ENGLISHEnglish Vocabulary



1. Aural = of or pertaining to hearing or the ear —- My cousin has an aural impairment, so he uses a hearing aid.
Oral = using speech rather than writing —- They had reached an oral agreement.

2. Allude = to talk around something, give hints, and generally not say what you really want to say —- He alluded to the problem but did not mention it.
Elude = escape, either physically or mentally —- The thief eluded the police. 

3. Accept = to agree to take something —- She was in Mumbai to accept an award for her latest  novel.
Except = not including —- The museum is open daily except Mondays.
Expect = hope; to think or believe something will happen —- We are expecting a lot of applicants  for the job.

4. Access = the method or possibility of getting near to a place or person —- The only access  to the  village is by boat.
Excess = an amount of something that is more than necessary, permitted, or desirable —- a) Excess of everything is bad. b) Are you suffering from an excess of stress in your life?

5. Adopt = legally take another’s child and bring it up as one’s own —- There are many people eager to adopt a baby.
Adapt = to change something to suit different conditions or uses —- We live in a changing world  and  people must learn to adapt.
Adept = having a natural ability to do something that needs skill —- She’s very adept at dealing with the media.

6. Accede = agree to a demand, request, or treaty —- The authorities did not accede to the strikers’ demands.
Exceed = to be greater than a number or amount, or to go past an allowed limit —- She was  found  guilty on three charges of exceeding the speed limit.

7. Alter = change —- I took the coat back to the shop to have it altered.
Altar = an altar is a holy table in a church or temple —- The heart was placed on a small table in front of the high altar.

8. Assent = official agreement to or approval of an idea, plan, or request —- Once the directors  have  given their assent to the proposal we can begin.
Ascent = climbing or moving upwards —- As the plane made its ascent, we saw thick smoke coming from one engine.
Accent = the way in which people in a particular area, country, or social group pronounce words —- She’s an Indian but she speaks with an impeccable English accent.

9. Apposite = suitable —- The film starts in a graveyard, an apposite image for the decaying society  which is the theme of the film.
Opposite = completely different —- You’d never know they’re sisters, they’re completely  opposite  to each other in every way.

10. Amicable = friendly —- His manner was perfectly amicable, but I felt uncomfortable.
Amiable = pleasant —– a) He seemed an amiable young man. b) So amiable was the mood of the  meeting  that a decision was soon reached.

11. Affect (verb) = to influence/pretend —- Both buildings were badly affected by the fire.
Effect (noun) = the result of a particular influence —- I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn’t have any effect.

12. Alteration = a change, usually a slight change, in the appearance, character, or structure of something —- The house needed extensive alterations when we moved in.
Altercation = a loud argument or disagreement —- According to witnesses, the altercation  between  the two men started inside the restaurant.

13. Adulteration = making impure —- There were complaints that the beer had been adulterated  with  water.
Adultery = voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and a person who is not their spouse —- She was committing adultery with a much younger man.

14. Alternate = to happen or exist one after the other repeatedly —- She alternated between cheerfulness and deep despair.
Alternative = one of the two choices —- The opposition parties have so far failed to set out an alternative strategy.

15. Avenge = just punishment; to do harm to or punish the person responsible for something  bad  done to you or your family or friends in order to achieve a fair situation —- He swore he would avenge his brother’s death.
Revenge = harm done to someone as a punishment for harm that they have done to someone else —-  He is believed to have been shot by a rival gang in revenge for the shootings last week.

16. Abstain = restrain oneself from doing or enjoying something —- She intends to abstain from sex before marriage.
Refrain = to not do something, especially something enjoyable that you think might be bad —- He took a vow to abstain from alcohol.

17. Allusion = something that is said or written that is intended to make you think of a particular thing or person —- Her novels are packed with literary allusions.
Illusion = an idea or belief that is not true —- He had no illusions about his talents as a singer.

18. Antique = something made in an earlier period that is collected and considered to have value because it is beautiful, rare, old, or of high quality —- We thought the chair was an antique worth a lot of money, but it turned out to be a valueless replica.
Antic = tricks; funny, silly, or strange behaviour —- The crowds were once again entertained by the number-one tennis player’s antics on and off the court.

19. Artful = clever and skillful, especially in getting what you want —- He has shown himself to be an artful politician.
Artistic = relating to art —- His friends are all artistic – they’re painters, musicians, and writers.

20. Artist = someone who creates things with great skill and imagination —- He described her as one of the greatest film artists of the 20th century.
Artiste = a public performer (a dancer or singer) —- The artiste gave a wonderful performance.
Artisan = someone who does skilled work with their hands —- Street markets where local artisans display hand-woven textiles and leather goods.

21. Advice (noun) = a proposal for an appropriate course of action —- Please give us some advice about planning a trip to England.
Advise (verb) = give advice to; offer a suggestion —- I advised him that he should go for a morning walk daily.

22. Birth = to be born —- She could not make it to the hospital in time so she ended up giving birth to her child in the taxi.
Berth = Sleeping place in a ship or in a train —- We have got berth in Janta Express.

23. Boar = a pig —- An angry wild boar is dangerous.
Bore = to drill a hole or gave birth to —- The carpenter is boring holes into the wall.

24. Bridle = reins for a horse —- He put the bridle on the horse and went for a ride.
Bridal = of a woman about to be married —- The magazine had a section on bridal  wear.

25. Bear = tolerate —- He couldn’t bear to see the dog in pain.
Bare = naked —- Don’t walk around outside in your bare feet.

