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DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

1. Indirect Speech में समय की अभिव्यक्तियों (time expressions) में परिवर्तन कैसे होता है 

now  then
today  that day
tonight  that night
yesterday  the day before or the previous day
the day before yesterday  two days before
tomorrow ‘the next day’ or ‘the following day’
the day after tomorrow  in two days’ time or ‘two days later’
next week The next week/the following week
last week ‘the week before’ or ‘the previous week’
ago before
a week ago a week before or the previous week
hence thence
come go (COME हमेशा GO में नहीं बदलता; ये देखना होता कि बिना change किये वाक्य उचित sense दे रहा है कि change होने के बाद.)
so far till then

समय की अभिव्यक्तियों (time expressions) में ये परिवर्तन निम्न दो तरह से होता है:

A) ये परिवर्तन तभी होते है जब Reporting Verb किसी past tense में हो; यदि Reporting Verb किसी present अथवा future tense में होती है तो  ये परिवर्तन नहीं होते; जैसे 

a) “I saw her the day before yesterday,” he said.
= He said he had seen her two days before.

b) “I’ll do it tomorrow,” he promised.
= He promised that he would do it the next day/the following day.

c) “I’m starting the day after tomorrow, mother,” he said.
= He told his mother that he was starting in two days’ time.

d) She said, “My father had died a year ago.”
= She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

e) She says,” My father had died a year ago.”
= She says that her father had died a year ago.

(इस वाक्य की Reporting Verb (says) present tense में है; अतः time expression ‘a year ago’ में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं हुआ.)

f) She will say, ”My father had died a year ago.”
= She will say that her father had died a year ago.

(इस वाक्य की Reporting Verb (will say) future  tense में है; अतः time expression ‘a year ago’ में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं हुआ)

B) Indirect Speech यदि उसी दिन की गयी है जिस दिन Direct Speech की गयी थी तो ये परिवर्तन नहीं होते; चाहे Reporting Verb का tense past tense ही क्यों न हो; जैसे 

At the breakfast this morning he said, “I’ll be very busy today.”
= At the breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

Esha said today, “I am leaving Pune tonight.”
= Esha said today that she was leaving Pune tonight.

2. ‘This’ और ‘these’ के Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन के नियम

‘This’ और ‘these’ का use adjectives के रूप में भी होता है और pronouns के रूप में भी

A) ‘This’ और ‘these’ जब adjectives के रूप में use होते हैं:

जब Reporting Verb past tense में हो तो समय की अभिव्यक्तियों (time expressions) में ‘this’ का ‘that’ और ‘these’ का परिवर्तन ‘those’ में हो जाता है; जैसे 

He said, “She is coming this week.”
= He said that she was coming that week.

NOTE: लेकिन जब Reporting Verb present अथवा future tense में होती है तो ‘this’ और ‘these’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता. Reporting Verb जब past tense में होती है तो समय की अभिव्यक्तियों (time expressions) को छोड़कर बाकी सभी में ये दोनों आमतौर पर ‘the’ में बदल जाते हैं; जैसे

He says, “She is coming this week.” [इस वाक्य की Reporting Verb ‘says’ present tense में है.]
= She says that she is coming this week.

He said, “I bought these pearls for my mother.” [इस वाक्य की Reporting Verb ‘said’ past tense में है.]
= He said that he had bought the pearls for his mother.

B) ‘This’, ‘that’, ‘these’, और ‘those’ जब pronouns के रूप में use होते हैं:

‘This’ और ‘that’ जब pronouns के रूप में use होते हैं तो ये दोनों ‘it’ में बदल जाते हैं; और ‘these’ और ‘those’ जब  pronouns के रूप में use होते हैं तो ये दोनों ‘they/them’ में बदल जाते हैं; e.g.

He showed me two bullets and said, “I found these embedded in the paneling.”
= He showed me two bullets and said he had found them embedded in the paneling.

He said, “We will discuss this tomorrow.”
= He said that they would discuss it the next day.

C) When ‘this’ and ‘these’ are used to indicate choice

जब ‘this’ अथवा ‘these’ का use किसी विकल्प (choice) को बताने के लिए किया जाता है तो ‘this’ का परिवर्तन ‘the one near’ में और ‘these’ का परिवर्तन ‘the ones near’ में किया जाता है; अथवा फिर पूरे वाक्य को अलग तरह से लिख के किया जाता है; जैसे

“I’ll have this,” he said to me.
= He said he would have the one near him.
OR He pointed to/touched/showed/ me the one he wanted.

3. शब्द ‘here’ के Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन के नियम 

यदि Reporting Verb past tense में होती है तो ‘here’ का परिवर्तन ‘there’ में होता है; लेकिन ये तभी होता है जब वाक्य से स्थान का उल्लेख स्पष्ट रूप से होता हो; जैसे

At the station he said, “I’ll be here again tomorrow.”
= He said that he’d be there again the next day.

He said, “Come here, boys.”
= He called the boys.

4. Indirect Speech के वाक्य में यदि ‘that’ का use conjunction के रूप में हो तो उसके use के नियम 

Indirect Speech में Reporting Verb ‘Say’ और ‘tell + object’ के साथ हम conjunction ‘that’ का use चाहे करें चाहे न करें हमारी मर्जी होती है; परन्तु अन्य verbs जैसे कि complain, explain, object, point out, protest, आदि के साथ इसका use आवश्यक होता है; जैसे

I said to my sister, “I brought you a doll yesterday.”
= I told my sister that I had brought her a doll the previous day.
= I told my sister I had brought her a doll the previous day.

He said, “The teacher usually does not ask any question.”
= He said that the teacher usually does not ask any question.
= He said the teacher usually does not ask any question.

“Father”, said son, “The teacher said to me, you are a naughty boy.”
= Son told his father that the teacher had told him that he was a naughty boy.
= Son told his father the teacher had told him that he was a naughty boy.

5. Indirect Speech में Personal Pronouns और Possessive Adjectives को बदलने के नियम 

1. 1st Person according to the subject of the Reporting Clause
2. 2nd Person according to the object of the Reporting Clause (If the object is not given pronouns of 2nd person change according to the requirement.)
3. 3rd Person do not change

a) He said to them, “I shall pay your wages tomorrow.”
= He told them that he would pay their wages the next day.

[Personal Pronoun ‘I’ first person में है, और Reporting Clause का subject ‘he’ है. इसलिए ‘I’ को ‘he’ में बदला गया है. Possessive Adjective ‘your’ second person में है और Reporting Clause का object ‘them’. इसलिए ‘your’ को ‘their’ में बदला गया है.]

b) She said to him, “I can give you my book.”
= She told him that she could give him her book.

[Personal Pronoun ‘I’ first person में है, और Reporting Clause का subject ‘she’ है. इसलिए ‘I’ को ‘she’ में बदला गया है. Possessive Adjective ‘my’ first person में है और Reporting Clause का object ‘him’. इसलिए ‘my’ को ‘her’ में बदला गया है.]

c) Mohan  said to me, “She alone can save her.”
= Mohan told me that she alone could save her.

[Personal Pronoun ‘she’ third person में है, इसलिए इसको बदला नहीं गया है. इसी प्रकार Possessive Adjective ‘her’ भी third person में है और इसको बदला नहीं गया है.]

NOTE-I: यदि pronoun WE का use किसी सार्वभौमिक सत्य (universal truth) के subject के रूप में हुआ हो तो इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं होता, चाहे Reporting Verb का tense जो भी हो; जैसे 

They said, “We cannot live without air.”
= They said that we cannot live without air.

The teacher said, “We all are sinners.”
= The teacher said that we all are sinners.

The saint said, “We are mortals.”
= The saint said that we are mortals.

NOTE-II: Reporting Verb का object ‘me’ जब Reported Speech के subject का हिस्सा हो; जैसे

She said to me, “We are to leave for temple early.”
= She told me that we were to leave for temple early.

NOTE-III: यदि plural pronouns जैसे कि we/our/us का use किसी newspaper, magazine, आदि के लिए हुआ हो तो ये pronouns ‘it/its’ में बदलती हैं; जैसे

The Times of India says, “We are trying our best to keep you well informed.”
= The Times of India says that it is trying its best to keep us well informed.

The Pioneer said, “We are not responsible for any error.”
= The Pioneer said that it was not responsible for any error.

6. आदरसूचक और स्नेह्सूचक शब्दों का Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन 

आदरसूचक शब्दों जैसे कि ‘sir’, ‘dear sir’, ‘madam’, ‘my lord’, ‘your honour’, आदि को ‘respectfully’; और स्नेह्सूचक शब्दों जैसे कि ‘dear’, ‘my love’ ‘darling’, आदि को ‘affectionately/lovingly’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

He said to his boss, “Have you finished writing that article, dear Madam?
= He asked his landlord respectfully if she had finished writing that letter.

She said, “Would you wait half an hour, dear?
= She asked lovingly/affectionately if I would wait half an hour.

7. ‘Well’, ‘you see’, ‘okay’, ‘you know’, ‘therefore’, ‘so’, ‘yet’, ‘but’ आदि जैसे words/phrases जो कुछ कहने की शुरुआत करने के लिए कहे जाते हैं 

वाक्य को Indirect Speech में बदलते समय ऐसे words/phrases को use नहीं किया जाता है; जैसे

She said, “well, I shall accompany you.”
= She told me that she would accompany me.

She said, “you see, you cannot meet the boss.
= She told me that I could not meet the boss.

8.  Reporting Verb ‘say’ और ‘tell’ का शुद्ध रूप में Indirect Speech में प्रयोग 

A) Indirect Speech के वाक्यों में Reporting Verb को हम आमतौर पर ‘say/tell + object’ के रूप में use करते हैं; लेकिन ‘say to + object’ भी शुद्ध होता है; जैसे

He said, “I just heard the news.”
= He said that he had just heard the news.
= He told me that he had just heard the news.
= He said to me that he had just heard the news.

B) हालाँकि verb ‘tell’ के साथ object के रूप में किसी person का ही use किया जाता है; लेकिन ‘tell lies’, ‘tell the truth’, ‘tell story’ के use में person वाले object का उल्लेख करना आवश्यक नहीं होता; जैसे

HE told me a lie.
= He told a lie.

I’ll tell you a story.
= I’ll tell a story.

9. Indirect Speech में tenses को बदलने से सम्बधित नियम 

Indirect Speech के tense में बदलाव तभी होता है जब Reporting Verb का tense कोई past tense हो; लेकिन जब Reporting Verb का tense यदि कोई present अथवा future tense हो तो Indirect Speech के tense में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता. परन्तु हाँ यदि Direct Speech के वाक्य में जब कोई सार्वभौमिक सत्य (universal truth), कहावत (proverb) अथवा ऐतिहासिक घटना (historical fact) हो तो Indirect Speech के tense में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता भले ही Reporting Verb का tense कोई past tense क्यों न हो.

देखते हैं tenses में बदलाव कैसे होता है:

A) PRESENT TENSES

Present tenses निम्नलिकित प्रकार से बदलते हैं:

i) Present Simple Past Simple
ii) Present Continuous Past Continuous
iii) Present Perfect Past Perfect
iv) Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

He said, “The Sun rises in the East.” [सार्वभौमिक सत्य (universal truth)]
= He said that the Sun rises in the East.

B) PAST TENSES

Past tenses निम्नलिकित प्रकार से बदलते हैं:

i) Past Simple Past Perfect
ii) Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
iii) Past Perfect Tense और Past Perfect Continuous Tense ये दोनों ही tense नहीं बदलते

Past tenses के कुछ और बदलाव:

i) जब Past Simple Tense का use किसी नियमत आदत (regular habit), प्राकृतिक घटना (natural occurrence), ऐतिहासिक घटना (historical event) अथवा ऐसी स्थिति को बताता है जो Indirect Speech के करने के time पर भी विद्यमान हो तो tense में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

a) He said, “Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement.” (ऐतिहासिक घटना)
= He said that Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement.

b) Our teacher said, “Ashoka left war after the conquest of Kalinga.” (ऐतिहासिक घटना)
= Our teacher said Ashoka left war after the conquest of Kalinga.

c) He said, “I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.” (ऐसी स्थिति जो Indirect Speech के करने के time पर भी विद्यमान है.)
= He said that he had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

d) He said, “I had a dream last night.” (प्राकृतिक घटना)
= He said that he had a dream the previous night.”

ii) Direct Speech के वे clause जो किसी time का बोध कराते हैं (time clauses) उनमें यदि Past Simple Tense अथवा Past Continuous Tense हो तो वे नहीं बदलते. और जो दूसरा clause है (main clause) उसका tense हम या तो  Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते हैं या उसको नहीं बदलते; ये हमारी मर्जी पर निर्भर होता है; जैसे

a) He said, “When we were living in Mumbai we often saw Ramesh.”
= He said that when they were living in Mumbai they often saw Ramesh.
= He said that when they were living in Mumbai they had often seen Ramesh.

[इस वाक्य में ‘When we were living in Mumbai’ time का बोध कराने वाला clause (time clause) है; और ‘we often saw Ramesh’ main clause है.]

b) He said, “It was three hours since he had fallen asleep.”
= He said that it was three hours since he had fallen asleep.
= He said that it had been three hours since he had fallen asleep.

c) Jagdish said, “We passed by a beautiful lake when we went on a trip to Goa.”
= Jagdish said they passed by a beautiful lake when they went on a trip to Goa.
= Jagdish said they had passed by a beautiful lake when they went on a trip to Goa.

iii) Unreal past (subjunctive)

‘Wish’, ‘would rather’, would sooner, ‘It is time’ के बाद में प्रयुक्त किये गये अवास्तविक past tenses में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

a) “We wish we didn’t have to take exams,” said the children.
= The children said they wished they didn’t have to take exams.

b) “Raman wants to go alone“ said Reema, “but I’d rather he went with a group.”
= Reema said that Raman wanted to go alone but she’d rather he went with a group.

c) “It’s time we began planning our holidays,” he said.
= He said it was time they began planning their holidays.

iv) जब दो actions या अवस्थाएं (states) या तो Past Simple Tense या फिर Past Continuous Tense में एक साथ घटित होते हैं तो tenses में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

a) Mohan said, “I cleaned and Richa cooked.”
= Mohan said that he cleaned and Richa cooked.

b) “The spectators were cheering while we were playing.”, said the players.
= The players reported that the spectators were cheering while they were playing.

C) FUTURE TENSES

Future tenses निम्नलिकित प्रकार से बदलते हैं:

Future Simple Tense ‘Will और ‘shall’ दोनों ही ‘would’ में बदल जाते हैं.

