ENGLISHEnglish Grammar

DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH

 DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH

CHANGE OF TIME EXPRESSIONS

now  then
today  that day
tonight  that night
yesterday  the day before or the previous day
the day before yesterday  two days before
tomorrow ‘the next day’ or ‘the following day’
the day after tomorrow  in two days’ time or ‘two days later’
next week The next week/the following week
last week ‘the week before’ or ‘the previous week’
ago before
a week ago a week before or the previous week
hence thence
come go (But not always. While changing COME into GO, one must see if it’s making a proper sense.)
so far till then

These changes can happen in two ways:

A) When the reporting verb is in the past (if the reporting verb is in the present or future these changes do not take place); e.g.

a) “I saw her the day before yesterday,” he said.
= He said he had seen her two days before.

b) “I’ll do it tomorrow,” he promised.
= He promised that he would do it the next day/the following day.

c) “I’m starting the day after tomorrow, mother,” he said.
= He told his mother that he was starting in two days’ time.

d) She said, “My father had died a year ago.”
= She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

e) She says,”My father had died a year ago.”
= She says that her father had died a year ago.

(Here you see that the reporting verb ‘SAYS’ is in the present tense; hence the time expression ‘A YEAR AGO’ won’t change.)

f) She will say,”My father had died a year ago.”
= She will say that her father had died a year ago.

(Here you see that the reporting verb ‘WILL SAY’ is in the future tense; hence the time expression ‘A YEAR AGO’ won’t change.)

B) When the speech is made and reported on the same day, these time changes are not made even if the reporting verb is in the past; e.g.

At the breakfast this morning he said, “I’ll be very busy today.”
= At the breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

 

THIS AND THESE

a) As adjectives
If the reporting verb is the past, in time expressions THIS becomes THAT, and THESE becomes THOSE; e.g.

He said, “She is coming this week.”
= He said that she was coming that week.

NOTE-I: But if the reporting verb is in the present or the future, there is no change in THIS and THESE; e.g.

He says, “She is coming this week.”
= She says that she is coming this week.

NOTE-II: Otherwise THIS and THAT as adjectives usually change into THE; e.g.

He said, “I bought these pearls for my mother.”
= He said that he had bought the pearls for his mother.

b) As pronouns
THIS/THAT used as pronouns become IT, and THESE/THOSE becomes THEY/THEM; e.g.

He showed me two bullets and said, “I found these embedded in the paneling.”
= He showed me two bullets and said he had found them embedded in the paneling.

He said, “We will discuss this tomorrow.”
= He said that they would discuss it the next day.

c) As adjectives or pronouns
When these words are used to indicate choice or to distinguish some things from others, can become THE ONE NEAR or THE ONES NEAR or the statement can be reworded.

REWORDED = To write something again using different words in order to make it clearer or more acceptable; e.g.

“I’ll have this,” he said to me.
= He said he would have the one near him.
OR He pointed to/touched/showed/ me the one he wanted.

 

Change of HERE

If the reporting verb is in the past HERE becomes THERE, but only when it is clear what place is meant; e.g.

At the station he said, “I’ll be here again tomorrow.”
= He said that he’d be there again the next day.

He said, “Come here, boys.”
= He called the boys.

 

Use of THAT as conjunction in the indirect speech

THAT can usually be omitted after SAY and TELL + OBJECT in the indirect speech. But it should be kept after other verbs such as complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc; e.g.

I said to my sister, “I brought you a doll yesterday.”
= I told my sister that I had brought her a doll the previous day.
= I told my sister I had brought her a doll the previous day.

He said, “The teacher usually does not ask any question.”
= He said that the teacher usually does not ask any question.
= He said the teacher usually does not ask any question.

 

CHANGE OF PRONOUNS

1. 1st Person according to the subject of the reporting clause
2. 2nd Person according to the object of the reporting clause (If the object is not given pronouns of 2nd person change according to the requirement.)
3. 3rd Person do not change

NOTE-I: If the pronoun WE is in a universal truth, it does not change even if the reporting verb is in the past; e.g.

They said, “We cannot live without air.”
= They said that we cannot live without air.

The teacher said, “We all are sinners.”
= The teacher said that we all are sinners.

NOTE-II: If a plural pronoun like WE/OUR/US is for a newspaper, magazine, etc., we change them to IT/ITS; e.g.