26. Beside = by the side of —- He sat beside me in the front seat.
Besides = in addition to —- I don’t want to go to a restaurant; besides, we can’t afford it.

27. Beneficial = helpful, useful, or good —- The improvement in sales figures had a beneficial effect on the company as a whole.
Beneficiary =  a person or group who receives money,  advantages, etc. as a result of something else —- Her wife was the chief beneficiary of his will.

28. Bail = security that a person who has been accused of a crime pays to a law court so that he can be released until his trial —- He was released on bail.
Bale = a large amount of something such as hay, paper, wool, or cloth that has been tied tightly together —- The fire destroyed 500 bales of cotton. 

29. Catch = to take hold of something when it is moving —- She threw the bottle into the air and caught it again.
Hold = to take hold of something when it is not moving —- She was holding a brown leather suitcase. 

30. Childlike = (of an adult) having the good qualities, such as innocence, associated with a child —- She speaks with a childlike directness.
Childish = (of an adult) immature; silly —- Do not be so childish.  

31. Custom = a way of behaving or a belief that has been established for a long time —- In my  country, it’s the custom to get married in white.
Habit = something that you do often and regularly, sometimes without knowing that you are doing it —- I’m trying not to get into the habit of always having biscuits with my coffee.

32. Canvass = to try to get or votes —- I’ve been out canvassing for the BJP every evening this  week.
Canvas = a piece of cloth used by artists for painting on, usually with oil paints, or the painting  itself —- These two canvases by Ram Kumar would sell for Rs 1,500,000.

33. Capacity = ability to contain —- The stadium has a seating capacity of 50,000.
Capability = the ability to do something —- These tests are beyond the capability of an average  twelve-year-old.

34. Cite = to speak or write words taken from a particular writer or written work —- Authors who are highly regarded by their admirers tend to be cited.
Site = a place where something is built —- The company  hasn’t yet chosen the site for the new  hospital.
Sight = the ability to see —- If your sight is poor, you should not drive a car.

35. Century = a period of one hundred years —- A century ago most people walked to work.
Centenary = 100 years after an important event —- Next year is the centenary of her death.

36. Conform = comply with rules, standards, or laws —- The kitchen does not conform to hygiene regulations.
Confirm = to make an arrangement or meeting certain, often by phone or writing —- Six people have confirmed that they will be attending and ten haven’t replied yet.

37. Continuous = without interruption —- If you hear a continuous toneleave the building.
Continual = happening repeatedly, usually in an annoying or not convenient way —- I’ve had continual problems with this car ever since I bought it.

38. Corpse = a dead body, usually of a person —- Most of the corpses were badly burned, making  identification almost impossible.
Carcass = the dead body of an animal —- She saw the mud-covered carcass of a sheep.

39. Coarse = rough and not smooth or soft, or not in very small pieces —- He was a rather tall boy with a head full of coarse black hair.
Course = a fixed number of regular medical treatments —- My doctor’s put me on a course of antibiotics.

40. Cemetery = an area of ground in which dead bodies are buried —- His father is buried in the cemetery on the hill.
Symmetry = the quality of having parts that match each other —- The design of the house had a pleasing  symmetry.

41. Confident = having confidence —- I’m confident of his skills as a manager.
Confidant = one who shares a secret —- I’m not talking about just two or three of my closest  confidants.

42. Compliment = a remark that expresses approval, admiration, or respect —- He complained  that his  husband  never paid him any compliments anymore.
Complement = that completes; to make something else seem better or more attractive when combining with it —- Strawberries and cream complement each other perfectly.

43. Cannon = a large, powerful gun, usually attached to two or four wheels, that was used in the past to fire heavy stone or metal balls —- They would cross at the border under cover of the defending cannon.
Canon = principle, a law —- The appointment violated the canons of fair play and equal opportunity.

44. Creditable = deserving praise, trust, or respect —- Our team came in a creditable third in the  competition.
Credible = able to be believed; convincing —- Few people found his story credible.

45. Censure = strong criticism or disapproval —- His  dishonest behaviour came under severe  censure.
Censor = examination of films & plays —- The report had been censored ‘in the national interest.

46. Collision = an accident that happens when two vehicles hit each other with force —- Two drivers  were killed in a head-on  collision between a car and a taxi last night.
Collusion = agreement between people to act together secretly or illegally in order to deceive or cheat  someone —- It is thought that they worked in collusion with the terrorist network.

47. Ceremonious = Ceremonious behaviour is very formal or polite. —- He greeted his rival with a ceremonious display of friendship.
Ceremonial =   formal acts, often fixed and traditional,  performed on important social or religious occasions —- The queen, in full ceremonial dresspresided over the ceremony.

48. Coherent = (of an argument, theory, or policy) logical and consistent —- They failed to develop a coherent economic strategy.
Inherent = existing as a natural or basic part of something —- I have an inherent distrust  of  lawyers.

49. Collaborate = work jointly on an activity or project —- He  collaborated with him on numerous hotel projects.
Corroborate = to add proof to an account, statement, idea, etc. with new information —- Recent  research seems to corroborate his theory.

50. Casual = not suitable for special occasions —- His casual  behaviour was wholly inappropriate for such a formal occasion.
Causal = a relationship, link, etc. between two things in which one causes the other —- Is there a causal  relationship between violence on television and violent behaviour?

51. Council = the group of people elected to govern a particular area, town, or city, and organize services  for it —- The  city council is responsible for keeping the streets clean.
Counsel = advice, especially that given formally —- With wise counsel a couple can buy a home that will be appreciating in value.