NOTE-I: Indirect Speech के वाक्य का subject यदि Second Person अथवा Third Person की कोई   pronoun अर्थात ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, ‘they’ या ‘you’ हो तो modal verb ‘shall’ आमतौर पर हम ‘would’ में बदलते हैं; लेकिन यदि वह pronoun First Person की कोई pronoun अर्थात  ‘I’ या ‘we’ हो तो modal verb ‘shall’ को हम या तो ‘would’ में बदलते हैं या फिर ‘should’ में बदलते हैं.

इसी प्रकार, Indirect Speech के वाक्य का subject यदि Second Person अथवा Third Person की कोई   pronoun अर्थात ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, ‘they’ या ‘you’ हो तो modal verb ‘shall’ आमतौर पर हम ‘would’ में बदलते हैं; लेकिन यदि वह pronoun First Person की कोई pronoun अर्थात  ‘I’ या ‘we’ हो तो modal verb ‘should’ को हम या तो ‘would’ में बदलते हैं या फिर ‘would’ में; जैसे

a) “I shall be 21 tomorrow,” said Raman.
= Raman said he would be 21 the following day/the next day.

(इस वाक्य में हम ‘shall’ को ‘should’ में नहीं बदल सकते क्योंकि इसमें Indirect Speech के वाक्य का subject  Third Person की pronoun अर्थात HE है.)

b) “If I had the instruction manual I should know what to do,” said Mohan.
= Mohan said that if he had the instruction manual he would know to do.

(इस वाक्य में हमें ‘should’ को ‘would’ में बदलना पड़ेगा क्योंकि इसमें Indirect Speech के वाक्य का subject  Third Person की pronoun अर्थात HE है.)

c) I said, “I should like to see it.”
= I said I would/should like to see it.

(इस वाक्य में हमें ‘should’ को ‘would’ और ‘should’ दोनों में से किसी में बदल सकते हैं क्योंकि इसमें  Indirect Speech के वाक्य का subject  First Person की pronoun अर्थात ‘I’ है.)

NOTE-II: Modal verb ‘shall’ को जब offers अथवा requests, आदि के लिए use किया जाता है तो इसको ‘should’ में भी बदला जा सकता है और ‘would में भी; जैसे

He said, “Where shall I put this box?”
= He asked where he would/should put the box.

The mother said, “What will I do with so much money, my son!”
= The mother asked her son what she should do with so much money.

10.’Had better’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम 

Direct Speech का subject अगर ‘1st/3rd person + had better’ हो तो इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; और अगर ‘2nd person + had better’ हो तो इसको या तो ‘advise/warn + object + to-infinitive’ में बदल देते हैं या फिर इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं करते; जैसे

a) He said, “I’d better hurry.”
= He said that he’d better hurry.

(इस वाक्य की Direct Speech का subject ‘1st person + had better’ है; इसलिए इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं हुआ.)

b) The children had better go to bed early,” said Mohan.
= Mohan said that the children had better go to bed early.

(इस वाक्य की Direct Speech का subject  ‘3rd + had better’ है; इसलिए इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं हुआ.)

c) You’d better not drink the water,” she said.
= She said that I/We had better not drink the water.
= She advised/warned me/us not to drink the water.

(इस वाक्य की Direct Speech का subject  ‘2nd + had better’ है; इसलिए इसमें बदलाव कर भी सकते हैं और नहीं भी)

d) “What shall I do with this broken cup? Ritu asked. “You’d better throw it away.” said her mother.
= Ritu asked what she should do with the broken cup and her mother told her that she’d better throw it away.
= Ritu asked what she should do with the broken cup and her mother advised her to throw it away.

11. ‘Might‘ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

Modal verb ‘Might’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता बशर्ते कि ‘might’ का use किसी request के लिए न हुआ हो; जैसे

a) He said, “Aman might ring today.”
= He said that Aman might ring that day.

b) “You might post these for me,” he said.
= He asked/requested me to post them for him. (यह एक request की गयी है. — कृपया ये letter post कर दो.)

12. ‘Ought to’ और ‘should’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

ड्यूटी या सम्भावना (obligation or assumption) के लिए ‘Ought to’ और ‘should’ को नहीं बदला जाता; परन्तु यदि इनका प्रयोग कोई सलाह देने, चेतावनी देने, किसी को कुछ करने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करने अथवा कोई अनुरोध करने के लिए हुआ है तो इनको बिना किसी बदलाव के भी रहने दिया जा सकता है या इनको ‘advise + object + object + to-infinitive’ में बदला भी जा सकता है; जैसे

a) They ought to/should widen this road,” I said.
= I said they ought to/should widen this road.

(यह एक ड्यूटी (obligation) है; अतः इनमें कोई बदलाव नहीं हुआ.)

b) I said, “I should be back by six.” (I assume I will be)
= I said I should be back by six.

(यह एक संभावना (assumption) है; अतः इनमें कोई बदलाव नहीं हुआ.)

c) “You ought to/should/must read the instructions,” said Ritu.
= Ritu said that I ought to/should/must read the instructions.
= Ritu advised/urged/warned me to read the instructions.

(यह एक सलाह, चेतावनी, अनुरोध, आदि है; अतः इनमें बदलाव किया भी जा सकता है और नहीं भी.)

d) She said, “You should take the job, Mohan.”
= She told Mohan that he should take the job.
= She encouraged/advised Mohan to take the job.

(यह एक सलाह अथवा प्रोत्साहित करना है; अतः इनमें बदलाव किया भी जा सकता है और नहीं भी.)

13. ‘If I were you I should/would’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

‘If I were you I should/would —-’ का use किसी को कोई सलाह (advice) देने के लिए किया जाता है; इसको Indirect Speech में ऐसे बदला जाता है:

advise + object + to-infinitive

“If I were you I’d wait,” I said.
= I advised him to wait.

I said, “Shall I write to Shweta?” “I should have phone her if I were you,” said Jitan.
= I asked if I should write to Shweta and Jitan advised me to phone her.

“I was thinking of going by bus,” said Raja. “I shouldn’t have gone by bus if I were you,” said his aunt
= Raja said he was thinking of going by bus. His aunt advised him not to go by bus.

Richa said to her friend, “If I were you, I would not care for such a man”.
= Richa advised her friend not to care for such a man.

14. ‘I should/would be grateful if you would’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

‘I should/would be (very) grateful if you would —-’ का use किसी से कोई प्रार्थना  (request) करने के लिए किया जाता है; इसको Indirect Speech में ऐसे बदला जाता है:

ask + object + to-infinitive

“I’d be very grateful if you’d keep me informed,” he said.
= He asked me to keep him informed.

15. ‘Used to’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

‘Used to’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

“I know the place well because I used to live here.” He explained.
= He explained that he knew the place well because he used to live there.

16. ‘Could’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) ‘Could’ का use जब किसी की कुछ कार्य करने के सामर्थ्य/योगता (ability) के लिए होता है 

i) ‘Could’ का use वर्तमान समय की किसी ability के लिए

वर्तमान समय की किसी ability के लिए ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

“I could not stand on my head,” he said. (= मैं यह कार्य बहुत आसानी से नहीं कर सकता.)
= He said he could not stand on his head.

ii) ‘Could’ का use past की किसी ability के लिए

Past समय की किसी ability के लिए’ या तो ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; अथवा इसको ‘had been able’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“I could read when I was three!” she boasted.
= She boasted that she could read when she was three.
= She boasted that she had been able to read when she was three.

iii) ‘Could’ का use future की किसी ability के लिए

Future के समय की किसी ability के लिए’ या तो ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; अथवा इसको ‘would be able to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

He said, “I could do it tomorrow.”
= He said he could do it the next day.
= He said he would be able to do it the next day.

iv) ‘Could’ का use किसी conditional ability के लिए

Type-II conditional sentences में या तो ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; अथवा इसको ‘would have + V3’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“If Asha had the tools I could mend it,” he said.
= He said that if Asha had the tools he could mend it.
OR He said that if Asha had the tools he would have mended it.

NOTE: Type-III conditional sentences में ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

He said, “If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.
= He said that if they had found him earlier they could have saved his life.

B) ‘Could’ का use जब किसी permission के लिए होता है

i) ‘Could’ का use conditional permission के लिए

Type-II conditional sentences जब किसी permission को व्यक्त करते हैं या तो ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; अथवा इसको ‘would be allowed to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“If I paid my fine I could walk out of prison today,” he said. (= अगर मैंने अपना जुर्माना भर दिया तो आज मुझे जेल से निकलने की इजाजत है.)
= He said if he paid his fine he could walk out of prison that day.
= He said that if he paid his fine he would be allowed to walk out of prison that day.

ii) ‘Could’ for past permission

Past permissions के लिए या तो ‘could’ में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; अथवा इसको ‘was/were allowed to’ अथवा ‘had been allowed to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

He said, “When I was a boy I could stay up as long as I liked.”
= He said that when he was a boy he could stay up as long as he liked.
= He said that when he was a boy he was allowed to stay up as long as he liked.
= He said that when he was a boy he had been allowed to stay up as long as he liked.

C) Could I have में बदलाव

‘Could I have’ को आमतौर पर ‘ask for’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“Could I have a cup of coffee?” she said.
= She asked for a cup of coffee.
= She asked me for a cup of coffee.

17. ‘Must’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) सकारात्मक वाक्यों (Affirmative Sentences) में ‘Must’ का use

i) Indirect Speech में जब ‘must’ को बदला नहीं जाता है

‘Must’ का use जब किसी ठोस कारण से कोई अनुमान लगाना (deductions), स्थायी आदेश/निषेध (permanent commands/prohibitions) देने अथवा किसी इरादे/आशय (intensions) को व्यक्त करने के लिया किया जाता है तो इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं होता; जैसे

अनुमान लगाना (deductions)

She said, “I’m always running into him, he must live near here!” (= में हमेशा ही उसके साथ टकराता रहता हूँ अतः अवश्य ही वह यहीं-कहीं पास में ही रहता होगा.)
= She said that she was always running into him, he must live in the area.

स्थायी आदेश (permanent commands) एवं निषेध (prohibitions)

He said, “That door must be kept locked.” (= दरवाजे को बंद ही रखना.)
= He said that the door must be kept locked.

इरादे/आशय (intensions)

He said, “We must have a party to celebrate this.” (= इस अवसर को मनाने के लिए हमें कोई party का इंतजाम करना ही चाहिए.)
= He said that they must have a party to celebrate it.

ii) जब ‘must’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘would have to’ में बदला जाता है.

जब कोई दायित्व (obligation) future की किसी घटना होने पर निर्भर करता है, अथवा दायित्व एक लम्बे समय बाद पूर्ण होना है या उसका होने का समय निश्चित नहीं है तो ‘must’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘would have to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

दायित्व का पूर्ण करना Future की किसी घटना होने पर  निर्भर होना

a) “If the floods get worse we must leave the house,” he said.
= He said that if the floods got worse they must leave the house.
= He said that if the floods got worse they would have to leave the house.

b) “When it stops snowing we must start digging ourselves out,” I said.
= I said that when it stopped snowing we must start digging ourselves out.
= I said that when it stopped snowing we would have to start digging ourselves out.

दायित्व एक लम्बे समय बाद पूर्ण होना

“We must mend the roof properly next year,” he said.
= He said that they must mend the roof properly the following year.
= He said that they would have to mend the roof properly the following year.

दायित्व के पूर्ण होने का समय निश्चित नहीं होना

“I have just received a letter,” he said. “I must go home.”
= He said that he had just received a letter and must go home.
= He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home.

iii) जब ‘must’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘had to’ में बदला जाता है.

जब किसी कार्य को करना आवश्यक होता है; या किसी दायित्व को करने का समय निर्धारित हो चुका होता है; या कोई प्लान बन चुकी होती है, या फिर किसी दायित्व को अपेक्षाकृत शीघ्रता से पूरा करना होता है तो ‘must’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘had to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

जब किसी कार्य को करना आवश्यक होता है

He said, “I must wash my hands.”
= He said that he must wash his hands.
= He said that h

जब किसी दायित्व को पूरा करने का समय निर्धारित हो चुका होता है

He said, “I must be there by nine tomorrow.”
= He said that he must be there by nine the next day.
= He said that he had to be there by nine the next day.

iv) जब ‘must’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘advise + object’ में बदला जाता है.

किसी को कोई सलाह देने के लिए ‘must’ या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘advise + object’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

He said, “You must grow your own vegetables.”
= He said that I must grow my own vegetables.
= He advised me to grow my own vegetables.

v) जब ‘must’ को  ‘demand + to-infinitive, आदि’ में बदला जाता है.

किसी को कुछ करने के लिए कहने के लिए, औपचारिक रूप से निमंत्रण देने के लिए ‘must’ को निम्न प्रकार से बदला जाता है:

a) Demand + to-infinitive
b) Call on/upon + object + to-infinitive
c) Urge + object + to-infinitive

He said, “I must know your decision soon.”
= He demanded to know my decision soon.

Dr Jain said to the crowds, “It must be a peaceful demonstration.”
= Dr Jain called on/upon the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.
= Dr Jain urged the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.

Call on/upon somebody = किसी व्यक्ति को औपचारिक रूप से निमंत्रण देना, अथवा किसी को कुछ करने आदि के लिए कहना; जैसे

I now call on/upon the chairman to address the meeting.

Urge = सलाह देना, अथवा किसी को कुछ करने के लिए मनाना; जैसे

She urged him to stay.]

B) जब कोई question ‘must’ से शुरू हो तो उसको Indirect Speech में कैसे बदलते हैं

क्योंकि ‘must’ से शुरू होने वाले questions वर्तमान या सन्निकट भविष्य काल future (present or immediate future) की घटनाओं के लिए ही use होते हैं इसलिए ‘must’ को आमतौर पर ‘had to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“Must you go so soon?” I said.
= I asked him if he had to go so soon.

NOTE: यदि Reporting Verb present अथवा future tense में हो तो ‘must’ को ‘has to/have to’ में बदला जाता है.

C) ‘Must not’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

‘First Person + must not’ को आमतौर पर बदला नहीं जाता है; लेकिन ‘Second और Third Person + must not’ को या तो बदला नहीं जाता है या इसको नकारात्मक (negative) commands/orders की तरह बदला जाता है; जैसे

He said, “You mustn’t tell anyone.”
= He said that she mustn’t tell anyone.
OR He said that she wasn’t to tell anyone.
OR He told her not to tell anyone.

