresses that ‘an action or situation will happen after the other one happens first; e.g.

i) You will have a soft chicken if you cook it slowly.
ii) You will have a tough chicken if you overcook it.
iii) We’ll arrive at 8:00 if our train is on time.
iv) We’ll bring some champagne if you wish.
v) You will always have a soft chicken if you cook it slowly.

UNLESS: Unless = ‘except if’ or ‘if not’

An ‘unless-phrase’ expresses:

a) An action or situation will happen if the other one does not happen first.

i) You will have a soft chicken unless you overcook it.
ii) You will have a tough chicken unless you cook it slowly.
iii) We’ll arrive at 8:00 unless our train is late .
iv) We’ll bring some champagne unless you object.

b) An action or situation won’t happen if the other one doesn’t happens first.

You won’t have a soft chicken unless you cook it right.

F) UNTIL
‘Until’ is a conjunction used for denoting time, it’s not used for conditions purely. ‘Until’ and ’till’ are the same thing; e.g.

Let’s wait here until/till the rain stops.

NOTE-I: We don’t normally put the ’till-clause’ before the main clause; e.g.

INCORRECT: Till the talk ended no one left the room.
CORRECT: No one left the room till the talk ended.

NOTE-II: We use present verb forms to refer to the future after ‘until’; e.g.

INCORRECT: You have to be ready until Sumit will return.
CORRECT: You have to be ready until Sumit returns.

NOTE-III: We use the Present Perfect after ‘until’ to refer to actions or events that will continue up to a point in the future; e.g.

INCORRECT: We’ll sit here till Radha will have finished.
CORRECT: We’ll sit here till Radha has finished.

NOTE-IV: We use the Past Simple Tense and the Past Perfect Tense after ‘until’ to talk about events in the past; e.g.

i) He was our boss until he retired.
ii) He continued reading the book until I had returned.

NOTE-V: As ‘until’ itself is a negative word, we do not use any negative words with it in the same clause, but the verb of the other clause can be negative or not; e.g.

INCORRECT: I’ll wait here until you have not had your breakfast.
CORRECT: I’ll wait here until you have had your breakfast.

INCORRECT: I can’t wait until the summer holidays do not begin.
CORRECT: I can’t wait until the summer holidays begin.

NOTE-VI: ‘Until’ is used for time, and ‘unless’ is used for a condition; e.g.

i) Wait until I come back. (time)
ii) You will not succeed unless you work hard. (condition)

INCORRECT: You cannot do well until you prepare yourself.
CORRECT: You cannot do well unless you prepare yourself.

INCORRECT: I want to stay here unless she goes back.
CORRECT: I want to stay here until she goes back.

G) OR and OTHERWISE
We often use ‘or’ and ‘otherwise’ with conditional meanings; e.g.

You’ve got to do hard work, or you’ll fail the exam.
= If you don’t do work hard, you will fail the exam.

We’d better run, otherwise we’ll miss the train.
= If we do not run, we’ll miss the train.

H) SUPPOSE/SUPPOSING
‘Suppose/Supposing’ may be used with a conditional meaning. ‘Suppose/Supposing’ in this use means ‘if’; e.g.

i) Supposing I don’t drive fast, will we still reach on time?
ii) Suppose we miss the train- what will we do then?

7. How to convert the Conditional Sentences into Indirect Speech

A) Type-I Conditional Sentences (basic form)

Tenses change in the usual way; e.g.
She said, “If you work hard you’ll pass the exam.”
= She said if she worked hard she would pass the exam.

B) Type-II Conditional Sentences (basic form)

Tenses do not change; e.g.
He said, “If I had a permit I could get a job.”
= He said that if he had a permit he could get a job.

C) Type-III Conditional Sentences (basic form)

Tenses do not change; e.g.
“If she had loved Jitesh, he said, “she wouldn’t have left him.”
= He said that if she had loved Jitesh she wouldn’t have left him.

D) ‘If-clauses + commands/requests’ in Indirect Speech

He said, “If you have time, wash the floor.” or He said. “If you have time, would you wash the floor?”
= He told/asked me to wash the floor if I had time. or He said that if I had time I was to wash the floor.

E) ‘If-clauses + expressions’ in Indirect Speech

i) “If you feel ill,’ she said, “why don’t you go to bed?” or “If you feel ill,” she said, “you’d better go to bed”
= She advised me to go to bed if I felt ill. or She said that if I felt ill I’d better go to bed. or She said that if I felt ill I should go to bed.

ii) “If I were you I’d stop taking pills.” she said.
= She advised me to stop taking pills.

F) ‘If-clauses + questions’ in Indirect Speech

If-clauses + questions are usually reported with the if-clause last.

i) “If the baby is a girl what will they call her?” he wondered.
= He wondered what they would call the baby if it was a girl.

ii) “If the door is locked what shall I do?” she asked.
= She asked what she would do if the door was locked.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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