52. Councillor = an elected member of a local government —- Parents have got to get together and turn our fire on the councillors and the employers.
Counsellor = a trained person to listen to people and give them advice about their problems —- The  college now has a counsellor to help students with both personal and work problems. 

53. Deny = to say that something is not true —- He denied the charge of murder that was levelled against him by the police.
Decline = politely refuse (an invitation or offer) —- Sneha declined the coffee.
Refuse = to say that you will not do something that somebody has asked you to do —- She will not refuse if you ask her to post this letter.

54. Disease = an illness of people, animals, plants, etc., caused by infection or a failure of health  rather  than by an accident —- The first symptom of the disease is a very high temperature.
Decease = a person’s death —- He held the post until his untimely decease in 1991.

55. Defuse = (1) remove the fuse from (an explosive device) in order to prevent it from exploding —- Explosives specialists tried to defuse the grenade. (2) to make a difficult or dangerous situation  calmer by  reducing or removing its cause —- The two groups will  meet  next  week to try to defuse the crisis/situation/tension.
Diffuse = to (cause something to) spread in many directions —- Television is a powerful means of diffusing knowledge.

56. Duel = a formal fight in the past, using guns or swords, arranged between two people as a way of deciding an argument —- The two men fought a duel over the lady.
Dual = with two parts, or combining two things —- This room has a dual purposeserving as both a study and a dining room.

57. Doze = to have a short sleep, especially during the day —- My cat likes dozing in front of the fire.
Dose = a measured amount of something such as medicine —- The doctor says to take one dose three times a day.

58. Decent = socially acceptable or good —- Everyone should be entitled to a decent standard  of  living.
Descent = the state or fact of being related to a particular person or group of people who lived in the past —- He claims direct descent from Mohammed.
Dissent = a strong difference of opinion on a particular subject,  especially about an official suggestion or plan or a popular belief —- When the time came to approve the proposal, there were one or two voices of dissent.

59. Deference = polite submission and respect —- He addressed her with the deference due to age.
Difference = the way in which two or more things which you are comparing are not the same —- Is there any significant difference in quality between these two items?

60. Desert (noun) = an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants —- They were lost in the desert for nine days.
Desert (verb) = to leave someone without help or in a difficult situation and not come back —- He deserted his wife and family for another woman.
Dessert = sweet food eaten at the end of a meal —- For dessert there’s apple pie or fruit.

61. Drought = a long period when there is little or no rain —- The drought in Delhi is causing terrible human suffering.
Draught= a current of unpleasantly cold air blowing through a room —- I had a sore neck because I had been sitting in a draught.

62. Deliverance = (1) freedom, the action of being rescued or set free —- Everyone waits for deliverance that never comes.
Delivery = the actof taking goods, letters, parcels, etc. to people’s houses or places of work;—- We get two deliveries of mail (= it is delivered twice) a day.  (2) the process of giving birth —- Injuries sustained during delivery.

63. Dam = a wall built across a river that stops the river’s flow and collects the water, especially to make a reservoir (= an artificial lake) that provides water for an area —- The Bhakra Dam is situated in the Punjab.
Damn = to blame or strongly criticize something or someone —- The inquiry into the disaster  damns the company for its lack of safety precautions.

64. Discreet = careful, not to cause offence by speech or behavior —- The family made discreet  enquiries about his background.
Discrete = clearly separate or different in shape or form —- These small companies now have  their  own discrete identity. 

65. Enviable = causing envy; If someone is in an enviable situation, you wish you were also in that  situation —- She’s in the enviable position of being able to choose who she works for.
Envious = feeling of envy; wishing you had what another person has —- I’m very envious of  your  new coat – it’s beautiful.

66. Exception = someone or something that is not included in a rule, group, or listor that does not behave in the expected way —- I like all kinds of movies with the exception of horror movies.
Exceptional = rare; much greater than usual, especially in skill, intelligence, quality, etc. —- The  company has shown exceptional growth over the past two years.
Exceptionable = offensive or upsetting —- His drawings are almost the only exceptionable part of his work.

67. Eminent = famous, respected, or important —- Many eminent surgeons are on the hospital’s staff
Imminent = impending; coming or likely to happen very soon —- He warned that an enemy missile  attack was imminent.

68. Eligible = fit to be chosen; having the necessary qualities or satisfying the necessary conditions —- Only people over 18 are eligible to vote.
Illegible = not clear enough to be read —- His handwriting is totally illegible.

69. Exceedingly = to a great extent (good sense) —- He was cleverhandsome, and exceedingly  rich.
Excessively = to a great extent (bad sense) —- Excessive exercise can sometimes cause  health  problems.

70. Exhausting = making you feel extremely tired —- We finally arrived at the holiday cottage after an exhausting nine-hour drive.
Exhaustive = complete and including everything —- The guide outlines every bus route in exhaustive detail.

71. Incite = to encourage someone to do or feel something unpleasant or violent —- She was  expelled for inciting her classmates to rebel against their teachers.
Insight = a clear, deep, and sometimes sudden understanding of a complicated problem or situation —-  It was an interesting bookfull of fascinating insights into human relationships.

72. Envelop = to cover or surround something completely —- The graveyard looked ghostly, enveloped  in mist.
Envelope = a letter cover —- The teacher opened the sealed envelope containing the exam papers.

73. Ensure = make certain that something will occur —- The client must ensure that accurate records are kept.
Insure = to protect yourself against risk by regularly paying a special company that will provide a fixed amount of money if you are killed or injured or if your home or possessions are damaged,  destroyed, or stolen —- All our household goods are insured against accidental damage.
Assure = to tell someone confidently that something is true, especially so that they do not worry —- She assured him that the car would be ready the next day.