18. ‘Needn’t’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) नकारात्मक वाक्यों (Negative Sentences) में ‘Needn’t’ का use

i) नकारात्मक वाक्यों (Negative Sentences) में ‘Needn’t’ आमतौर पर को बदला नहीं जाता है; जैसे

He said, “You needn’t wait.”
= He said that I needn’t wait.

ii) जब ‘needn’t’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘wouldn’t have to’ में बदला जाता है.

जब कोई दायित्व (obligation) future की किसी घटना होने पर निर्भर करता है, अथवा दायित्व एक लम्बे समय बाद पूर्ण होना है या उसका होने का समय निश्चित नहीं है तो ‘needn’t’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘wouldn’t have to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

I said, “If you can lend me the money I needn’t go to the bank.”
= I said that if he could lend me the money I needn’t go to the bank.
= I said that if he could lend me the money I wouldn’t have to go to the bank.

iii) जब ‘needn’t’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘didn’t have to’ में बदला जाता है.

जब किसी दायित्व को करने का समय निर्धारित हो चुका होता है; या कोई प्लान बन चुकी होती है, या फिर किसी दायित्व को अपेक्षाकृत शीघ्रता से पूरा करना होता है तो ‘must’ में या तो कोई बदलाव नहीं किया जाता है या फिर इसे ‘didn’t have to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

He said, “I needn’t be in the office till ten tomorrow morning.”
= He said that he needn’t be in the office till ten the next morning.
= He said that he didn’t have to be in the office till ten the next morning.

B) जब कोई question ‘need’ से शुरू हो तो उसको Indirect Speech में कैसे बदलते हैं

क्योंकि ‘need’ से शुरू होने वाले questions वर्तमान या सन्निकट भविष्य काल future (present or immediate future) की घटनाओं के लिए ही use होते हैं इसलिए ‘need’ को आमतौर पर ‘had to’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“Need I finish my pudding?” asked the small boy.
= The small boy asked if he had to finish his pudding.

NOTE: यदि Reporting Verb present अथवा future tense में हो तो ‘need’ को ‘has to/have to’ में बदला जाता है.

19. ‘Let’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) Let’s/Let us को कैसे Indirect Speech में बदलते हैं

i) सुझाव देने के लिए (suggestion)

Let’s/Let us को आमतौर पर किसी को कोई सुझाव देने के लिए use किया जाता है; इस अर्थ में इसको इस प्रकार से बदला जाता है: 

Suggest + gerund
OR
Suggest + Possessive Adjective (my, his, their, etc.) + gerund
OR
Suggest that + subject + V1 without s/es (Present Subjunctive)
OR
Suggest/suggested that + subject + should
OR
Suggest to + object + that
OR
Suggest + noun/pronoun

उदाहरण:

a) He said, “Let’s leave the case at the station.” [= बक्से (case) को स्टेशन पर छोड़ना सही रहेगा.)
= He suggested leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested our leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested that we should leave the case at the station.

b) She said to me, “Let’s have a meeting.”
= She suggested having a meeting.
= She suggested our having a meeting.
= She suggested a meeting.
= She suggested that we should have a meeting.
= She suggested to me that we should have a meeting.

c) He said, “Let’s stop now and finish it later.”
= He suggested stopping then and finishing it later.
= He suggested that we should stop then and finish it later.

d) He said, “Let’s not say anything about it till we hear the facts.”
= He suggested not saying anything about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested saying nothing about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested they shouldn’t say anything till they heard the facts.

e) “Let’s camp by this stream,” said Hema. “If we go on, it may be dark before we find another good place.”
= Hema suggested camping by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested camping by the stream pointing out that if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested their camping by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested that they should camp by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.

f) “Let’s go to the cinema,” said Ved. “Yes, let’s” I said.
= Ved suggested going to the cinema and I agreed.

NOTE-I: लेकिन जब हम किसी सकारात्मक (affirmative) सुझाव के लिए राजी न हों तो हम ‘Let’s not’ को अकेला भी use कर सकते हैं; ऐसे में Indirect Speech में इसको ‘opposed the idea’ अथवा ‘was against’ आदि में बदलते हैं; जैसे

“Let’s sell the house.” said Ram. “Let’s not.” said Ritu.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu was against it/the idea.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu opposed the idea.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu was opposed to the idea

ii) Let’s/let us का use किसी को कोई सलाह देने अथवा किसी को कोई कार्य को करने हेतु आमंत्रित करने के लिए भी किया जा सकता है; ऐसे में इसको निम्न प्रकार से बदला जाता है: 

urge/advice + object + infinitive

The strike leader said, “Let’s show the bosses that we are united.”
= The strike leader urged the workers to show the bosses that they were united.

B) ‘Let + 3rd person’ को Indirect Speech में कैसे बदला जाता है

i) किसी दायित्व (obligation) को निभाने के लिए

जब ‘Let + 3rd person’ का use किसी दायित्व (obligation) को करने के लिए किया जाता है तो इसको आमतौर पर ‘ought to’ अथवा ‘should’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“It’s not my business,” said the postman. ”Let the government do something about it.”
= The postman said that it wasn’t his business and that the government ought to/should do something about it.

ii) किसी आदेश (order/command) के लिए

कभी-कभी ‘let + 3rd person’ का use किसी आदेश (order/command) देने के लिए भी किया जाता है; तब इसको आमतौर पर ‘say/order + be + infinitive’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

a) “Let the boys clear up this mess.” said the headmaster.
= The headmaster said/ordered that the boys were to clear up the mess.

b) “Let the guards be armed,” he ordered.
= He ordered/said that the guards should be armed.

NOTE: कभी-कभी ‘let + 1st/3rd person’ कोई आदेश (order/command) नहीं बल्कि एक सुझाव (suggestion) होता है; तब इसको आमतौर पर ‘suggest’ अथवा ‘say + should’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

She said, “Let them go to their consul.”
= He suggested their going to the consul.
= He suggested that they should go to their consul.
= He said that they should go their consul.

iii) अनुमति (permission) देने के लिए

‘Let + 1st/3rd person’ का use किसी को कोई अनुमति (permission) देने के लिए भी किया जाता है; तब इसको ‘may be allowed’, ‘to let’ अथवा ‘to allow’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

a) “Let him come with us, mother; I’ll take care of him,” I said.
= I asked/requested my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.
= I asked/requested my mother to allow him to come with us and promised to take care of him.
= I said that he might be allowed to go with us.

b) “Let me go!” the boy said to the policeman.
= The boy asked/requested the policeman to let him go.
= The boy asked/requested the policeman to allow him to go.
= The boy asked the policeman that he might be allowed to go.

c) The officer said to the peon, “Let the man go in”.
= The officer ordered/asked the peon to let the man go in.
= The officer ordered/asked the peon to allow the man to go in.
= The office asked the peon that the man might be allowed to go in.

v) किसी बात की उपेक्षा/अनदेखा (indifference) करने के लिए 

‘Let + 3rd + person’ का use किसी बात की उपेक्षा/अनदेखा (indifference) करने के लिए भी किया जाता है; जैसे 

a) “The neighbours will complain,” said Ritu. “Let them, “ said Rahul.
= Ritu told Rahul that the neighbor would complain. On this Rahul expressed indifference.
= Rahul said he didn’t mind (if they complained).

b) Sawant said, “Let it rain, I have to go.”
= Sawant persisted that he did not care for the rain and he had to go.

c) Miss Pillai said, “Let my friends say so.”
= Miss Pillai said that she did not care for her friends.

C) Let there be में बदलाव

Let there be का use ordering के लिए भी किया जा सकता है, advising के लिए भी, urging के लिए भी और begging के लिए भी; जैसे

“Let there be no reprisals,” said the widow of the murdered man.
= The widow urged/begged that there should be no reprisals.

20. सुझावों (suggestions) को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

किसी सुझाव को Indirect Speech में निम्न प्रकार से बदला जा सकता है:

Suggest/suggested + possessive adjective) + gerund
OR
Suggest that + subject + V1 without s/es (present Subjunctive)
OR
Suggest/suggested that + subject + should
OR
Suggest to + object + that
OR
Suggest + noun/pronoun

उदाहरण:

a) Ram said, “Let’s have a meeting.
= Ram suggested having a meeting.
= Ram suggested our having a meeting.
= Ram suggested that they should have a meeting.
= Ram suggested a meeting.

b) Ritu says to Rahim, “You should sell your house.”
= Ritu suggests selling the house.
= Ritu suggests selling his house.
= Ritu suggests that he sells his house.
= Ritu suggests that he should sell his house.
= Ritu suggests to Rahim that he should sell his house.

NOTE: ‘Should + V1’ के स्थान पर subjunctive (V1 की base form) को भी use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

I suggest that you should be careful.
= I suggest that you be careful.

21. ‘What about’ और ‘why not + V1‘ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

‘What about’ और ‘why not + V1‘ को आमतौर पर कोई सुझाव देने के लिए use किया जाता है; और इसको Indirect Speech में अक्सर ‘suggest’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

a) “What about flying?” she said. (= क्या flying के लिए चलें?)
= She suggested flying.

b) “I can’t come at 1.00,” said Sangeeta. “Then what about 2.00?” said Tarun. (= क्यों न फिर 2 बजे आओ?)
= Sangeeta said she couldn’t come at 1.00, so Tarun suggested 2.00.

c) She said to her companions, “Why not stay overnight here?”
= She suggested to her companion that they should stay overnight there.

22. ‘Why don’t you’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

‘Why don’t you’ को आमतौर पर कोई सुझाव देने के लिए अथवा कोई सलाह देने के लिए use किया जाता है; और इसको Indirect Speech में अक्सर ‘suggest’ अथवा ‘advise’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“I wonder if Rohan is coming,” said Seema. “Why don’t you ask him?” I said.
= Seema wondered if Rohan was coming. I advised her to ask him.
= Seema wondered if Rohan was coming. I suggested asking him.

23. ‘Why + V1‘ को Indirect Speech में कैसे बदला जाता है 

Manu said to his friend, “Why help him now?”
= Manu told his friend that it was no use helping him then.

24. ‘Would you mind + gerund’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

Would you mind + gerund’ को या तो बदला नहीं जाता या फिर ‘ask + object + to-infinitive’ में बदला जाता है; जैसे

“Would you mind signing the register?” he said.
= He asked me to sign the register.
= He asked me if I would mind signing the register.

25. Interrogative Sentences को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) ध्यान रहे कि Direct Speech में जब कोई questions होते  हैं तो उनको कथानात्मक/स्वीकारात्मक (Assertive sentences) में बदलना आवश्यक होता है. इसलिए question mark (?) का स्थान full stop ले लेता है; जैसे

He said, “Where does she live?”
= He asked where she lived.

B) Direct Speech का कोई questions यदि किसी helping/modal से शुरू होता है तो Indirect Speech में conjunction ‘if’ अथवा  whether’ का use किया जाता है; और यदि कोई questions wh-family के किसी word से शुरू होता है तो Indirect Speech में वो question word को use किया जाता है; जैसे ; e.g.

i) Pooja said to me, “Are you busy now?”
= Pooja asked me if/whether I was busy then.

ii) Payal said to Rohan, “I did not go to the movie, did you”?
= Payal told Rohan that she had not gone to the movie and asked him if he had gone.

iii) She said to me, “What are you doing?”
= She asked me what I was doing.

NOTE: लेकिन यदि Direct Speech के किसी question word (not a helping verb) के तुरंत बाद कोई clause होता है तो वह कोई question नहीं होता बल्कि एक कथानात्मक/स्वीकारात्मक (Assertive sentences) वाक्य होता है; अतः उस वाक्य को Indirect Speech में Assertive sentence की तरह बदलते हैं; अर्थात उस question word से पहले conjunction ‘that’ का use किया जाता है. यह rule ‘if/whether’ पर भी लागू होता है; जैसे

i) She said to me, “When she will come is not certain.”
= She told me that when she would come was not certain.

ii) I said to him, “Whether she will pass is not certain.”
= I told him that whether she would pass was not certain.

iii) Nisha said to her sister, “If you have qualified the test cannot beconfirmed.
= Nisha told her sister that if she had qualified the test could not be confirmed.

iv) Rahul said to Ritesh, “What you are doing is immoral.”
= Rahul told Ritesh that what he was doing was immoral.

C) जब कोई question किसी helping/modal verb से शुरू होता है तो Indirect Speech में conjunction ‘if’ और ‘whether’ में से किसी एक का use करना होता है; परन्तु जब हमारे पास दो या दो से अधिक विकल्प दिए हुए हों और हमें उन विकल्पों में से किसी एक को चुनना हो तो conjunction ‘whether’ का use किया जाता है; ‘if’ का नहीं; जैसे

i) “Do you want to go by air or by sea?” asked the travel agent.
= The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea.

ii) After the election, we asked, “Should the parties change their leaders, their policies, or both?”
= After the election, we asked whether the parties should change their leaders, their policies, or both.

INCORRECT: The travel agent asked if I wanted to go by air or by sea.
CORRECT: The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea.

NOTE-I: यदि दिए गये विकल्पों में किसी एक के चुनाव को जब  ‘हाँ’ अथवा ‘ना’ कह के ही बताना होता है तो conjunction ‘if’ का भी use किया जा सकता है और ‘whether’ का भी. ऐसे में इन दोनों के साथ ‘or not’ का use आवश्यक होता है. फर्क सिर्फ ये है कि हम यदि ‘if’ का use करते हैं तो ‘or not’ का use वाक्य के अंत में किया जाता है; और हम यदि ‘whether’ का use करते हैं तो ‘or not’ का use वाक्य के अंत में भी किया जा सकता है और ‘whether’ के तुरंत साथ भी; जैसे

“Do you want to insure your luggage or not?” he asked.
= He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage.
= He asked whether I wanted to insure my luggage or not.
= He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

INCORRECT: He asked if or not I wanted to insure my luggage.
CORRECT: He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

NOTE-II: Reporting Verb जब ‘wonder’ अथवा ‘want to know’ हो तो Indirect Speech में इनके साथ conjunction ‘whether’ लगा कर infinitive’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

“Shall I wait for them or go on?” he wondered.
= He wondered whether he would wait for them or go on.
= He wondered whether to wait for them or go on.

D)  Direct Speech में जब किसी question का answer ‘Yes’ अथवा ‘No’ दिया गया हुआ भी हो; उनको Indirect Speech में बदलना

Subject + Indirect Speech में use की गयी helping verb
OR
हम ‘yes’ को ‘answered/replied in the affirmative’ में बदलते हैं, और ‘no’ को ‘answered/replied in the negative’ में

a) He said, “Can you swim?” and I said “NO.”
= He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldn’t.
= He asked (me) if I could swim and I replied/answered in the negative.

b) He said, “Will you have time to do it?” and I said “Yes.”
= He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.
= He asked if I would have time to do it and I replied/answered in the affirmative.