The Times of India says, “We are trying our best to keep you well informed.”
= The Times of India says that it is trying its best to keep us well informed.

 

Words of RESPECT and words of AFFECTION/LOVE

Words of respect such as SIR, DEAR SIR, MADAM, MY LORD, YOUR HOUNOUR, etc. in the Reported Speech are converted to RESPECTFULLY. And Words of affection/love such as DEAR, MY LOVE, DARLING, etc. are converted to AFFECTIONATELY / LOVINGLY; e.g.

He said to his boss, “Have you finished writing that article, dear Madam?
= He asked his landlord respectfully if she had finished writing that letter.

She said, “Would you wait half an hour, dear?
= She asked lovingly/affectionately if I would wait half an hour.

 

Correct use of SAY and TELL in indirect speech

A) In indirect speech we normally use SAY or TELL + OBJECT, but SAY TO + OBJECT is also correct however is much less usual than TELL + OBJECT; e.g.

He said, “I just heard the news.”
= He said that he had just heard the news.
= He told me that he had just heard the news.
= He said to me that he had just heard the news.

B) Though the verb TELL requires the person address; in TELL LIES, TELL THE TRUTH, TELL STORY, the verb TELL need not be followed by the person addressed necessarily; e.g.

HE told me a lie.
= He told a lie.

I’ll tell you a story.
= I’ll tell a story.

 

CHANGE OF TENSE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

If the tense of the reporting verb i.e. tense outside the reported speech is present or future, the tense of the reported speech never changes. But when the reporting verb is in the  past, the tense of the reported verb gets changed in the following manner. However if it’s a universal truth, proverb or historical fact in the reported speech, the tense is not changed even if the reporting verb is in the past:

A) PRESENT TENSES
Present tenses change into corresponding past tenses in the following manner:

i) Present Simple Past Simple
ii) Present Continuous Past Continuous
iii) Present Perfect Past Perfect
iv) Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

B) PAST TENSES
Past tenses change in the following manner:

i) Past Simple Past Perfect
ii) Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

NOTE: Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Tenses do not change.

MORE ON CHANGE IN THE PAST TENSES

1. In time clauses, Past Simple and Past Continuous tenses do not normally change, and verb of the main clause can either remain unchanged or become the Past Perfect; e.g.

a) He said, “When we were living in Mumbai we often saw Ramesh.”
= He said that when they were living in Mumbai they often saw Ramesh.
= He said that when they were living in Mumbai they had often seen Ramesh.

[Here ‘When we were living in Mumbai’ is the time clause, and ‘we often saw Ramesh’ is the main clause.]

b) He said, “It was three hours since he had fallen asleep.”
= He said that it was three hours since he had fallen asleep.
= He said that it had been three hours since he had fallen asleep.

c) Jagdish said, “We passed by a beautiful lake when we went on a trip to Goa.”
= Jagdish said they passed by a beautiful lake when they went on a trip to Goa.
= Jagdish said they had passed by a beautiful lake when they went on a trip to Goa.

NOTE: We use the past perfect after WHEN if we wish to emphasize that the first action was completed before the second one started; e.g.

He said, “When I shut the window she opened the door of the cage. (She waited for the window to be quite shut before opening the cage.)
= He said that when he had shut the window she opened the door of the cage.

2. A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged; e.g.

He said, “I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.”
= He said that he had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

[You see that here the location of the house is the same i.e. it is still on a main road.]

3. UNREAL PAST (SUBJUNCTIVE)
Unreal past tenses after WISH, WOULD RATHER, WOULD SOONER, IT IS TIME do not change; e.g.

a) “We wish we didn’t have to take exams,” said the children.
= The children said they wished they didn’t have to take exams.

b) “Raman wants to go alone, “ said Reema, “but I’d rather he went with a group.”
= Reema said that Raman wanted to go alone but she’d rather he went with a group.

c) “It’s time we began planning our holidays,” he said.
= He said it was time they began planning their holidays.

4. When two actions or states, both either in the Past Simple Tense or the Past Continuous Tense are used in a pair, we do not change the tense of the sentence; e.g.

a) Mohan said,”I cleaned and Richa cooked.”
= Mohan said that he cleaned and Richa cooked.

b) “The spectators were cheering while we were playing.”, said the players.
= The players reported that the spectators were cheering while they were playing.