74. Expensive = costing a lot of money —- Big houses are expensive to maintain.
Valuable = worth a lot of money —- These antiques are extremely valuable.

75. Elicit = to get or produce something, especially information or an action —- They were able to elicit the support of the public.
Illicit =illegal or disapproved of by society —- He also admitted to having been in possession of illicit drugs.

76. Enduring = lasting over a period of time; durable —- He formed a number of enduring relationships with women.
Endurable = bearable —- My journey was long but endurable.

77. Especially = in particular, above all —- She loves flowers, especially roses.
Specially = specific purpose of something —- This kitchen was specially designed to make it easy for a disabled person to use. 

78. Forceful = expressing opinions strongly and demanding attention or action —- The opposition  leader led a very forceful attack on the government in parliament this morning.
Forcible = forcible actions involve the use of physical power or violence —- The police’s forcible  entry into the building has come under a lot of criticism.

79. Feign = to pretend to have a particular feeling, problem, etc. —- You know how everyone feigns  surprise when you tell them how old you are.
Fain = willingly or happily —- I would fain forget what I had done. 

80. Forgo = to not have or do something enjoyable —- I shall have to forgo the pleasure of seeing you this week.
Forego = forgo and forego are the same thing.

81. Facilitate = to make something possible or easier —- The new ramp will facilitate the entry  of  wheelchairs.
Felicitate = congratulate —- The award winner was felicitated by the cultural association. 

82. Fair = treating someone in a way that is right or reasonable —- It’s not fair to blame me for everything!
Fare = the money that you pay for a journey in a vehicle such as a bus or train —- Train fares are going up again.

83. Flair = natural ability to do something well —- He has a flair for languages.
Flare = to burn brightly either for a short time or not regularly —- The flame above the oil well flared (up) into the dark sky.

84. Fortuitous = not planned, happening by chance —- The  timing of the meeting is   certainly  fortuitous.
Fortunate = lucky —- She’d been fortunate to escape serious injury. 

85. Fiscal = Relating to government revenue, especially taxes —- This has resulted in lower government revenue and a larger fiscal deficit.
Financial = relating to money or how money is managed —- The company needs more financial  assistance from the government. 

86. Gentle = calm, kind, or soft —- He’s very gentle with his  kids.
Genteel = being very polite, gentle, or graceful —- She was born into a genteel family.

87. Gamble = to risk money for example in a game or on a horse race —- I like to gamble when I play  cards.
Gambol = to run and jump in a happy way —- Lambs were gambolling in the spring sunshine.

88. Graceful = moving in a smooth, relaxed, attractive way, or having a smooth, attractive shape —- She is a  wonderfully  graceful dancer.
Gracious = behaving in a pleasant, polite, calm way —- The  losing team was gracious in defeat.

89. Gate = door —- An angry crowd surged through the gates of the president’s palace.
Gait = a particular way of walking —- He walked  with a  slow stiff gait. 

90. Hoard = to collect large amounts of something and keep it in a safe, often secret, place —- There would be enough food on a daily basis if people were not hoarding it.
Horde = a large group of people —- Hordes of   students  on bikes made crossing the road difficult.

91. Historic = important —- In a historic vote, the Church of England decided to allow women to  become priests.
Historical = related to history  connected with studying or representing things from the past —- Many  important  historical documents were destroyed when the library  was bombed.

92. Humility = the quality of not being proud because you are aware of your bad qualities —- He doesn’t have the humility to admit when he’s wrong.
Humiliation = feeling ashamed, lose respect for himself or herself —- They suffered the humiliation of losing in the opening round.

93. Honorary = an honorary position in an organization is one for which no payment is made —- Charities often have a well-known person as their honorary treasurer.
Honourable = honest and fair, or deserving praise and respect —- Ramesh is an honourable  person. 

94. Human = of people —- The human body is composed of about 60 percent water.
Humane = showing kindness, care, and sympathy  towards others, especially those who are suffering —- The humane way of dealing with a suffering animal is to kill it quickly.

95. Hail = a  small, hard balls of ice that fall from the sky like rain —- Hail and snow are causing treacherous driving conditions, and motorists are warned to drive slowly.
Hale = (of an old person) strong and healthy —- He’s only just sixty, very hale and hearty.

96. Healthy = in a good physical or mental condition; in good health —- I feel fit and healthy.
Healthful = helping to produce good health —- A healthful diet  includes lots of green vegetables.

97. Hypocritical = saying that you have particular moral beliefs but behaving in a way that shows these are not sincere —- Their accusations of corruption are hypocritical – they have been just as  corrupt  themselves.
Hypercritical = extremely critical (= too eager to find  mistakes in everything) —- He was a sarcastic, hypercritical man.

98. Hollow = having a hole or empty space inside —- Hollow  blocks are used because they are lighter.
Hallow = to make something holy —- The bread and wine has been hallowed by being dedicated  to  God.
Halo = a ring of light around the head of a holy person in a religious drawing or painting —- After performing a good deed, he’s also stuck with a halo above his head.

99. Hear = to receive or become conscious of a sound using your ears —- My grandfather is getting old  and can’t hear very well.
Listen = to give attention to someone or something in order to hear him, her, or it —- What kind of  music do you listen to? 

100. Intelligible = (of speech and writing) clear enough to be understood —- She was so upset when she  spoke that she was hardly intelligible.
Intelligent = wise & sensible —- She’s obviously very intelligent, but her lectures are difficult  to  follow. 