26. आज्ञासूचक वाक्यों (Imperative Sentences) को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

जिन वाक्यों में order, request, warning, advice, आदि होते हैं उन वाक्यों को आज्ञासूचक वाक्य (Imperative Sentence) कहा जाता है. आज्ञासूचक वाक्यों को Indirect Speech में बदलते हुए किसी conjunction का use नहीं किया जाता बल्कि Reported speech की verb की ‘to-infinitive’ form का use किया जाता है. आज्ञासूचक वाक्यों (Imperative Sentences) में आमतौर पर नीचे दी गयी verbs का use किया जाता है:

Advise Ask Beg Ordered Command Forbid
Recommend Request Tell Urge Warn Invite

 इन verbs को  आमतौर पर ‘object + infinitive’ के साथ use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) He said, “Get your coat, Mohan!”
= He told Mohan to get his coat.
= He told Mohan that he was to get his coat.
= He asked Mohan to get his coat.

b) “Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said.
= I warned/told/the boys not to swim too far.
= I told the boy that they weren’t to swim too far.
= I forbade the boys to swim too far.
= I forbade the boys from swimming too far.

c) He said, “Don’t open the door.”
= He told me not to open the door.
= He told me that I wasn’t to open the door.
= He forbade me to open the door.
= He forbade me from opening the door.

d) He says, “Meet me at the station.”
= He says that we are to meet at the station.
= He tells us to meet him at the station.

e) He said, “If she leaves the house follow her.”
= He said that if she left the house I was to follow her.
= He told me to follow her if she left the house.

f) “You had better hurry, Rahul!” she said.
= She advised Rahul to hurry.

g) She said to the postman, “Either go or wait.”
= She asked the postman either to go or wait.

h) The lady said to the soldier, “Please do come sometime.”
= The lady requested the soldier to come sometime.

NOTE-I: Direct Speech में verbs commands, requests, advice के साथ आमतौर पर कोई object use नहीं किया जाता है; लेकिन Indirect Speech में इन verbs के साथ object का use आवश्यक है; जैसे

He said, “Go away.”
= He told me/him/her/us/them/the boys/Rahul to go away.

NOTE-II: लेकिन verb ‘ask’ के साथ कभी तो object का use होना आवश्यक होता है और कभी नहीं. यदि verb ‘ask’ के बाद ‘see’, ‘speak to’, ‘talk to’ का use होता है तो फिर इसके साथ किसी object की आवश्यकता नहीं पड़ती; जैसे

He said, “Could I see Ritu, please?”
= He asked to see Ritu.

NOTE-III: Indirect Speech में शब्दों ‘kindly’और ‘please’ का use नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

She said to me, “Give me that book please.”
= She requested me to give her that book. [NOT: ‘She kindly requested me to give her that book.]

NOTE-IV: Interrogative Sentences के माध्यम से ‘Could’, ‘would’, ‘would like’ का प्रयोग करके नम्रतापूर्ण  की गयी विनतियों  requests) को Indirect Speech में Imperative Sentences की तरह बदला जाता है; जैसे

She said to her friend, “Could/would you lend me some money?”
= She requested her friend to lend her some money.

The captain said to the lady, “Would you like to have dinner with me?”
= The captain requested/invited the lady to have dinner with him.

The teacher said to Suhani, “Will you stop talking now?”
= The teacher requested/asked/ordered Suhani to stop talking then.

27. विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्यों (Exclamatory Sentences) को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

वे सभी Sentences जिनमें किसी गहरी संवेदना जैसे – Sorrow (दुःख), Happiness (सुख), Accident (दुर्घटना ), Fear (डर) Anger (क्रोध) , तथा Hate (घृणा ) का जिक्र होता है तो ऐसे वाक्यों को Exclamatory Sentences (विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य) कहते हैं.

Indirect Speech में Exclamatory Sentences को Assertive Sentences में बदल दिया जाता है और exclamation mark (!) के स्थान पर full stop’ (.) का use किया जाता है..

A) Alas, Hurray, Wow, Oh, Ah, Fie, Ugh, Well done, Bravo आदि को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम:

i) Alas/Ah exclaim with sorrow
ii) Hurray/Wow exclaim with joy
iii) Fie/Ugh exclaim with anger / disapproval / disappointment /  despise/disgust, etc.
iv) Oh exclaim with surprise/regret, etc
v) Bravo/Well done shouted with applause, or ‘applaud + object + saying that’

B) ‘What’, ‘how’, आदि  से शुरू होने वाले विस्म्यादिबोधकों (exclamations) को Indirect Speech में निम्न प्रकार से बदला जाता है:

‘exclaim/say that’ अथवा ‘give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/surprise, आदि ‘; जैसे

a) He said, “What a dreadful idea!”
= He exclaimed that it was a very dreadful idea.
= He gave an exclamation of disgust at the idea.

b) He said, “How dreadful!”
= He exclaimed that it was dreadful.
= He gave an exclamation of disgust.

c) You said, “Well done! my friends.”
= You shouted with applause that your friends had done well.

d) The old woman said, “Ah! I am ruined.”
= The old woman exclaimed with sorrow that she was ruined.

e) “Well spoken, “The audience cried.”
= The audience applauded/appreciated his speech that he had spoken well.

NOTE: यदि किसी exclamation के बाद बाद कोई action दिया हुआ है तो तो इनको ऐसे भी बदला जा डाकता है:

‘With an exclamation of delight /disgust, etc. + he/she, आदि  + verb’.

C) Good! /Marvelous! /Splendid! /Heavens! /Oh! /Ugh!, आदि  से शुरू होने वाले विस्म्यादिबोधकों (exclamations) को Indirect Speech में निम्न प्रकार से बदला जाता है:

‘give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/surprise, आदि’ अथवा ‘with an exclamation of delight/disgust, आदि’; e.g.

a) “Good!” he exclaimed.
= He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.

b) “UGH!” she exclaimed, and turned the programme off.
= With an exclamation of disgust she turned the programme off.

इन उदाहरणों को भी देखिये:

a) He observed, “How dirty the house is!”
= He exclaimed that the house was very dirty.

b) He said, “By God! What a good news.”
= He swore by God that it was a very good news.

c) He said to them, “Bravo! You have done well.”
= He applauded them saying that they had done well.

d) The old man said to him, “Fie, you are such a coward.”
= The old man exclaimed that it was shameful that he was such a coward.
= The old man exclaimed with disgust that he was such a coward.

e) He said, “Poor fellow! How changed you are.”
= He pitied the man and exclaimed that he was greatly changed.

f) “Good Heavens!” We have reached the station.” said the boys.
= The boys exclaimed with delight that they had reached the station.

g) “Never! I will never agree to such a proposal,” he said.
= He said that he would absolutely never agree to such a proposal.

h) “Good gracious! I have never heard of such a thing,” he said.
= He was very surprised and said that he had never heard of such a thing.

i) She said to me, “Oh, what a cute little thing you are!”
= She was very excited and said that I was a cute little thing.

j) She said, “How can I do such a foolish work!”
= She thought/wondered how she could do such a foolish work.

k) “Beware, there is a danger, “The captain warned.
= The captain warned the soldiers to beware of the danger.

l) “Be sure, I am always with you,” said the mother.
= The mother assured her daughter that she was always with her.

m) The director said, “What a good dance, Suhani!
=The director remarked with appreciation/applauded that Suhani had danced well and declared that she had won the contest.

n) The king said, “How foolish of me!”
= The king confessed with regret that he was very foolish.

0) Deepa said, “What a pity! you have not succeeded.”
= Deepa exclaimed that it was a pity that he had not succeeded.

28. इछावाचक वाक्यों (Optative Sentences) को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम
(wish, curse, आदि)

a) Mary said, “May God bless you!”
= Mary prayed that God might bless me.

b) He said, “May you succeed in the examination!”
= He wished/prayed that I might succeed in the examination.

c) They said, “Long live the Indo-Russian friendship”
= They wished/prayed that the Indo-Russian friendship might live long.

d) We said, “God save the P.M.!”
= We wished/prayed that the P.M. might live long.

e) She said, “O that I were extremely beautiful!”
= She eagerly wished that she were extremely beautiful.

f) The lady said, “Thanks, I shall never forget this kindness, Arnav.”
= The lady thanked Arnav and assured him that she would never forget the kindness.

g) Richa said, “Congratulation my son, you have won.”
= Richa congratulated her son telling him that he had won.

इन उदाहरणों को भी देखिये:

a) He said, “Thank you!”
= He thanked me.

b) He said, “Curse this fog!”
= He cursed the fog.

c) He said, “Good luck!”
= He wished me luck.

d) He said, “Happy Holi!”
= He wished me a happy Holi.

e) He said, “Congratulations!”
= He congratulated me.

f) He said, “Liar!”
= He called me a liar.

g) He said, “Damn!”
= He swore.

h) The notice said, “Welcome to Delhi!”
= The notice welcomed visitors to Delhi.

i) I said to him, “May you be happy.”
= I wished that he might be happy.

j) Mother said to me, “May God bless you.”
= Mother prayed for me that God might bless me.
= Mother prayed that God might bless me.

k) He said, “May his soul rest in peace.”
= He prayed that his soul might rest in peace.

l) The girl said, “Oh, had I the wings of dove.”
= The girl wished that she could have the wings of a dove.

m) “Help! Help!” shouted the woman.
=The woman shouted for help.

n) He said, “Good bye, my friends!”
= He bade goodbye to his friends.

o) The teacher said, “Thank you my boys.”
= The teacher thanked the boys.

p) So help me Heaven.” he cried, “I’ll never do so again.”
= He prayed to Heaven to help him and resolved not to do so again.

q) She cried, “God will never pardon you.”
= She bitterly cursed him that God would never pardon him.

29. ‘Verb + to-infinitive’) को Indirect Speech में बदलने के कुछ उदाहरण

i) Ritu: Would you lend me another Rs 5,000?
Rhahul: No, I won’t lend you any more money.
= Rahul said that he wouldn’t lend her any more money.
= Rahul refused to lend her any more money.

ii) Ranjan: I’ll help you if you like, Ritu.
= Ranjan said that he’d help her if she liked.
= Ranjan offered to help her.

iii) He said, “If you can’t find anyone else, I’ll drive you to the airport.”
= He volunteered to drive me to the airport if I couldn’t find anyone else. (not ‘He volunteered me —-)

iv) Ritu: I’ll pay you back next week. Really I will.
= Ritu said that she would pay him back the following week.
= Ritu promised to pay him back the following week.
= Ritu assured him that she would pay him back the following week.

v) She said, “You should take the job, Mohan.”
= She encouraged/advised Mohan to take the job.

vi) Dr Jain said to the crowds, “It must be a peaceful demonstration.”
= Dr Jain called on the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.
= Dr Jain urged the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.

[Call on/upon somebody= to formally invite or ask somebody to speak, etc.; e.g. I now call on/upon the chairman to address the meeting.

Urge = to advise or try to persuade somebody to do something; e.g. She urged him to stay.]

vii) “Would you like to come on a picnic with us?”, he said.
= He invited us to come on a picnic with them.

viii) “Don’t forget to go to the supermarket after work,” he said.
= He reminded me to go to the supermarket after work.

ix) He said, “Stay away from me.”
= He warned me to stay away from him.

x) I said, “Could I speak to Mrs Sharma?”
= I asked to speak to Mrs Sharma.

xi) I said, “Mohan, would you speak to her?”
= I asked Mohan to speak to her.

xii) “Let me explain,” she said.
= She begged him/her/me to explain.
= She begged to explain.
= She begged to be allowed to explain

xiii) He said, “He is innocent.”
= He claimed to be innocent.
= He claimed that he was innocent.

xiv) She said, “I’ve never seen you before.”
= She swore never to have seen him before.
= She swore not to have seen him ever before.
= She swore (that) she’d never seen him before.

xv) He said, “I must know your decision soon.”
= He demanded to know my decision soon.

xvi) “If you don’t give me a pay rise, I’ll resign,” he said.
= He threatened to resign if I/we didn’t give him a pay rise.
= He threatened that I would resign if I/we didn’t give him a pay rise.

xvii) She said, “I will collect the children from school today.”
= She promised to collect the children from school that day.
= She promised that she would collect the children from school that day.

xviii) I said, “The machine parts may be received today.”
= I expected to receive the machine parts that day.
= I expected that the machine parts might be received that day.

ix) The Foreign Minister said, “Please re-open the peace talks.”
= The Foreign Minster requested to re-open the peace talks.
= The Foreign Minister requested that the peace talks should be re-opened.

xx) “We’ll turn back the invaders or die fighting,” said the army leaders.
= The army leaders vowed to turn back the invaders or die fighting.
= The army leaders vowed that they would turn back the invaders or die fighting.

xxi) Ritu: Would you wait half an hour?
Rahul: All right.
= Rahul said he would wait.
= Rahul agreed to wait.
= Rahul agreed that he would wait.

xxii) He said, “Let the goods be sent by air.”
= He ordered the goods to be sent by air.
= He ordered that the goods should be sent by air.

xxiii) He said, “Send the goods by air.”
= He ordered me to send the goods by air.