5. When the simple past tense is used to describe an historical event, we do no not change the tense; e.g.

He said, “Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement.”
= He said that Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement.

C) FUTURE TENSES

Simple future Conditional tense (means both WILL and SHALL change into  WOULD.)

NOTE: Both WILL and SHALL of the indirect speech normally become WOULD, but if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, SHALL can become either WOULD or SHOULD. Similarly SHOULD of the indirect speech normally becomes WOULD, but if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, SHOULD can either remain unchanged or can become WOULD; e.g.

a) “I shall be 21 tomorrow,” said Raman.
= Raman said he would be 21 the following day/the next day. (Here SHALL can’t be changed into SHOULD as the speech is not reported by the original speaker i.e. Raman.)

b) “If I had the instruction manual I should know what to do,” said Mohan.
= Mohan said that if he had the instruction manual he would know to do. (Here SHOULD can’t remain SHOULD, rather it has to be changed into WOULD as the speech is not reported by the original speaker i.e. Mohan.)

c) I said, “I should like to see it.”
= I said I WOULD/SHOULD like to see it. (Here, as the speech is reported by the original speaker i.e. ‘I’, SHOULD can remain SHOULD or can be changed into WOULD also.

NOTE: When SHALL is used in offers, requests for advice and confirmation, etc. then we can also use SHOULD in the indirect speech; e.g.

He said, “Where shall I put this box?”
= He asked where he WOULD/SHOULD put the box.

 

OTHER CHANGES IN INDIRECT SPEECH

1. HAD BETTER
1st/3rd PERSON + HAD BETTER remains unchanged, but 2nd PERSON + HAD BETTER either can remain unchanged or be reported by ADVISE/WARN + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE; e.g.

a) He said, “I’d better hurry.”
= He said that he’d better hurry.

(1st PERSON + HAD BETTER, so no change)

b) The children had better go to bed early,” said Mohan.
= Mohan said that the children had better go to bed early.

(3rd PERSON + HAD BETTER, so no change)

c) You’d better not drink the water,” she said.
= She said that I/WE had better not drink the water.
= She advised/warned me/us not to drink the water.

(2nd PERSON + HAD BETTER, so it can be a change there or not.)

d) “What shall I do with this broken cup? Ritu asked. “You’d better throw it away.” said her mother.
= Ritu asked what she should do with the broken cup and her mother told her that she’d better throw it away.
= Ritu asked what she should do with the broken cup and her mother advised her to throw it away.

2. MIGHT
MIGHT remains unchanged except when used as a request; e.g.

a) He said, “Aman might ring today.”
= He said that Aman might ring that day.

b) “You might post these for me,” he said.
= He asked/requested me to post them for him. (It’s a request here.)

3. OUGHT TO/SHOULD
OUGHT TO and SHOULD for obligation or assumption remain unchanged, but if used to express advice / encouragement / urge / warning, can be reported by ADVISE + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE; e.g.

a) They ought to/should widen this road,” I said.
= I said they ought to/should widen this road.

(It’s an obligation here, so no change.)

b) I said, “I should be back by six.” (I assume I will be)
= I said I should be back by six.

(It’s an assumption, so no change.)

c) “You ought to/should/must read the instructions,” said Ritu.
= Ritu said that I ought to/should/must read the instructions.
= Ritu advised/urged/warned me to read the instructions.

(It’s advice, urge or warning, so it can be a change there.)

d) She said, “You should take the job, Mohan.”
= She told Mohan that he should take the job.
= She encouraged/advised Mohan to take the job.

(It’s advice or an encouragement, so it can be a change there.

4. IF I WERE YOU I SHOULD/WOULD
The advice form ‘IF I WERE YOU I SHOULD/WOULD —-’ is reported by ADVISE + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE; e.g.

“If I were you I’d wait,” I said.
= I advised him to wait.

I said, “Shall I write to Shweta?” “I should have phone her if I were you,” said Jitan.
= I asked if I should write to Shweta and Jitan advised me to phone her.

“I was thinking of going by bus,” said Raja. “I shouldn’t have gone by bus if I were you,” said his aunt
= Raja said he was thinking of going by bus. His aunt advised him not to go by bus.