101. Incredible = impossible, or very difficult, to believe —- Hemant scored an incredible goal in the  match.
Incredulous = not wanting or not able to believe something, and usually showing this —- A few incredulous spectators watched on as Manindra, ranked 23rd in the worldbeat  the champion. 

102. Industrial = in or related to industry —- The fund provides money  to clean up  chemically  polluted  industrial  sites.
Industrious = hard working —- She’s extremely competent and industrious.

103. Ingenious = (of a person) clever, original, and inventive —- He was ingenious enough to overcome the limited budget.
Ingenuous = honest, sincere, and trusting, sometimes in a way that seems silly —- It has to be said it was rather ingenuous of him to ask a complete stranger to take care of his luggage. 

104. Intense = extreme and forceful or (of a feeling) very strong —- He suddenly felt an intense pain in his back.
Intensive =  involving a lot of effort or activity in a short  period of time —- Intensive bombing  had  reduced the city to rubble.

105. Imaginary = something that is imaginary is created by and exists only in the mind —- As a child I had an imaginary friend.
Imaginative = new, original, and clever —- The architects have made imaginative use of glass and  transparent plastic. 

106. Invent = to design and/or create something that has never been made before —- The phonograph was invented by Thomas Edison.
Discover =to find something for the first time which nobody was aware of —- The discovery of oil brought many benefits to the town.

107. Immoral = morally wrong, or outside society’s standards of acceptable, honest, and moral behaviour —- It’s an immoral tax, because the poor will pay relatively more.
Amoral = without moral principles —- Humans, he argues, are amoral and what guides them is not any sense of morality but an instinct for survival.

108. Illegal = not allowed by law —- It is illegal to drive car  that is not registered and insured.
Illicit = if a thing is illicit it is done by someone who knows that it is disallowed by law but that under different circumstances it could be legal —- The crew were involved in the illicit import of brandy.

109. Inept = incompetent; not skilled or effective —- He was  criticized for his inept handling of the  situation.
Inapt = not suitable for the situation —- His comments  were perhaps inapt.

110. Incidental = less important than the thing something is connected with or part of —- The  points you make are true, but they’re incidental to the main problem.
Accidental = happening by chance —- Our meeting  wasn’t planned – it was completely accidental. 

111. Jealous = unhappy and angry because someone has something that you want —- He had always been very jealous of his brother’s good looks.
Envious = wishing you had what another person has —- I’m very envious of your new coat – it’s  beautiful.

112. Judicious = wise, thoughtful —- We should make judicious use of the resources available to us.
Judicial = involving a law court —- He might bring judicial proceedings against you.

113. Kind = generous, helpful, and thinking about other people’s feelings —- She’s a very kind and  thoughtful person.
Kindly = in a kind way —- Suchi has very kindly  offered  to help out with the food for the party. 

114. Lightning = a flash of bright light in the sky that is produced by electricity moving between clouds or from clouds to the ground —- That tree was struck by lightning.
Lightening = Lightening is the present participle of the verb ‘to lighten’, and refers to the process of making something lighter in colour. Lightening is the opposite of darkening, or making something darker —- He’s lightening the room by painting it white.
Lighting = the arrangement of lights used in a room,  house, theatre, etc. —- Lighting designers also work for months before a show.

115. Luxurious = very comfortable and expensive —- We spent a luxurious weekend at a country hotel.
Luxuriant = pleasantly thick or full —- We’ve bought  a wonderfully  luxuriant  carpet  for our  bedroom.

116. Loathe = to hate someone or something —- From an early  age the brothers have loathed each other.
Loath = to be unwilling —- I’m loath to spend it all at once.

117. Limit – the greatest amount, number, or level of something that is either possible or allowed —- We     set a time  limit of 30  minutes for the test.
Limitation = a limiting condition; restrictive weakness; lack of capacity; inability or handicap —- He knows his  limitations as a writer.

118. Loud = producing or capable of producing much noise —- They were kept awake by loud music.
Loudly = in a loud manner; making a lot of noise —- She spoke  very loudly.
Aloud = in a voice loud enough to be heard —- He read her letter aloud to the rest of the family.

119. Learned =a learned person has studied for a long time and has a lot of knowledge —- The learned  professor can speak knowledgeably on a wide array of subjects.
Learnt = both learnt and learned are the third forms of the verb learn —- We learned the news at about three o’clock. They  learnt the train times by heart.

120. Literal = The literal meaning of a word is its original, basic meaning —- The literal meaning of ‘television’ is ‘seeing from a distance’.
Literary = connected with literature —- Her novels are   packed with literary allusions.

121. Light = to produce light that makes an objector area bright or easy to see —- The stage had been lit with candles.
Burn = to be hurt, damaged, or destroyed by fire or extreme heat, or to cause this to happen —- She burned his old love letters.

122. Loose = not tight; not firmly held or fastened in place —- There were some loose wires hanging out of the wall.
Lose = to fail to succeed in a game, competition, etc. —- If we lose this game, we’re out of the  championship.
Loss = the fact that you no longer have something or have less of something —- He suffered a gradual loss of memory.

123. Lovely = pleasant or enjoyable —- We spent a lovely week by the sea this year.
Lovable = worthy of love; having qualities that make a person or animal easy to love —- He is a naughty but lovable child. 

124. Maze = a complicated system of paths or passages that people try to find their way through for entertainment​ —- The old part of the town was a maze of narrow passages.
Maize = a kind of corn; a tall plant grown in many parts of the world for its yellow seeds, which are eaten as food, made into flour, or fed to animals —- The villagers grow coffee and maize to sell in the market.