30. ‘Verb + gerund’ को Indirect Speech में बदलने के कुछ उदाहरण

i) He said, “You took the money.”
= He said that I had taken the money.
= He accused me of taking the money.

ii) “I’m sorry I’m late,” he said.
= He apologized for being late.

iii) I said, “I stole it.”
= I admitted that I had stolen it.
= I admitted stealing it.

iv) I said, “I didn’t steal it.”
= I denied stealing it.
= I denied that I had stolen it.

v) Mohan said, “She met Ritu at a conference in Japan.”
= Mohan mentioned that she had met Ritu at a conference in Japan.
= Mohan mentioned meeting Ritu at a conference in Japan.

vi) He said, “I saw bright flashing lights in the sky.”
= He reported that he had seen bright flashing lights in the sky.
= He reported seeing bright flashing lights in the sky.

vii) He said, “Let’s leave the case at the station.”
= He suggested leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested our leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested that we should leave the case at the station.

viii) He said, “Let’s not say anything about it till we hear the facts.”
= He suggested not saying anything about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested they shouldn’t say anything till they heard the facts.

ix) Rahul: Let me pay for myself.
Ranjan: Certainly not!
= Ranjan said/insisted that he’d pay for himself.
= Ranjan insisted on paying.

xx) They say, “The theatre will be built next to the town hall.”
= They propose building the theatre next to the town hall.
= They propose to build the theatre next to the town hall. (not ‘They  propose them —–‘)
= They propose that they will build the theatre next to the town hall.

xxi) The government said, “We’ll close a number of primary schools.”
= The government proposed closing a number of primary schools.
= The government proposed to close a number of primary schools.
= The government proposed that it would close a number of primary schools.

xxii) The government said, “To raise more money, it will increase income tax.”
= The government proposed increasing income tax to raise more money.
= The government proposed to increase income tax to raise more money.
= The government proposed that it would increase income tax to raise more money.

xxiii) My doctor said, “Because you are overweight take more exercise.”
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised taking more exercise.
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised that I should take more exercise.
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised me to take more exercise.

xxiv) He said, “The subject of holiday pay should be raised at the next meeting.”
= He advised that the subject of holiday pay should be raised at the next meeting.”
= He advised the co-workers to raise the subject of holiday pay at the next meeting.
= He advised raising the subject of holiday pay at the next meeting.

xxv) The lecturer said, “Read a number of books before the exam.”
= The lecturer recommended reading a number of books before the exam.
= The lecturer recommended his students to read a number of books before the exam.
= The lecturer recommended that you should read a number of books before the exam.

31. Conditional Sentences को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

A) Type-I Conditional Sentences

Type-I Conditional Sentencesमें tenses change वैसे ही होता है जैसे अब तक हम करते आयें हैं; जैसे

She said, “If you work hard you’ll pass the exam.”
= She said if she worked hard she would pass the exam.

B) Type-II Conditional Sentences

Type-II Conditional Sentences में tense change नहीं होता; जैसे

He said, “If I had a permit I could get a job.”
= He said that if he had a permit he could get a job.

C) Type-III Conditional Sentences

Type-III Conditional Sentences में tense change नहीं होता; जैसे

“If she had loved Jitesh, he said, “she wouldn’t have left him.”
= He said that if she had loved Jitesh she wouldn’t have left him.

D) ‘If-clauses + commands/requests’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

He said, “If you have time, wash the floor.” अथवा He said. “If you have time, would you wash the floor?”
= He told/asked me to wash the floor if I had time. अथवा He said that if I had time I was to wash the floor.

E) ‘If-clauses + expressions’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

i) “If you feel ill,’ she said, “why don’t you go to bed?” अथवा “If you feel ill,” she said, “you’d better go to bed”
= She advised me to go to bed if I felt ill. अथवा She said that if I felt ill I’d better go to bed. or She said that if I felt ill I should go to bed.

ii) “If I were you I’d stop taking pills.” she said.
= She advised me to stop taking pills.

F) ‘If-clauses + questions’ का Indirect Speech में बदलाव

If-clauses + questions को Indirect Speech में बदलते हुए if-clause को वाक्य के अंत में use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) “If the baby is a girl what will they call her?” he wondered.
= He wondered what they would call the baby if it was a girl.

ii) “If the door is locked what shall I do?” she asked.
= She asked what she would do if the door was locked.

32. Question Tags को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

Question Tag वाले part को Indirect Speech में नहीं बदला जाता; और न ही उसको Indirect Speech के वाक्य में use किया जाता है; जैसे

The lady said to her husband, “Prepare a cup of coffee for me, will you?”
= The lady asked her husband to prepare a cup of coffee for her.

She said, “You are playing, aren’t you?”
= She asked me if I was not playing.

The mother asked Arnav, “You did not meet Sonia, did you”?
The mother asked Arnav if he had met Sonia.

Direct Speech और Indirect Speech के बारे में अन्य महत्वपूर्ण बातें 

1. Past time की किसी दिनचर्या बताने के लिए ‘would का Indirect Speech में use भी किया जा सकता है 

“How long does the journey take?” my co-passenger asked me.
= My co-passenger wanted to know how long the journey would take.

2. किसी बात से सहमती जताने के लिए verb admit को Indirect Speech में Reporting Verb के रूप में use किया जा सकता है

“You’re right. I can’t remember where I’ve left the car,” he said.
= He admitted that he couldn’t remember where he had left the car.

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DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

1. Change of Time Expression in Indirect Speech 

now  then
today  that day
tonight  that night
yesterday  the day before or the previous day
the day before yesterday  two days before
tomorrow ‘the next day’ or ‘the following day’
the day after tomorrow  in two days’ time or ‘two days later’
next week The next week/the following week
last week ‘the week before’ or ‘the previous week’
ago before
a week ago a week before or the previous week
hence thence
come go (But not always. While changing COME into GO, one must see if it’s making a proper sense.)
so far till then

These changes can happen in two ways:

A) When the reporting verb is in the past (if the reporting verb is in the present or future these changes do not take place); e.g.

a) “I saw her the day before yesterday,” he said.
= He said he had seen her two days before.

b) “I’ll do it tomorrow,” he promised.
= He promised that he would do it the next day/the following day.

c) “I’m starting the day after tomorrow, mother,” he said.
= He told his mother that he was starting in two days’ time.

d) She said, “My father had died a year ago.”
= She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

e) She says,” My father had died a year ago.”
= She says that her father had died a year ago.

(Here you see that the reporting verb ‘says’ is in the present tense; hence the time expression ‘a year ago’ won’t change.)

f) She will say, ”My father had died a year ago.”
= She will say that her father had died a year ago.

(Here you see that the reporting verb ‘will say’ is in the future tense; hence the time expression ‘a year ago’ won’t change.)

B) When the speech is made and reported on the same day, these time changes are not made even if the reporting verb is in the past; e.g.

At the breakfast this morning he said, “I’ll be very busy today.”
= At the breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

Esha said today, “I am leaving Pune tonight.”
= Esha said today that she was leaving Pune tonight.

2. Change of ‘this’ and ‘these’ in Indirect Speech

A) When ‘this’ and ‘these’ are used as adjectives:

If the reporting verb is the past, in time expressions ‘this’ becomes ‘that’, and ‘these’ becomes ‘those’; e.g.

He said, “She is coming this week.”
= He said that she was coming that week.

NOTE-I: But if the reporting verb is in the present or the future, there is no change in ‘this’ and ‘these’; e.g.

He says, “She is coming this week.”
= She says that she is coming this week.

NOTE-II: Otherwise ‘this’ and ‘these’ as adjectives usually change into THE; e.g.

He said, “I bought these pearls for my mother.”
= He said that he had bought the pearls for his mother.

B) When ‘this’ and ‘these’ are use as pronouns

‘this/that’ used as pronouns become ‘it’, and ‘these/those’ become ‘they/them’; e.g.

He showed me two bullets and said, “I found these embedded in the paneling.”
= He showed me two bullets and said he had found them embedded in the paneling.

He said, “We will discuss this tomorrow.”
= He said that they would discuss it the next day.

C) When ‘this’ and ‘these’ are used to indicate choice

When these words are used to indicate choice or to distinguish some things from others, can become ‘the one near’ or ‘the ones near’ or the statement can be reworded.

REWORDED = To write something again using different words in order to make it clearer or more acceptable; e.g.

“I’ll have this,” he said to me.
= He said he would have the one near him.
OR He pointed to/touched/showed/ me the one he wanted.

3. Change of ‘here’ in Indirect Speech

If the reporting verb is in the past ‘here’ becomes ‘there’, but only when it is clear what place is meant; e.g.

At the station he said, “I’ll be here again tomorrow.”
= He said that he’d be there again the next day.

He said, “Come here, boys.”
= He called the boys.

4. Use of THAT as conjunction in Indirect Speech

THAT can usually be omitted after ‘say’ and ‘tell + object’ in the indirect speech. But it should be kept after other verbs such as complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc.; e.g.

I said to my sister, “I brought you a doll yesterday.”
= I told my sister that I had brought her a doll the previous day.
= I told my sister I had brought her a doll the previous day.

He said, “The teacher usually does not ask any question.”
= He said that the teacher usually does not ask any question.
= He said the teacher usually does not ask any question.

“Father”, said son, “The teacher said to me, you are a naughty boy.”
= Son told his father that the teacher had told him that he was a naughty boy.
= Son told his father that the teacher had told him that he was a naughty boy.

5. Change of Personal Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives in Indirect Speech

1. 1st Person according to the subject of the reporting clause
2. 2nd Person according to the object of the reporting clause (If the object is not given pronouns of 2nd person change according to the requirement.)
3. 3rd Person do not change

a) He said to them, “I shall pay your wages tomorrow.”
= He told them that he would pay their wages the next day.

[Personal Pronoun ‘I’ is in the first person, and the subject of the Reporting Clause is ‘he’. Therefore, we’ve changed ‘I’ into ‘he’. Possessive Adjective ‘your’ is in the second person and object of the Reporting Clause is ‘them’. Therefore we’ve changed ‘your’ into ‘their’.]

b) She said to him, “I can give you my book.”
= She told him that she could give him her book.

[Personal Pronoun ‘I’ is in the first person, and the subject of the Reporting Clause is ‘she’. Therefore, we’ve changed ‘I’ into ‘she’. Possessive Adjective ‘my’ is in the first person and object of the Reporting Clause is ‘him’. therefore we’ve changed ‘my’ into ‘her’.]

c) Mohan  said to me, “She alone can save her.”
= Mohan told me that she alone could save her.

[Personal Pronoun ‘She’ is in the third person; therefore we haven’t changed it. Likewise Possessive Adjective ‘her’ is also in the third person; we haven’t changed it.]

NOTE-I: If the pronoun ‘we’ is in a universal truth, it does not change even if the reporting verb is in the past; e.g.

They said, “We cannot live without air.”
= They said that we cannot live without air.

The teacher said, “We all are sinners.”
= The teacher said that we all are sinners.

The saint said, “We are mortals.”
= The saint said that we are mortals.

NOTE-II: When object of the Reporting Verb ‘me’ is included in the subject; e.g.

She said to me, “We are to leave for temple early.”
= She told me that we were to leave for temple early.

NOTE-III: If a plural pronoun like we/our/us is for a newspaper, magazine, etc., we change them to ‘it/its’; e.g.

The Times of India says, “We are trying our best to keep you well informed.”
= The Times of India says that it is trying its best to keep us well informed.

The Pioneer said, “We are not responsible for any error.”
= The Pioneer said that it was not responsible for any error.

6.  Change of words of ‘respect’ and words of ‘affection/love’ in Indirect Speech

Words of respect such as ‘sir’, ‘dear sir’, ‘madam’, ‘my lord’, ‘your honour’, etc. given in the Reported Speech are converted to ‘respectfully’. And words of affection/love such as ‘dear’, ‘my love’ ‘darling’, etc. are converted to ‘affectionately/lovingly’; e.g.

He said to his boss, “Have you finished writing that article, dear Madam?
= He asked his landlord respectfully if she had finished writing that letter.

She said, “Would you wait half an hour, dear?
= She asked lovingly/affectionately if I would wait half an hour.

7. Words/phrases like ‘well’, ‘you see’, ‘okay’, ‘you know’, ‘therefore’, ‘so’, ‘yet’, ‘but’ etc. when used to introduce something you are going to say

Such words/phrases when used this way are omitted when converted into the Indirect Speech; e.g.

She said, “well, I shall accompany you.”
= She told me that she would accompany me.

She said, “you see, you cannot meet the boss.
= She told me that I could not meet the boss.

8.  Correct use of the verbs ‘say’ and ‘tell’ in Indirect Speech

A) In indirect speech we normally use ‘say/tell + object’, but ‘say to + object’ is also correct however is much less usual than ‘tell + object’; e.g.

He said, “I just heard the news.”
= He said that he had just heard the news.
= He told me that he had just heard the news.
= He said to me that he had just heard the news.

B) Though the verb ‘tell’ requires the person address; in ‘tell lies’, ‘tell the truth’, ‘tell story’, the verb ‘tell’ need not be followed by the person addressed necessarily; e.g.

HE told me a lie.
= He told a lie.

I’ll tell you a story.
= I’ll tell a story.

9. Change of tenses in Indirect Speech

If the tense of the reporting verb i.e. tense outside the reported speech is present or future, the tense of the reported speech never changes. But when the reporting verb is in the  past, the tense of the reported verb gets changed in the following manner. However if there is a regular habit, a universal truth, a natural occurrence, proverb or historical fact in the reported speech, the tense is not changed even if the reporting verb is in the past.

Let’s see how these changes are made:

A) PRESENT TENSES
Present tenses change into corresponding past tenses in the following manner:

i) Present Simple Past Simple
ii) Present Continuous Past Continuous
iii) Present Perfect Past Perfect
iv) Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

He said, “The Sun rises in the East.” (a universal truth)
= He said that the Sun rises in the East.

B) PAST TENSES
Past tenses change in the following manner:

i) Past Simple Past Perfect
ii) Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

NOTE: Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Tenses do not change.

More on change in the past tenses:

i) A past tense used to describe ‘a regular habit’, ‘a natural occurrence’, ‘a historical event’, ‘a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported’ remains unchanged; e.g.

a) He said, “Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement.” (an historical event)
= He said that Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement.

b) Our teacher said, “Ashoka left war after the conquest of Kalinga.” (an historical event)
= Our teacher said Ashoka left war after the conquest of Kalinga.

c) He said, “I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.” (a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported)
= He said that he had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

[You see that here the location of the house is the same i.e. it is still on a main road.]

d) He said, “I had a dream last night.” (a natural occurrence)
= He said that he had a dream the previous night.”

ii) In time clauses, Past Simple and Past Continuous tenses do not normally change, and verb of the main clause can either remain unchanged or become the Past Perfect Tense; e.g.

a) He said, “When we were living in Mumbai we often saw Ramesh.”
= He said that when they were living in Mumbai they often saw Ramesh.
= He said that when they were living in Mumbai they had often seen Ramesh.

[Here ‘When we were living in Mumbai’ is the time clause, and ‘we often saw Ramesh’ is the main clause.]

b) He said, “It was three hours since he had fallen asleep.”
= He said that it was three hours since he had fallen asleep.
= He said that it had been three hours since he had fallen asleep.

c) Jagdish said, “We passed by a beautiful lake when we went on a trip to Goa.”
= Jagdish said they passed by a beautiful lake when they went on a trip to Goa.
= Jagdish said they had passed by a beautiful lake when they went on a trip to Goa.

NOTE: We use the past perfect after ‘when’ if we wish to emphasize that the first action was completed before the second one started; e.g.

