ENGLISHEnglish Vocabulary

Deny, Decline, Refuse, Refrain (Explained in Hindi & English)

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Deny, Decline, Refuse और Refrain का प्रयोग कैसे किया जाता है (Explained in Hindi)

1. Deny

A) Deny = ये कहना कि कोई बात सत्य नहीं है; जैसे

a) The accused denied all the charges made against him.
b) She denied that she was involved.
c) Suman denied doing anything illegal.

NOTE-I: ‘Deny’के साथ या तो कोई object आता है, या एक that-clause, या फिर gerund (ing form); जैसे

a) He denied it.
b) He denied that he forged the signature.
c) He denied having forged the signature.

INCORRECT: He accused her of stealing but she denied.
CORRECT: He accused her of stealing, but she denied it.

NOTE-II: जब किसी कार्य को करने से इन्कार किया जाता है तो verb ‘refuse’ का use किया जाता है; verb ‘deny’ का नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: I asked one of my friends to give me his bike for a few minutes, but he denied.
CORRECT: I asked one of my friends to give me his bike for a few minutes, but he refused.

INCORRECT: When I denied to bring bread from the refrigerator, I was beaten my brother.
CORRECT: When I refused to bring bread from the refrigerator, I was beaten my brother.

B) Deny = किसी व्यक्ति को कुछ लेने से इन्कार करना या कुछ करने के लिए इन्कार करना; जैसे

a) I have denied my wife access to my mobile phone.
b) Don’t deny yourself pleasure.
c) Her request for a leave was denied by her employer.
d) No one should be denied a good education.

C) Deny = ये नहीं मानना कि आपको किसी बात का पता है (knowledge), आपकी किसी बात की कोई जिम्मेदारी (responsibility) है अथवा किसी बात की कोई अनुभूति (feelings), आदि; जैसे

a) He denied all responsibility for the failure of the plan.
b) Even under torture, he refused to deny his beliefs.

2. Refuse

किसी बात को मानने अथवा करने से दृढ़तापूर्वक इन्कार करना; जैसे

a) He refused to accept their advice.
b) She will not refuse if you ask her to go to the bank.

NOTE: यदि हम किसी विचार (idea) अथवा मान्यता (belief) से सहमत नहीं हैं तो verb ‘refuse’ का use नहीं होता बल्कि verb ‘reject’ का use होता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: Some people refuse the idea of a mixed economy.
CORRECT: Some people reject the idea of a mixed economy.

INCORRECT: I cannot refuse my family’s religious beliefs.
CORRECT: I cannot reject my family’s religious beliefs.

3. Decline

A) किसी बात को मानने अथवा करने से नम्रतापूर्वक इन्कार करना; जैसे

a) She declined the ice-cream.
b) The authorities declined to comment.
c) Richa declined my invitation to tea.
d) They declined to tell me how they had obtained my address.
e) Our application for a loan was declined by the bank.
f) His request for early retirement was declined by the director.

B) संख्या अथवा मात्रा में कम होना; खराब होना (become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease; deteriorate). इस अर्थ में verb ‘decline’ अकर्मक (intransitive) होती है; अर्थात इसके साथ कोई object use नहीं होता; जैसे

a) The birth rate continued to decline.
b) Ironically, tobacco consumption is not declining a bit in the city.
c) Tourism in the area has declined very sharply after 2010.

C) सूर्य का गिरना. इस अर्थ में भी verb ‘decline’ अकर्मक (intransitive) होती है; अर्थात इसके साथ कोई object use नहीं होता; जैसे

The sun begins to decline here sharply after 4 o’clock in the evening.

4. Refrain

किसी कार्य को नहीं करना; जैसे

a) We refrained from talking until we knew that it was safe.
b) The sign on the wall said “Please refrain from smoking.”

IMPORTANT
जैसा कि हम देख रहे हैं verb ‘refuse’ और ‘decline’ में कोई विशेष अंतर नहीं है; अंतर सिर्फ ये है कि verb  ‘refuse’ का use तब होता है जब हम दृढ़तापूर्वक इन्कार करते हैं जबकि verb  ‘decline’ का use तब होता है जब हम नम्रतापूर्वक इन्कार करते हैं.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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Deny, Decline, Refuse, Refrain (Explained in English)

1. Deny

A) Deny = to say that something is not true; e.g.

a) The accused denied all the charges made against him.
b) She denied that she was involved.
c) Suman denied doing anything illegal.

NOTE-I: ‘Deny’ must be followed by an object, a that-clause, or an -ing form; e.g.

a) He denied it.
b) He denied that he forged the signature.
c) He denied having forged the signature.

INCORRECT: He accused her of stealing but she denied.
CORRECT: He accused her of stealing, but she denied it.

NOTE-II: However, if someone is not ready to do something we don’t use the verb ‘deny’, rather we say ‘refuse’; e.g.

INCORRECT: I asked one of my friends to give me his bike for a few minutes, but he denied.
CORRECT: I asked one of my friends to give me his bike for a few minutes, but he refused.

INCORRECT: When I denied to bring bread from the refrigerator, I was beaten my brother.
CORRECT: When I refused to bring bread from the refrigerator, I was beaten my brother.

B) Deny = to not allow someone to have something or do something; e.g.

a) I have denied my wife access to my mobile phone.
b) Don’t deny yourself pleasure.
c) Her request for a leave was denied by her employer.
d) No one should be denied a good education.

C) Deny = not to admit that you have knowledge, responsibility, feelings, etc.; e.g.

a) He denied all responsibility for the failure of the plan.
b) Even under torture, he refused to deny his beliefs.

2. Refuse

To say that you will not do or accept something. If you refuse to do something, you say firmly that you will not do it, e.g.

a) He refused to accept their advice.
b) She will not refuse if you ask her to go to the bank.

NOTE: If we do not agree with an idea or belief, we do not use the verb ‘refuse’. We say that we ‘reject’ it; e.g.

INCORRECT: Some people refuse the idea of a mixed economy.
CORRECT: Some people reject the idea of a mixed economy.

INCORRECT: I cannot refuse my family’s religious beliefs.
CORRECT: I cannot reject my family’s religious beliefs.

3. Decline

A) To refuse politely to accept or to do something; e.g.

a) She declined the ice-cream.
b) The authorities declined to comment.
c) Richa declined my invitation to tea.
d) They declined to tell me how they had obtained my address.
e) Our application for a loan was declined by the bank.
f) His request for early retirement was declined by the director.

B) Become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease; deteriorate. In this meaning ‘decline’ does not have an object; e.g.

a) The birth rate continued to decline.
b) Ironically, tobacco consumption is not declining a bit in the city.
c) Tourism in the area has declined very sharply after 2010.

C) Move downwards, especially of the sun. In this meaning also the verb ‘decline’ has no object; e.g.

The sun begins to decline here sharply after 4 o’clock in the evening.

4. Refrain

To avoid doing or stop yourself from doing something; e.g.

a) We refrained from talking until we knew that it was safe.
b) The sign on the wall said “Please refrain from smoking.”

IMPORTANT
We see that there is not much difference between ‘refuse’ and ‘decline’ when they mean ‘to refuse’. However when we refuse something politely we use ‘decline’, otherwise ‘refuse’. In offers and invitations the verb ‘decline’ is used (not ‘refuse’).

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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