125. Memorable = likely to be remembered or worth remembering —- I haven’t seen them since that memorable evening when the boat capsized.
Memorial = an object, often large and made of stone, that has been built to honour a famous person  or event —- The  statue  was erected as a memorial to those who died in the war.
Immemorial = existing or traditional for an extremely long time —- She said it was the immemorial  custom of the villagers to have a feast after the harvesting.

126. Momentary = short lived —- He experienced a momentary loss of consciousness.
Momentous = very important because of effects on future events —- Whether or not to move  overseas was a momentous decision for the family.

127. Morale = the amount of confidence felt by a person or group of people —- couple of victories  would improve the team’s morale enormously.
Moral = relating to the standards of good or bad behaviour, fairness, honesty, etc. that each  person  believes in, rather than to laws —- It’s her moral obligation to tell the police what she knows.

128. Maritime = connected with human activity at sea —- Make sure you visit the maritime museum if you’re interested in anything to do with ships or seafaring.
Marine = related to the sea or sea transport —- The oil  slick  seriously threatens marine life around the islands.

129. Metal = a chemical element, such as iron or gold, or a mixture of such elements, such as steel, that is generally hard and strong —- Silver, gold, and platinum are precious metals.
Mettle = ability and determination when competing or doing something difficult —- The team showed its mettle in the final round.

130. Minor = (1) having little importance, influence, or effect, especially when compared with other things of the same type —- She suffered only minor injuries. (2) someone who is too young to have the  legal  responsibilities of an adult —- He was accused of having sex with a minor.
Miner = a person who works in a mine —- The miners went on strike to try to save jobs. 

131. Negligible = unimportant —- The difference between the two products is negligible.
Negligent/Neglectful = not being careful or giving enough attention to people or things that are your responsibility —- The judge said that the teacher had been negligent in  allowing  the  children to  swim in dangerous water.

132. Notable = important and deserving attention, because of being very good or interesting —- He was  credited with making a notable contribution to the peace process.
Noticeable = easy to see or recognize —- There has been a noticeable improvement in Pooja’s  cooking.

133. Naval = belonging to a country’s navy, or relating to military ships —- The smugglers were picked up by a naval vessel.
Navel = the small round part in the middle of the stomach —- You were not supposed to show your navel on television.

134. Notorious = known for something bad —- The company is notorious for paying its bills late.
Famous = known and recognized by many people —- I’m going to be a famous pop star when I’m  older.
Eminent = (of a person) famous and respected within a particular sphere —- According to my mother four eminent doctors were consulted. 

135. Observance = the act of obeying a law or following a religious custom —- The observance of this family tradition would make your grandmother very happy.
Observation = the action or process of closely observing or monitoring something or someone —- She was brought into hospital for observation.

136. Ordinance = a law or rule made by a government or authority —- A city ordinance forbids the  parking of cars in this area.
Ordnance = military supplies, especially weapons and bomb —- The army is waiting for the heavy  ordnance to be brought in.

137. Official = relating to a position of responsibility —- There is to be an official inquiry into the  incident.
Officious = too eager to tell people what to do and having too high an opinion of your own importance  —- He’s an officious little man and widely disliked in the company. 

138. Pale = (1) A pale light or colour is not bright or strong —- She wore a pale blue hat. (2) used to describe a person’s face or skin if it has less colour than usual, for example when the person is ill or frightened, or if it has less colour than people generally have —- You’re looking pale – are you  feeling well?
Pail = a bucket —- It took several pails of water to put out the fire. 

139. Petrol = a liquid obtained from petroleum, used especially as a fuel for cars and other vehicles —- We  stopped at the services to get petrol.
Patrol = (especially of soldiers or the police) to go around an area or a building to see if there is any trouble or danger —- The whole town is patrolled by police because of the possibility of riots.

140. Practical = not theoretical; relating to experience, real situations, or actions rather than ideas or  imagination —- What’s the use of theoretical knowledge that has no practical application?
Practicable = able to be done or put into action —- It is not practicable to complete  the tunnel  before the end of the year. 

141. Peel = to remove the skin of fruit and vegetables —- I was peeling potatoes in the kitchen when he called.
Peal = When bells peal, they ring with a loud sound —- After their wedding, the bells pealed  out  from the tower.

142. Popular = liked or admired by many people or by a particular person or group —- She was one of the most popular girls in the school.
Populous = A populous country, area, or place has a lot of people living in it —- China is the world’s most populous country.

143. Pair = two things of the same appearance and size that are intended to be used together, or something that consists of two parts joined together —- He packed two pairs of trousers and four shirts.
Pare = to cut away the outer layer from something, especially a fruit or a vegetable —- He was busy  paring apples in the kitchen.

144. Pane = a flat piece of glass, used in a window or door —- Panes are almost always made of glass.
Pain = a feeling of physical suffering caused by injury or illness —- These tablets should  help to ease  the  pain.
Pains = to make a lot of effort to do something —- I went to great pains to select the best staff available.

145. Personal = relating or belonging to a single or particular person rather than to a group or an organization —- Her uncle takes a personal interest in her progress.
Personnel = the people who are employed in a company, organization, or one of the armed forces —- The new director is likely to make major changes in personnel. 

146. Politic = (of an action) seeming sensible and judicious in the circumstances —- I did not think it politic to express my reservations.
Political = of politics —- His political career ended when he was found to have been accepting  bribes. 