He said, “When I shut the window she opened the door of the cage. (She waited for the window to be quite shut before opening the cage.)
= He said that when he had shut the window she opened the door of the cage.

iii) Unreal past (subjunctive)
Unreal past tenses after ‘wish’, ‘would rather’, would sooner, ‘It is time’ do not change; e.g.

a) “We wish we didn’t have to take exams,” said the children.
= The children said they wished they didn’t have to take exams.

b) “Raman wants to go alone“ said Reema, “but I’d rather he went with a group.”
= Reema said that Raman wanted to go alone but she’d rather he went with a group.

c) “It’s time we began planning our holidays,” he said.
= He said it was time they began planning their holidays.

iv) When two actions or states, both either in the Past Simple Tense or the Past Continuous Tense take place simultaneously (together), we do not change the tense of the sentence; e.g.

a) Mohan said, “I cleaned and Richa cooked.”
= Mohan said that he cleaned and Richa cooked.

b) “The spectators were cheering while we were playing,” said the players.
= The players reported that the spectators were cheering while they were playing.

C) FUTURE TENSES

Simple future Conditional tense (means both ‘will and shall’ change into  ‘would’.)

NOTE-I: If the subject of the sentence in the Indirect Speech is a pronoun of the Second Person or the Third Person i.e. ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, ‘they’ or ‘you’, the modal verb ‘shall’ normally becomes ‘would’, but if that pronoun is a pronoun of the First Person i.e. ‘I’ or ‘we’, the modal verb ‘shall’ can become either ‘would’ or ‘should’.

Similarly, If the subject of the sentence in the Indirect Speech is a pronoun of the Second Person or the Third Person the modal verb ‘should’ normally becomes ‘would’, but but if that pronoun is a pronoun of the First Person, the modal verb ‘should’ can either remain unchanged or can become ‘would’; e.g.

a) “I shall be 21 tomorrow,” said Raman.
= Raman said he would be 21 the following day/the next day.

(Here ‘shall’ can’t be changed into ‘should’ as the subject of the Indirect Speech is a pronoun of the Second Person i.e. HE.)

b) “If I had the instruction manual I should know what to do,” said Mohan.
= Mohan said that if he had the instruction manual he would know to do.

(Here should’ can’t remain ‘should’, rather it has to be changed into ‘would’ as the subject of the Indirect Speech is a pronoun of the Second Person i.e. HE.)

c) I said, “I should like to see it.”
= I said I would/should like to see it.

[Here, the modal verb ‘should’ can change into either ‘would’ or ‘should’ as the subject of the Indirect Speech is a pronoun of the First Person i.e. ‘I’.]

NOTE-II: When the modal verb ‘shall’ is used in offers, requests for advice and confirmation, etc. then we can also use ‘should’ in the Indirect Speech; e.g.

He said, “Where shall I put this box?”
= He asked where he would/should put the box.

The mother said, “What will I do with so much money, my son!”
= The mother asked her son what she should do with so much money.

10. Change of ‘had better’ into Indirect Speech

‘1st/3rd person + had better’ remains unchanged, but ‘2nd person + had better’ either can remain unchanged or be reported by advise/warn + object + to-infinitive; e.g.

a) He said, “I’d better hurry.”
= He said that he’d better hurry.

(‘1st person + had better’, so there is no change)

b) The children had better go to bed early,” said Mohan.
= Mohan said that the children had better go to bed early.

(‘3rd person + had better’, so there is no change)

c) You’d better not drink the water,” she said.
= She said that I/We had better not drink the water.
= She advised/warned me/us not to drink the water.

(‘2nd person + had better’, so it can be a change there or not.)

d) “What shall I do with this broken cup? Ritu asked. “You’d better throw it away.” said her mother.
= Ritu asked what she should do with the broken cup and her mother told her that she’d better throw it away.
= Ritu asked what she should do with the broken cup and her mother advised her to throw it away.

11. Change of ‘might’ into Indirect Speech

‘Might’ remains unchanged except when used as a request; e.g.

a) He said, “Aman might ring today.”
= He said that Aman might ring that day.

b) “You might post these for me,” he said.
= He asked/requested me to post them for him. (It’s a request here.)

12. Change of ‘ought to’ and ‘should’ into Indirect Speech

‘Ought to’ and ‘should’ for obligation or assumption remain unchanged, but if used to express advice / encouragement / urge / warning, can be reported by ‘advise + object + object + to-infinitive’; e.g.

a) They ought to/should widen this road,” I said.
= I said they ought to/should widen this road.

(It’s an obligation here, so there is no change.)

b) I said, “I should be back by six.” (I assume I will be)
= I said I should be back by six.

(It’s an assumption, so there is no change.)

c) “You ought to/should/must read the instructions,” said Ritu.
= Ritu said that I ought to/should/must read the instructions.
= Ritu advised/urged/warned me to read the instructions.

(It’s advice, urge or warning, so it can be a change there.)

d) She said, “You should take the job, Mohan.”
= She told Mohan that he should take the job.
= She encouraged/advised Mohan to take the job.

(It’s advice or an encouragement, so it can be a change there.

13. Change of ‘If I were you I should/would’ into Indirect Speech

The advice form ‘If I were you I should/would —-’ is reported by ‘advise + object + to-infinitive’; e.g.

“If I were you I’d wait,” I said.
= I advised him to wait.

I said, “Shall I write to Shweta?” “I should have phone her if I were you,” said Jitan.
= I asked if I should write to Shweta and Jitan advised me to phone her.

“I was thinking of going by bus,” said Raja. “I shouldn’t have gone by bus if I were you,” said his aunt
= Raja said he was thinking of going by bus. His aunt advised him not to go by bus.

Richa said to her friend, “If I were you, I would not care for such a man”.
= Richa advised her friend not to care for such a man.

14. Change of ‘I should/would be grateful if you would’ into Indirect Speech

The request form ‘I should/would be (very) grateful if you would —-’ is normally reported by ‘ask + object + to-infinitive’; e.g.

“I’d be very grateful if you’d keep me informed,” he said.
= He asked me to keep him informed.

15. Change of ‘used to’ into Indirect Speech

‘Used to’ doesn’t change; e.g.

“I know the place well because I used to live here.” He explained.
= He explained that he knew the place well because he used to live there.

16. Change of ‘could’ into Indirect Speech

A) ‘Could’ for ability

i) ‘Could’ for present ability
‘Could’ for present ability does not change; e.g.

“I could not stand on my head,” he said.
= He said he could not stand on his head.

ii) ‘Could’ for past ability
‘Could for past ability can remain unchanged or be reported by ‘had been able’; e.g.

“I could read when I was three!” she boasted.
= She boasted that she could read when she was three.
= She boasted that she had been able to read when she was three.

iii) ‘Could’ for future ability
‘Could for future ability can remain unchanged or be reported by ‘would be able to’; e.g.

He said, “I could do it tomorrow.”
= He said he could do it the next day.
= He said he would be able to do it the next day.

iv) ‘Could’ for conditional ability
‘Could’ in type-II conditional sentences can remain unchanged or be reported by ‘would have + V3’; e.g.

“If Asha had the tools I could mend it,” he said.
= He said that if Asha had the tools he could mend it.
OR He said that if Asha had the tools he would have mended it.

NOTE: ‘Could’ in type-III conditional sentences remains unchanged; e.g.

He said, “If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.
= He said that if they had found him earlier they could have saved his life.

B) ‘Could’ for permission

i) ‘Could’ for conditional permission
In type-II conditional sentences expressing permission, ‘could’ can remain unchanged or be reported by ‘would be allowed to’; e.g.

“If I paid my fine I could walk out of prison today,” he said.
= He said if he paid his fine he could walk out of prison that day.
= He said that if he paid his fine he would be allowed to walk out of prison that day.

ii) ‘Could’ for past permission
‘Could’ in the past permission can remain unchanged or be reported by ‘was/were allowed to’ or ‘had been allowed to’; e.g.

He said, “When I was a boy I could stay up as long as I liked.”
= He said that when he was a boy he could stay up as long as he liked.
= He said that when he was a boy he was allowed to stay up as long as he liked.
= He said that when he was a boy he had been allowed to stay up as long as he liked.

NOTE: In all the sentences above ‘when he was a boy’ can be replaced by ‘as a boy’.

C) Could I have
‘Could I have’ is normally reported by ‘ask for’; e.g.

“Could I have a cup of coffee?” she said.
= She asked for a cup of coffee.
= She asked me for a cup of coffee.

17. Change of ‘must’ into Indirect Speech

A) ‘Must’ (Affirmative Sentences)

i) When ‘must’ remains unchanged in the indirect speech

‘Must’ remains unchanged for ‘deductions’ (strong beliefs based on some solid reasoning), ‘permanent commands/prohibitions’, and to express ‘intensions’.

DEDUCTIONS (strong beliefs based on some solid reasoning)

She said, “I’m always running into him, he must live near here!”
= She said that she was always running into him, he must live in the area.

PERMANENT COMMAND

He said, “That door must be kept locked.”
= He said that the door MUST be kept locked.

INTENTION

He said, “We must have a party to celebrate this.”
= He said that they MUST have a party to celebrate it.

ii) When ‘must’ either remains unchanged or becomes ‘would have to’ in the Indirect Speech

When the obligation depends on some future action or the fulfillment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, i.e. when ‘must’ in the Direct Speech is clearly replaceable by ‘will have to’; MUST either remains unchanged or is changed into ‘would have to’; e.g.

a) “If the floods get worse we must leave the house,” he said.
= He said that if the floods got worse they must leave the house.
= He said that if the floods got worse they would have to leave the house.

b) “We must mend the roof properly next year,” he said.
= He said that they must mend the roof properly the following year.
= He said that they would have to mend the roof properly the following year.

c) “When it stops snowing we must start digging ourselves out,” I said.
= I said that when it stopped snowing we must start digging ourselves out.
= I said that when it stopped snowing we would have to start digging ourselves out.

d) “I have just received a letter,” he said. “I must go home.”
= He said that he had just received a letter and must go home.
= He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home.

iii) When ‘must’ can remain unchanged or becomes ‘had to’ in the indirect speech

‘Had to’ can replace ‘must’ for something that is necessary to do, for obligations where times for fulfillment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported: e.g.

a) He said, “I must be there by nine tomorrow.”
= He said that he must be there by nine the next day.
= He said that he had to be there by nine the next day.

b) He said, “I must wash my hands.”
= He said that he must wash his hands.
= He said that he had to wash his hands.

iv) When ‘must’ can remain unchanged or becomes ‘advise + object’ in the Indirect Speech

‘Must’ used for advice can remain unchanged or be reported by ‘advise + object’; e.g.

He said, “You must grow your own vegetables.”
= He said that I must grow my own vegetables.
= He advised me to grow my own vegetables.

[The same thing applies with ‘ought to’ and ‘should’ when the reported speech is a piece of advice.]

v) When ‘must’ changes into ‘demand + to-infinitive’

‘Must’ used for ‘asking of something’ or ‘formal invitations’ or ‘to ask somebody to speak, etc. is reported in the following manner:

i) Demand + to-infinitive
ii) Call on/upon + object + to-infinitive
iii) Urge + object + to-infinitive

a) He said, “I must know your decision soon.”
= He demanded to know my decision soon.

b) Dr Jain said to the crowds, “It must be a peaceful demonstration.”
= Dr Jain called on/upon the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.
= Dr Jain urged the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.

Call on/upon somebody = to formally invite or ask somebody to speak, etc.; e.g.

I now call on/upon the chairman to address the meeting.

Urge = to advise or try to persuade somebody to do something; e.g.

She urged him to stay.]

B) Questions beginning with ‘must’
‘Must’ can remain unchanged here at times, but as ‘must’ in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future it usually becomes ‘had to’; e.g.

“Must you go so soon?” I said.
= I asked him if he had to go so soon.

[If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, ‘must’ will change into ‘has to’ or ‘have to’ as the case may be.]

C) ‘Must not’
‘First Person + must not’ usually remains unchanged. ‘Second and Third Person + must not’ either remains unchanged or is expressed as a negative command; e.g.

He said, “You mustn’t tell anyone.”
= He said that she mustn’t tell anyone.
OR He said that she wasn’t to tell anyone.
OR He told her not to tell anyone.

18. Change of ‘needn’t’ into Indirect Speech

A) Needn’t (Negative Sentences)

i) ‘Needn’t’ can remain unchanged and usually does; e.g.

He said, “You needn’t wait.”
= He said that I needn’t wait.

ii) When ‘needn’t’ either remains unchanged or becomes ‘wouldn’t have to’ in the Indirect Speech

When the obligation depends on some future action or the fulfillment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, ‘needn’t’ either remains unchanged or is changed into ‘wouldn’t have to’; e.g.

I said, “If you can lend me the money I needn’t go to the bank.”
= I said that if he could lend me the money I needn’t go to the bank.
= I said that if he could lend me the money I wouldn’t have to go to the bank.

iii) When ‘needn’t’ can remain unchanged or becomes ‘didn’t have to’ in the Indirect Speech

‘Didn’t have to’ can replace ‘needn’t’ for obligations where times for fulfillment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported: e.g.

He said, “I needn’t be in the office till ten tomorrow morning.”
= He said that he needn’t be in the office till ten the next morning.
= He said that he didn’t have to be in the office till ten the next morning.

B) Questions beginning with ‘need’
‘Need’ can remain unchanged here at times, but as ‘need’ in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future, it usually becomes ‘had to’; e.g.

“Need I finish my pudding?” asked the small boy.
= The small boy asked if he had to finish his pudding.

[If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, ‘need’ will change into ‘has to’ or ‘have to’ according to the requirement.]

19. Change of LET into Indirect Speech

A) Let’s/Let us

i) For a suggestion
LET’S/LET US usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by:

Suggest + gerund
OR
Suggest + Possessive Adjective (my, his, their, etc.) + gerund
OR
Suggest that + subject + V1 without s/es (Present Subjunctive)
OR
Suggest/suggested that + subject + should
OR
Suggest to + object + that
OR
Suggest + noun/pronoun

Examples:

a) He said, “Let’s leave the case at the station.”
= He suggested leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested our leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested that we should leave the case at the station.

b) She said to me, “Let’s have a meeting.”
= She suggested having a meeting.
= She suggested our having a meeting.
= She suggested a meeting.
= She suggested that we should have a meeting.
= She suggested to me that we should have a meeting.

c) He said, “Let’s stop now and finish it later.”
= He suggested stopping then and finishing it later.
= He suggested that we should stop then and finish it later.

d) He said, “Let’s not say anything about it till we hear the facts.”
= He suggested not saying anything about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested saying nothing about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested they shouldn’t say anything till they heard the facts.

e) “Let’s camp by this stream,” said Hema. “If we go on, it may be dark before we find another good place.”
= Hema suggested camping by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested camping by the stream pointing out that if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested their camping by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested that they should camp by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.

f) “Let’s go to the cinema,” said Ved. “Yes, let’s” I said.
= Ved suggested going to the cinema and I agreed.