147. Physique = the shape and sizeof a human body —- He has a very powerfulmuscular physique.
Physic = medicinal drugs —- His servant deals in physic.

148. Prey = an animal that is hunted and killed for food by another animal —- hawk hovered in the air  before swooping on its prey.
Pray = to speak to a god either privately or in a religious ceremony  in order to express love,  admiration, or thanks or in order to ask for something —- We’ve been praying to God that your son  will make a complete recovery.

149. Pitiable = deserving pity —- The condition of students waiting for their exams is pitiable.
Pitiful = making people feel sympathy —- The refugees  arriving at the camp had pitiful stories  to  tell.

150. Pedal = a small part of a machine or object that is pushed down with the foot to  operate or move the machine or object —- This sewing machine is operated by a foot pedal.
Peddle = to sell things, especially by taking them to different places —- These products are  generally peddled from door to door.

151. Pore = a very small hole in the skin of people or other animals, or a similar hole on the surface of plants or rocks —- Sweat passes through the pores and cools the body down.
Pour = (1) to make a substance flow from a container, especially into another container, by raising just one side of the  container that the substance is in —- spilled the juice while I was pouring it. (2) to flow quickly and in large amounts —- The bus was pouring out thick black exhaust  fumes. The  government has been pouring money into inefficient state-owned industries, and the country can no longer afford it.

152. Practice (noun) = something that is usually or regularly done, often as a habit, tradition, or custom —- This is a cruel practice that should be banned immediately.
Practise (verb) = to do or play something regularly or repeatedly in order to become skilled at it —- I’m    quite good at tennis but I need to practise my serve.

153. Proceed = to continue as planned —- His lawyers have  decided not to proceed with the case.
Precede = to come or happen before —- The attacks were preceded by a period of unrest in the capital city.

154. Principal = (1) first in order of importance —- He can’t give up teaching, it’s his principal source of income. (2) the person in charge of a school/college —- The Principal of the school has not arrived yet.
Principle = a rule or theory which explains how something is or works; or ‘a moral rule or guideline —- He seems to have no principles at all, and is only interested in money.

155. Quite = making very little noise or having little activity or excitement —- It’s a very quiet, peaceful village and we love living there.
Quiet = a little or a lot, but not completely —- I’ve been quite busy this week. I hope things are not so busy next week. 

156. Rout = to defeat an opponent completely —- The Russian chess team routed all the rest.
Route = a particular way or direction between places —- live on a bus route so I can easily get to work. 

157. Ride = to sit on something such as a bicycle, motorbike (two-wheeler), or horse and travel along on it controlling its movements —- learned to ride a bike when I was six. The hunters came riding  past on their horses. (2) to travel in a vehicle, such as a car, bus, or train —- He doesn’t have a car so he rides to work on the bus.
Drive = to move or travel on land in a motor vehicle (four wheeler), especially as the person controlling the vehicle’s movement —- She drives a red sports car.

158. Righteous = morally correct —- He was regarded as a righteous and holy man.
Rightful = having a legitimate right to property, position, or status —- Don’t forget that I am the rightful owner of this house.

159. Reign = to be the king or queen of a country —- Queen Victoria reigned over Britain from 1837 to 1901.
Rein = a long, thin piece of material, especially leather, that helps you to control and direct a horse —- You pull on both reins to stop or slow a horse, but only the left rein to turn left. 

160. Respectable = enjoying respect —- She is a respectable young woman from a good family.
Respectful = showing respect —- “We’re so pleased to meet you at last,” he said in a respectful  tone  of voice.

161. Regrettable = causing regret, undesirable —- It was a regrettable mistake.
Regretful = feeling sorry —- She came quickly to him without speaking, and  gave him her  regretful answer silently.

162. Rise (intransitive) = move from a lower position to a higher one; come or go up —- The tiny aircraft rose from the ground.
Raise (transitive) = lift or move to a higher position or level —- She raised both arms above her head. 

163. Sensual = marked by the appetites and passions of the body —- They think the movie is too sensual for young viewers.
Sensuous = of or relating to the five senses —- She luxuriated in the sensuous feel of the silk sheets. 

164. Septic = (chiefly of a wound or a part of the body) infected with bacteria —- I had my ears pierced and one of them went septic.
Sceptic = a person who doubts the truth or value of an idea or belief —- People say it can cure colds, but I’m a bit of a sceptic.

165. Soar = (1) to rise very quickly to a high level —- Temperatures will soar over the weekend, say the  weather forecasters. (2) (of a bird or aircraft) to rise high in the air while flying without  moving  the wings or using power —- She watched the gliders soaring effortlessly above her.
Sore = (of a part of one’s body) painful or aching —- She had a sore throat.
Sour = having a sharp, sometimes unpleasant, taste or smell, like a lemon, and not sweet —- These  apples are a bit sour. 

166. Storey = a level of a building —- My bedroom is on the third storey.
Story = a tale; a description, either true or imagined, of a connected series of events —- He writes  children’s stories.

167. Suspect = have an idea or impression of the existence, presence, or truth of something without certain proof —- If you suspect a gas leak, do not turn on an electric light.
Doubt = (a feeling of) not being certain about something, especially about how good or true it is —- I’m having doubts about his ability to do the job.

168. Sociable = Sociable people like to meet and spend time with other people —- Richa’s very sociable – she likes parties.
Social = pertaining to society —- I had an active social life when I was at college.

169. Shear = (1) to cut the wool off a sheep —- The farmer taught her how to shear sheep. (2) to cut the  hair on a person’s head close to the skin, especially without care —- He recalled the humiliation of having his hair shorn and exchanging his clothes for the prison uniform.
Sheer = used to emphasize how very great, important, or powerful a quality or feeling is; nothing except —- It was sheer chance that we met.