NOTE-I: But ‘Let’s not’ used alone in answer to an affirmative suggestion is often reported by some phrase such as ‘opposed the idea’ or ‘was against’ etc.; e.g.

“Let’s sell the house.” said Ram. “Let’s not.” said Ritu.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu was against it/the idea.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu opposed the idea.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu was opposed to the idea

NOTE-II: ‘Should + V1’ can be replaced by the subjunctive (pure form of V1); e.g.

I suggest that you be careful.
= I suggest that you should be careful.

ii) For advice or to express a call to an action

‘Let’s/let us’ sometimes expresses a call to an action; it is then usually reported by ‘urge/advice + object + infinitive’; e.g.

The strike leader said, “Let’s show the bosses that we are united.”
= The strike leader urged the workers to show the bosses that they were united.

B) Let + 3rd person

i) For obligations

When ‘let + 3rd person’ expresses an obligation, we normally report them by ‘ought to’ or ‘should’; e.g.

“It’s not my business,” said the postman. ”Let the government do something about it.”
= The postman said that it wasn’t his business and that the government ought to/should do something about it.

ii) For commands

Sometimes, however, ‘let + 3rd person’ expresses a command. It is then usually reported by ‘say/order + be + infinitive’; e.g.

a) “Let the boys clear up this mess.” said the headmaster.
= The headmaster said/ordered that the boys were to clear up the mess.

b) “Let the guards be armed,” he ordered.
= He ordered/said that the guards should be armed.

NOTE: Sometimes ‘let + 3rd + person’ is more a suggestion than a command or advice. In such cases it is usually reported by ‘suggest’ or ‘say + should’; e.g.

She said, “Let them go to their consul.”
= He suggested their going to the consul.
= He suggested that they should go to their consul.
= He said that they should go their consul.

iii) For permission

Here LET = to allow or permit. In this meaning in the direct speech LET changes to ‘may be allowed’ or ‘to let’; e.g.

a) “Let him come with us, mother; I’ll take care of him,” I said.
= I asked/requested my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.
= I asked/requested my mother to allow him to come with us and promised to take care of him.
= I said that he might be allowed to go with us.

b) “Let me go!” the boy said to the policeman.
= The boy asked/requested the policeman to let him go.
= The boy asked/requested the policeman to allow him to go.
= The boy asked the policeman that he might be allowed to go.

c) The officer said to the peon, “Let the man go in”.
= The officer ordered/asked the peon to let the man go in.
= The officer ordered/asked the peon to allow the man to go in.
= The office asked the peon that the man might be allowed to go in

iv) For indifference (don’t care)

‘Let + 3rd + person’ can also indicate the speaker’s indifference; e.g.

a) “The neighbours will complain,” said Ritu. “Let them, “ said Rahul.
= Ritu told Rahul that the neighbor would complain. On this Rahul expressed indifference.
= Rahul said he didn’t mind (if they complained).

b) Sawant said, “Let it rain, I have to go.”
= Sawant persisted that he did not care for the rain and he had to go.

c) Miss Pillai said, “Let my friends say so.”
= Miss Pillai said that she did not care for her friends.

C) Let there be

Here the speaker could be ordering, advising, urging or begging; e.g.

“Let there be no reprisals,” said the widow of the murdered man.
= The widow urged/begged that there should be no reprisals.

20. How to convert suggestions into Indirect Speech

A suggestion can be reported in any of the following manners:

Suggest/suggested + possessive adjective) + gerund
OR
Suggest that + subject + V1 without s/es (present Subjunctive)
OR
Suggest/suggested that + subject + should
OR
Suggest to + object + that
OR
Suggest + noun/pronoun

Examples:

a) Ram said, “Let’s have a meeting.
= Ram suggested having a meeting.
= Ram suggested our having a meeting.
= Ram suggested that they should have a meeting.
= Ram suggested a meeting.

b) Ritu says to Rahim, “You should sell your house.”
= Ritu suggests selling the house.
= Ritu suggests selling his house.
= Ritu suggests that he sells his house.
= Ritu suggests that he should sell his house.
= Ritu suggests to Rahim that he should sell his house.

NOTE: ‘Should + V1’ can be replaced by the subjunctive (pure form of V1); e.g.

I suggest that you be careful.
= I suggest that you should be careful.

21. How to convert ‘what about’ and ‘why not + V1‘ into Indirect Speech

‘What about’ and ‘why not + V1‘ often introduces a suggestion and is then reported by the verb ‘suggest’; e.g.

a) “What about flying?” she said.
= She suggested flying.

b) “I can’t come at 1.00,” said Sangeeta. “Then what about 2.00?” said Tarun.
= Sangeeta said she couldn’t come at 1.00, so Tarun suggested 2.00.

c) She said to her companions, “Why not stay overnight here?”
= She suggested to her companion that they should stay overnight there.

22. How to convert ‘why don’t you’ into Indirect Speech

‘Why don’t you’ often introduces suggestions or advice and is then reported by ‘suggest’ or ‘advise’; e.g.

“I wonder if Rohan is coming,” said Seema. “Why don’t you ask him?” I said.
= Seema wondered if Rohan was coming. I advised her to ask him.
= Seema wondered if Rohan was coming. I suggested asking him.

23. How to convert ‘why + V1into Indirect Speech

Manu said to his friend, “Why help him now?”
= Manu told his friend that it was no use helping him then.

24. How to convert ‘would you mind + gerund’ into Indirect Speech

Would you mind + gerund’ remains the same or it changes into ‘ask + object + to-infinitive’

“Would you mind signing the register?” he said.
= He asked me to sign the register.
= He asked me if I would mind signing the register.

25. How to convert ‘Interrogative Sentences’ into Indirect Speech

A) When there is a question in the direct speech, it’s necessary that we change it to the assertive form. The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in the indirect speech and the full stop is used instead; e.g.

He said, “Where does she live?”
= He asked where she lived.

B) If the question begins with a helping/modal verb we use the conjunction ‘if’ or ‘whether’. If the question begins with a ‘wh-family’ word we use that ‘wh-family’ word itself as conjunction, we don’t use ‘if’ or ‘whether’ in such a case; e.g.

i) Pooja said to me, “Are you busy now?”
= Pooja asked me if/whether I was busy then.

ii) Payal said to Rohan, “I did not go to the movie, did you”?
= Payal told Rohan that she had not gone to the movie and asked him if he had gone.

iii) She said to me, “What are you doing?”
= She asked me what I was doing.

NOTE: But if there is a clause directly after a question word (not a helping verb) it’s not a question at all, rather it’s an ordinary assertive sentence, and hence we convert that sentence into the indirect speech following the rules of assertive sentences. This rule also applies to ‘if/whether’; e.g.

i) She said to me, “When she will come is not certain.”
= She told me that when she would come was not certain.

ii) I said to him, “Whether she will pass is not certain.”
= I told him that whether she would pass was not certain.

iii) Nisha said to her sister, “If you have qualified the test cannot beconfirmed.
= Nisha told her sister that if she had qualified the test could not be confirmed.

iv) Rahul said to Ritesh, “What you are doing is immoral.”
= Rahul told Ritesh that what he was doing was immoral.

C) When the question begins with a helping/modal verb, though we use either ‘if’ or ‘whether’ in the indirect speech, when a choice between two or more things has to be made, we use ‘whether’ (not ‘if’); e.g.

i) “Do you want to go by air or by sea?” asked the travel agent.
= The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea.

ii) After the election, we asked, “Should the parties change their leaders, their policies, or both?”
= After the election, we asked whether the parties should change their leaders, their policies, or both.

INCORRECT: The travel agent asked if I wanted to go by air or by sea.
CORRECT: The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea.

NOTE-I: But if the choice has to be made by just answering ‘yes’ or ‘no’ we can use ‘or not’ with ‘if’ and ‘whether’. With ‘whether’ we can use ‘or not’ immediately after ‘whether’ or in end position. With ‘if’ we use ‘or not’ in end position only; e.g.

“Do you want to insure your luggage or not?” he asked.
= He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage.
= He asked whether I wanted to insure my luggage or not.
= He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

INCORRECT: He asked if or not I wanted to insure my luggage.
CORRECT: He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

NOTE-II: ‘Whether + infinitive’ is possible after ‘wonder’, ‘want to know’; e.g.

“Shall I wait for them or go on?” he wondered.
= He wondered whether he would wait for them or go on.
= He wondered whether to wait for them or go on.

D) The verb ‘ask’ in the indirect speech of an interrogative sentence either can be used alone or followed by an object, but the verbs ‘inquire’, ‘wonder’, or ‘want to know’ cannot take an object; e.g.

a) He said, “What have you got in your bag?”
= He asked what I had got in my bag.
= He asked me what I had got in my bag.

b) He said, “Mary, when is the next train?”
= He asked Mary when the next train was.

[If we use ‘inquire’, ‘wonder’, or ‘want to know’ here we must omit Mary from the indirect speech; e.g. He enquired when the next train was.]

E) ‘Yes’ & ‘No’ answers in questions

‘Yes’ & ‘No’ are expressed in the following way:

Subject + appropriate helping verb
OR
We convert ‘yes’ into ‘answered/replied in the affirmative’; we convert ‘no’ into ‘answered/replied in the negative’

a) He said, “Can you swim?” and I said “NO.”
= He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldn’t.
= He asked (me) if I could swim and I replied/answered in the negative.

b) He said, “Will you have time to do it?” and I said “Yes.”
= He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.
= He asked if I would have time to do it and I replied/answered in the affirmative.

26. How to convert ‘Imperative Sentences’ into Indirect Speech
(commands/orders/requests/advice)

The Imperative sentence in Indirect Speech does not take any conjunction; instead, it takes ‘to-infinitive’ form of the verb of the reported Speech. Sentences containing orders, requests, warnings, advice, etc. are called Imperative Sentences.  In reporting them in the Indirect Speech, the verb of the Reporting Clause ‘said’ has to be replaced by ‘asked’, ‘ordered’, ‘advised’, ‘requested’, ‘warned’, ‘commanded’, etc. depending on the context.

Verbs Advise, Ask, Beg, Command, Forbid, Order, Recommend, Request, Tell, Urge, Warn, Invite are used with an ‘object + infinitive’; e.g.

a) He said, “Get your coat, Mohan!”
= He told Mohan to get his coat.
= He told Mohan that he was to get his coat.
= He asked Mohan to get his coat.

b) “Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said.
= I warned/told/the boys not to swim too far.
= I told the boy that they weren’t to swim too far.
= I forbade the boys to swim too far.
= I forbade the boys from swimming too far.

c) He said, “Don’t open the door.”
= He told me not to open the door.
= He told me that I wasn’t to open the door.
= He forbade me to open the door.
= He forbade me from opening the door.

d) He says, “Meet me at the station.”
= He says that we are to meet at the station.
= He tells us to meet him at the station.

e) He said, “If she leaves the house follow her.”
= He said that if she left the house I was to follow her.
= He told me to follow her if she left the house.

[Note that if we use the ‘tell + infinitive’ structure we must change the order of the sentence so as to put the command first.]

f) “You had better hurry, Rahul!” she said.
= She advised Rahul to hurry.

g) She said to the postman, “Either go or wait.”
= She asked the postman either to go or wait.

h) The lady said to the soldier, “Please do come sometime.”
= The lady requested the soldier to come sometime.

NOTE-I: In direct speech the person addressed i.e. the object is often not mentioned in commands, requests, advice; but in the indirect speech we must add a noun or pronoun with the above mentioned verbs; e.g.

He said, “Go away.”
= He told me/him/her/us/them/the boys/Rahul to go away.

NOTE-II: The verb ‘ask’ differs from the above mentioned verbs as it can be used both with object and without object. The verbs that can follow ‘ask’ without the object being mentioned are ‘see’, ‘speak to’, ‘talk to’; e.g.

He said, “Could I see Ritu, please?”
= He asked to see Ritu.

NOTE-III: We do not use words like ‘kindly’ and ‘please’ in the Indirect Speech; e.g.

She said to me, “Give me that book please.”
= She requested me to give her that book.
[NOT: ‘She kindly requested me to give her that book.]

NOTE-IV: ‘Could’, ‘would’, ‘would like’ used as polite request in interrogative sentences are reported as we do in Imperative Sentences; e.g.

She said to her friend, “Could/would you lend me some money?”
= She requested her friend to lend her some money.

The captain said to the lady, “Would you like to have dinner with me?”
= The captain requested/invited the lady to have dinner with him.

The teacher said to Suhani, “Will you stop talking now?”
= The teacher requested/asked/ordered Suhani to stop talking then.

27. How to convert ‘Exclamatory Sentences’ into Indirect Speech

Exclamatory Sentences are strong feelings of surprise, fear, pleasure, shock or a strong emotion of any other kind; and so, while changing them from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, the sentences are rephrased (re-written) to suit the emotion or feeling given in the original sentences.

Exclamations usually become statements in Indirect Speech. The exclamation mark (!) disappears and the ‘full stop’ (.) takes place instead.

A) How expressions like Alas, Hurray, Wow, Oh, Ah, Fie, Ugh, Well done, Bravo etc. are changed:

i) Alas/Ah exclaim with sorrow
ii) Hurray/Wow exclaim with joy
iii) Fie/Ugh exclaim with anger / disapproval / disappointment /  despise/disgust, etc.
iv) Oh exclaim with surprise/regret, etc.
v) Bravo/Well done shouted with applause, or ‘applaud + object + saying that’

B) Exclamations beginning with ‘what’, ‘how’, etc. can be reported by ‘exclaim/say that’ or ‘give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/surprise, etc.’; e.g.

a) He said, “What a dreadful idea!”
= He exclaimed that it was a very dreadful idea.
= He gave an exclamation of disgust at the idea.

b) He said, “How dreadful!”
= He exclaimed that it was dreadful.
= He gave an exclamation of disgust.

c) You said, “Well done! my friends.”
= You shouted with applause that your friends had done well.

d) The old woman said, “Ah! I am ruined.”
= The old woman exclaimed with sorrow that she was ruined.

e) “Well spoken, “The audience cried.”
= The audience applauded/appreciated his speech that he had spoken well.

NOTE: If the exclamation is followed by an action we can use the construction ‘With an exclamation of delight /disgust, etc. + he/she, etc. + verb’.

C) Exclamations such as Good! /Marvelous! /Splendid! /Heavens! /Oh! /Ugh!, etc. can be reported by ‘give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/surprise, etc.’ or ‘with an exclamation of delight/disgust, etc.’; e.g.

a) “Good!” he exclaimed.
= He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.

b) “UGH!” she exclaimed, and turned the programme off.
= With an exclamation of disgust she turned the programme off.

Also see these example sentences:

a) He observed, “How dirty the house is!”
= He exclaimed that the house was very dirty.

b) He said, “By God! What a good news.”
= He swore by God that it was a very good news.

c) He said to them, “Bravo! You have done well.”
= He applauded them saying that they had done well.

d) The old man said to him, “Fie, you are such a coward.”
= The old man exclaimed that it was shameful that he was such a coward.
= The old man exclaimed with disgust that he was such a coward.

e) He said, “Poor fellow! How changed you are.”
= He pitied the man and exclaimed that he was greatly changed.

f) “Good Heavens!” We have reached the station.” said the boys.
= The boys exclaimed with delight that they had reached the station.

g) “Never! I will never agree to such a proposal,” he said.
= He said that he would absolutely never agree to such a proposal.

h) “Good gracious! I have never heard of such a thing,” he said.
= He was very surprised and said that he had never heard of such a thing.

i) She said to me, “Oh, what a cute little thing you are!”
= She was very excited and said that I was a cute little thing.

j) She said, “How can I do such a foolish work!”
= She thought/wondered how she could do such a foolish work.

k) “Beware, there is a danger, “The captain warned.
= The captain warned the soldiers to beware of the danger.

l) “Be sure, I am always with you,” said the mother.
= The mother assured her daughter that she was always with her.

m) The director said, “What a good dance, Suhani!
=The director remarked with appreciation/applauded that Suhani had danced well and declared that she had won the contest.

n) The king said, “How foolish of me!”
= The king confessed with regret that he was very foolish.

0) Deepa said, “What a pity! you have not succeeded.”
= Deepa exclaimed that it was a pity that he had not succeeded.

28. How to convert ‘Optative Sentences’ into Indirect Speech
(wish, curse, etc.)

a) Mary said, “May God bless you!”
= Mary prayed that God might bless me.

b) He said, “May you succeed in the examination!”
= He wished/prayed that I might succeed in the examination.

c) They said, “Long live the Indo-Russian friendship”
= They wished/prayed that the Indo-Russian friendship might live long.

d) We said, “God save the P.M.!”
= We wished/prayed that the P.M. might live long.

e) She said, “O that I were extremely beautiful!”
= She eagerly wished that she were extremely beautiful.

f) The lady said, “Thanks, I shall never forget this kindness, Arnav.”
= The lady thanked Arnav and assured him that she would never forget the kindness.

g) Richa said, “Congratulation my son, you have won.”
= Richa congratulated her son telling him that he had won.

Also read these example sentences:

a) He said, “Thank you!”
= He thanked me.

b) He said, “Curse this fog!”
= He cursed the fog.

c) He said, “Good luck!”
= He wished me luck.

d) He said, “Happy Holi!”
= He wished me a happy Holi.

e) He said, “Congratulations!”
= He congratulated me.

f) He said, “Liar!”
= He called me a liar.

g) He said, “Damn!”
= He swore.

h) The notice said, “Welcome to Delhi!”
= The notice welcomed visitors to Delhi.

i) I said to him, “May you be happy.”
= I wished that he might be happy.

j) Mother said to me, “May God bless you.”
= Mother prayed for me that God might bless me.
= Mother prayed that God might bless me.

k) He said, “May his soul rest in peace.”
= He prayed that his soul might rest in peace.

l) The girl said, “Oh, had I the wings of dove.”
= The girl wished that she could have the wings of a dove.

m) “Help! Help!” shouted the woman.
=The woman shouted for help.

n) He said, “Good bye, my friends!”
= He bade goodbye to his friends.

o) The teacher said, “Thank you my boys.”
= The teacher thanked the boys.

p) So help me Heaven.” he cried, “I’ll never do so again.”
= He prayed to Heaven to help him and resolved not to do so again.

q) She cried, “God will never pardon you.”
= She bitterly cursed him that God would never pardon him.

29. How to convert ‘verb + to-infinitive’ into Indirect Speech

A) Verb + to-infinitive

‘Offer/long/refuse/volunteer + to-infinitive’ can sometimes be used instead of ‘say’; e.g.

i) Ritu: Would you lend me another Rs 5,000?
Rhahul: No, I won’t lend you any more money.
= Rahul said that he wouldn’t lend her any more money.
= Rahul refused to lend her any more money.

ii) Ranjan: I’ll help you if you like, Ritu.
= Ranjan said that he’d help her if she liked.
= Ranjan offered to help her.

iii) He said, “If you can’t find anyone else, I’ll drive you to the airport.”
= He volunteered to drive me to the airport if I couldn’t find anyone else. (not ‘He volunteered me —-)

B) Verb + object + to-infinitive

‘Assure/command/encourage/instruct/invite/persuade/remind/call on/tell/warn/urge’

i) Ritu: I’ll pay you back next week. Really I will.
= Ritu said that she would pay him back the following week.
= Ritu promised to pay him back the following week.
= Ritu assured him that she would pay him back the following week.

ii) She said, “You should take the job, Mohan.”
= She encouraged/advised Mohan to take the job.

iii) Dr Jain said to the crowds, “It must be a peaceful demonstration.”
= Dr Jain called on the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.
= Dr Jain urged the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.

[Call on/upon somebody= to formally invite or ask somebody to speak, etc.; e.g. I now call on/upon the chairman to address the meeting.

Urge = to advise or try to persuade somebody to do something; e.g. She urged him to stay.]

iv) “Would you like to come on a picnic with us?”, he said.
= He invited us to come on a picnic with them.

v) “Don’t forget to go to the supermarket after work,” he said.
= He reminded me to go to the supermarket after work.

vi) He said, “Stay away from me.”
= He warned me to stay away from him.

C) ‘Verb + to-infinitive’ or ‘Verb + object + to-infinitive’

By using ‘ask/beg/expect/intend’

i) I said, “Could I speak to Mrs Sharma?”
= I asked to speak to Mrs Sharma.

ii) I said, “Mohan, would you speak to her?”
= I asked Mohan to speak to her.

iii) “Let me explain,” she said.
= She begged him/her/me to explain.
= She begged to explain.
= She begged to be allowed to explain

D) ‘Verb + to-infinitive’ or ‘Verb + that-clause’

By using ‘Agree / claim / demand / expect / guarantee / hope / promise / request / swear / threaten / vow, etc.’

[VOW = to make a formal and serious promise to do something or a final statement that is true.; e.g. (i) She vowed never to speak to him again. (ii) He vowed that he had not hurt her. (iii) He vowed eternal friendship.]

i) He said, “He is innocent.”
= He claimed to be innocent.
= He claimed that he was innocent.

ii) She said, “I’ve never seen you before.”
= She swore never to have seen him before.
= She swore not to have seen him ever before.
= She swore (that) she’d never seen him before.

iii) He said, “I must know your decision soon.”
= He demanded to know my decision soon.

iv) “If you don’t give me a pay rise, I’ll resign,” he said.
= He threatened to resign if I/we didn’t give him a pay rise.
= He threatened that I would resign if I/we didn’t give him a pay rise.

v) She said, “I will collect the children from school today.”
= She promised to collect the children from school that day.
= She promised that she would collect the children from school that day.

vi) I said, “The machine parts may be received today.”
= I expected to receive the machine parts that day.
= I expected that the machine parts might be received that day.

vii) The Foreign Minister said, “Please re-open the peace talks.”
= The Foreign Minster requested to re-open the peace talks.
= The Foreign Minister requested that the peace talks should be re-opened.

viii) “We’ll turn back the invaders or die fighting,” said the army leaders.
= The army leaders vowed to turn back the invaders or die fighting.
= The army leaders vowed that they would turn back the invaders or die fighting.

ix) Ritu: Would you wait half an hour?
Rahul: All right.
= Rahul said he would wait.
= Rahul agreed to wait.
= Rahul agreed that he would wait.

E) ‘Verb + object + to-infinitive’ or ‘Verb + that-clause’

By using ‘order’

i) He said, “Let the goods be sent by air.”
= He ordered the goods to be sent by air.
= He ordered that the goods should be sent by air.

ii) He said, “Send the goods by air.”
= He ordered me to send the goods by air.

30. How to convert ‘verb + gerund’ into Indirect Speech

A) Verb + gerund

‘Accuse of/apologize for + gerund’ can sometimes be used instead of ‘sa’; e.g.

i) He said, “You took the money.”
= He said that I had taken the money.
= He accused me of taking the money.

ii) “I’m sorry I’m late,” he said.
= He apologized for being late.

B) ‘Verb + gerund’ or ‘Verb + that-clause’

By using ‘admit/deny/insist/mention/report/suggest’

i) I said, “I stole it.”
= I admitted that I had stolen it.
= I admitted stealing it.

ii) I said, “I didn’t steal it.”
= I denied stealing it.
= I denied that I had stolen it.

iii) Mohan said, “She met Ritu at a conference in Japan.”
= Mohan mentioned that she had met Ritu at a conference in Japan.
= Mohan mentioned meeting Ritu at a conference in Japan.

iv) He said, “I saw bright flashing lights in the sky.”
= He reported that he had seen bright flashing lights in the sky.
= He reported seeing bright flashing lights in the sky.

v) He said, “Let’s leave the case at the station.”
= He suggested leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested our leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested that we should leave the case at the station.

vi) He said, “Let’s not say anything about it till we hear the facts.”
= He suggested not saying anything about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested they shouldn’t say anything till they heard the facts.

vii) Rahul: Let me pay for myself.
Ranjan: Certainly not!
= Ranjan said/insisted that he’d pay for himself.
= Ranjan insisted on paying.

[If you use gerund in the sentence the verb should be ‘insist on’ (not ‘insist’.]

C) ‘Verb + gerund’ or ‘Verb + that-clause’ or ‘Verb + infinitive’

By using ‘propose’

i) They say, “The theatre will be built next to the town hall.”
= They propose building the theatre next to the town hall.
= They propose to build the theatre next to the town hall. (not ‘They  propose them —–‘)
= They propose that they will build the theatre next to the town hall.

ii) The government said, “We’ll close a number of primary schools.”
= The government proposed closing a number of primary schools.
= The government proposed to close a number of primary schools.
= The government proposed that it would close a number of primary schools.

iii) The government said, “To raise more money, it will increase income tax.”
= The government proposed increasing income tax to raise more money.
= The government proposed to increase income tax to raise more money.
= The government proposed that it would increase income tax to raise more money.

NOTE: We use the infinitive after ‘propose’ only when if you intend to do something yourself; e.g.

I propose to focus attention on one type of resource.

INCORRECT: They proposed to me to join the party and work for the welfare of the downtrodden.
CORRECT: They proposed that I should join the party and work for the welfare of the downtrodden.

D) ‘Verb + gerund’ or ‘Verb + that-clause’ or ‘Verb + object + to-infinitive’

By using ‘advise/recommend’

i) My doctor said, “Because you are overweight take more exercise.”
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised taking more exercise.
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised that I should take more exercise.
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised me to take more exercise.

ii) He said, “The subject of holiday pay should be raised at the next meeting.”
= He advised that the subject of holiday pay should be raised at the next meeting.”
= He advised the co-workers to raise the subject of holiday pay at the next meeting.
= He advised raising the subject of holiday pay at the next meeting.

iii) The lecturer said, “Read a number of books before the exam.”
= The lecturer recommended reading a number of books before the exam.
= The lecturer recommended his students to read a number of books before the exam.
= The lecturer recommended that you should read a number of books before the exam.

31. How to convert ‘Conditional Sentences’ into Indirect Speech

A) Type-I Conditional Sentences (basic form)

Tenses change in the usual way; e.g.
She said, “If you work hard you’ll pass the exam.”
= She said if she worked hard she would pass the exam.

B) Type-II Conditional Sentences (basic form)

Tenses do not change; e.g.
He said, “If I had a permit I could get a job.”
= He said that if he had a permit he could get a job.

C) Type-III Conditional Sentences (basic form)

Tenses do not change; e.g.
“If she had loved Jitesh, he said, “she wouldn’t have left him.”
= He said that if she had loved Jitesh she wouldn’t have left him.

D) ‘If-clauses + commands/requests’ in Indirect Speech

He said, “If you have time, wash the floor.” or He said. “If you have time, would you wash the floor?”
= He told/asked me to wash the floor if I had time. or He said that if I had time I was to wash the floor.

E) ‘If-clauses + expressions’ in Indirect Speech

i) “If you feel ill,’ she said, “why don’t you go to bed?” or “If you feel ill,” she said, “you’d better go to bed”
= She advised me to go to bed if I felt ill. or She said that if I felt ill I’d better go to bed. or She said that if I felt ill I should go to bed.

ii) “If I were you I’d stop taking pills.” she said.
= She advised me to stop taking pills.

F) ‘If-clauses + questions’ in Indirect Speech

If-clauses + questions are usually reported with the if-clause last.

i) “If the baby is a girl what will they call her?” he wondered.
= He wondered what they would call the baby if it was a girl.

ii) “If the door is locked what shall I do?” she asked.
= She asked what she would do if the door was locked.

32. How to convert ‘Question Tags’ into Indirect Speech

Question Tag part of a sentence is not converted into the Indirect Speech nor is it used in the Indirect Speech; e.g.

The lady said to her husband, “Prepare a cup of coffee for me, will you?”
= The lady asked her husband to prepare a cup of coffee for her.

She said, “You are playing, aren’t you?”
= She asked me if I was not playing.

The mother asked Arnav, “You did not meet Sonia, did you”?
The mother asked Arnav if he had met Sonia.

Some more important things about Direct and Indirect Speech 

1. ‘Would’ can be used in Indirect Speech for a past routines

“How long does the journey take?” my co-passenger asked me.
= My co-passenger wanted to know how long the journey would take.

2. When we are agree with something we can use the verb ‘admit’ as a Reporting Verb in the Indirect Speech 

“You’re right. I can’t remember where I’ve left the car,” he said.
= He admitted that he couldn’t remember where he had left the car.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

 

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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