170. Spiritual =  relating to deep feelings and beliefs, especially religious beliefs —- He views his life as a spiritual journey towards a greater understanding of his faith.
Spirituous = containing or of the nature of alcohol —- To him spirituous liquor is a superfluous and dangerous luxury.

171. Stationery = the things needed for writing, such as paper, pens, pencils, and envelopes —- The department has urged learners to use books and stationery from last year until new materials are delivered.
Stationary = not moving, or not changing —- The traffic got slower and slower until it was stationary.  

172. Suit = a set of clothes or a piece of clothing to be worn in a particular situation or while doing a particular activity —- He was dressed in a dark grey suit.
Suite = a set of connected rooms, especially in a hotel —- The singer was interviewed in his hotel  suite.

173. See = perceive with the eyes —- In the distance she could see the blue sea.
Look = to direct the eyes in order to see —- People were looking at him.
Watch = to look at something for a period of time, especially something that is changing or moving —- He spent the entire afternoon watching a cricket match.

174. Stare = to look for a longtime with the eyes wide open —- Don’t stare at people like that, it’s rude.
Peep = to secretly look at something for a short time, usually through a hole —- saw her peeping  through the curtains into the room. 

175. Toe = any of the five separate parts at the end of the foot —- He cut his big toe on a sharp stone.
Tow = to pull a car, boat, etc. along, fastened behind another vehicle or boat —- The road was closed  while the vehicles that had been involved in the accident were towed away/off. The damaged  boat  was towed to safety.

176. Tolerable = of a quality that is acceptable —- At their best the conditions in these prisons are  barely  tolerable.
Tolerant = able to deal with something unpleasant or annoying, or to continue existing despite bad or difficult conditions —- think men are less tolerant of stress than women.

177. Temporal =  relating to practical matters or physical things, rather than spiritual ones —- Queen  Elizabeth II  is the temporal head of the Church of England.
Temporary = not lasting or needed for very long —- The ceasefire will only provide a temporary  solution to the crisis.

178. Tamper = interfere with something in order to cause damage or make unauthorized alterations —- Someone tampered with the brakes of my car.
Temper = a person’s state of mind seen in terms of their being angry or calm —- He rushed out in a very bad temper.

179. Teem = be full of or swarming with —- Every garden is teeming with wildlife.
Team = a number of people or animals who do something together as a group —- She’s part of a team of scientists who are engaged on cancer research.

180. Topical = of interest at the present time; relating to things that are happening at present —- The  discussion focused on topical issues in medicine.
Tropical = from or relating to the area between the two tropics —- Leprosy is one of the few tropical  diseases which could soon be eradicated.

181. Uninterested = not interested in or concerned about something or someone —- I was totally  uninterested in toys.
Disinterested = not influenced by considerations of personal advantage —- A banker is under an obligation to give disinterested advice. 

182. Vocation = a strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation —- Most teachers regard their profession as a vocation, not just a job.
Vacation = a time when someone does not go to work or school but is free to do what they want, such as travel or relax —- I’ve still got some vacation time left before the end of the year.

183. Variation = a change in amount or level —- The medical tests showed some variation in the baby’s  heart rate.
Variance = the fact that two or more things are different, or the amount or number by which they are different —- There has been some unusual variance in temperature this month.

184. Vassal = a slave —- During World War II, Poland was a vassal of Germany.
Vessel = (1) a large boat or a ship —- warning went out to fishing vessels in the region. (2) a  curved  container that is used to hold liquid —- The remains of some Roman earthenware vessels were found  during the dig.

185. Virtuous = having good moral qualities and behaviour —- He described them as virtuous and hard-working people.
Virtual = particular thing or quality —- Fighting and shortages have brought normal life to a virtual  standstill in the city.

186. Vain = unsuccessful; of no value —- The doctors gave him more powerful drugs in the vain hope  that he might recover.
Vein = a tube that carries blood to the heart from the other parts of the body​ —- The function of the veins is to carry blood to the heart.

187. Veil = a piece of thin material worn by women to cover the face or head —- After the ceremony, the  bride lifted up her veil to kiss her husband.
Wail = to make a long, high cry, usually because of pain or sadness —- The women gathered around the coffin and began to wail, as was the custom in the region. 

188. Wave = (1) move one’s hand to and fro in greeting or as a signal —- He waved to me from the train. (2) a raised line of water that moves across the surface of an area of water, especially the sea —- At  night, I listened to the sound of the waves crashing against the shore.
Waive = to not demand something you have a right to, or not cause a rule to be obeyed —- If they waive the time limit, many more applications will come in.

189. Wither = to become weak and dry and decay —- Grass had withered in the fields.
Whither = to where —- Whither are they going?

190. Willing = be willing (to do sth) —- They need an assistant who is willing to stay for six months.
Willful = (of something bad) done intentionally —- The present crisis is the result of years of willful  neglect by the council.

191. Weather = the conditions in the air above the earth such as wind, rain, or temperature, especially at a particular time over a particular area —- The weather in the mountains can change very quickly, so take appropriate clothing.
Whether = expressing a doubt or choice between alternatives —- He seemed undecided whether to go or stay. 

192. Wrest = snatch by force; to violently pull something away from someone —- He wrested the letter  from my grasp.
Rest = stop doing a particular activity or stop being active for a period of time in order to relax and get back your strength —- The doctor told him that he should rest for a few days.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book


For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book


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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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