5. I SHOULD/WOULD BE (very) GRATEFUL IF YOU WOULD
The request form ‘I SHOULD/WOULD BE (very) GRATEFUL IF YOU WOULD —-’ is normally reported by ASK+OBJECT+TO-INFINITIVE; e.g.

“I’d be very grateful if you’d keep me informed,” he said.
= He asked me to keep him informed.

6. USED TO
USED TO doesn’t change; e.g.

“I know the place well because I used to live here.” He explained.
= He explained that he knew the place well because he used to live there.

7. COULD

A) COULD for ability

i) FOR PRESENT ABILITY
COULD for present ability does not change; e.g.

“I could not stand on my head,” he said.
= He said he could not stand on his head.

ii) COULD FOR PAST ABILITY
COULD for past ability can remain unchanged or be reported by HAD BEEN ABLE; e.g.

“I could read when I was three!” she boasted.
= She boasted that she could read when she was three.
= She boasted that she had been able to read when she was three.

iii) COULD FOR FUTURE ABILITY
COULD for future ability can remain unchanged or be reported by WOULD BE ABLE TO; e.g.

He said, “I could do it tomorrow.”
= He said he could do it the next day.
= He said he would be able to do it the next day.

iv) COULD FOR CONDITIONAL ABILITY
COULD in TYPE-II conditional sentences can remain unchanged or be reported by WOULD BE ABLE TO; e.g.

“If Asha had the tools I could mend it,” he said.
= He said that if Asha had the tools he could mend it.
OR He said that if Asha had the tools he would have mended it.

NOTE: COULD in TYPE-III conditional sentences remains unchanged; e.g.

He said, “If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.
= He said that if they had found him earlier they could have saved his life.

B) COULD FOR PERMISSION

i) COULD FOR CONDITIONAL PERMISSION
In TYPE-II conditional sentences expressing permission, COULD can remain unchanged or be reported by WOULD BE ALLOWED TO; e.g.

“If I paid my fine I could walk out of prison today,” he said.
= He said if he paid his fine he could walk out of prison that day.
= He said that if he paid his fine he would be allowed to walk out of prison that day.

ii) COULD IN PAST PERMISSION
COULD in the past permission can remain unchanged or be reported by WAS/WERE ALLOWED TO or HAD BEEN ALLOWED TO; e.g.

He said, “When I was a boy I could stay up as long as I liked.”
= He said that when he was a boy he could stay up as long as he liked.
= He said that when he was a boy he was allowed to stay up as long as he liked.
= He said that when he was a boy he had been allowed to stay up as long as he liked.

NOTE: In all the sentences above WHEN HE WAS A BOY can be replaced by AS A BOY.

C) COULD I HAVE
‘’COULD I HAVE’ is normally reported by ‘ASK FOR’; e.g.

“Could I have a cup of coffee?” she said.
= She asked for a cup of coffee.
= She asked me for a cup of coffee.

7, MUST

A) MUST (Affirmative Sentences)

i) When MUST remains unchanged in the indirect speech

MUST remains unchanged for DEDUCTIONS (strong beliefs based on some solid reasoning), PERMANENT COMMANDS/PROHIBITIONS, and to express INTENTIONS.

DEDUCTIONS (strong beliefs based on some solid reasoning)

She said, “I’m always running into him, he must live near here!”
= She said that she was always running into him, he MUST live in the area.

PERMANENT COMMAND

He said, “That door must be kept locked.”
= He said that the door MUST be kept locked.

INTENTION

He said, “We must have a party to celebrate this.”
= He said that they MUST have a party to celebrate it.

ii) When MUST either remains unchanged or becomes WOULD HAVE TO in the indirect speech

When the obligation depends on some future action or the fulfillment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, i.e. when MUST in the direct speech is clearly replaceable by WILL HAVE TO, MUST either remains unchanged or is changed into WOULD HAVE TO; e.g.

a) “If the floods get worse we must leave the house,” he said.
= He said that if the floods got worse they must leave the house.
= He said that if the floods got worse they would have to leave the house.

b) “We must mend the roof properly next year,” he said.
= He said that they must mend the roof properly the following year.
= He said that they would have to mend the roof properly the following year.

c) “When it stops snowing we must start digging ourselves out,” I said.
= I said that when it stopped snowing we must start digging ourselves out.
= I said that when it stopped snowing we would have to start digging ourselves out.

d) “I have just received a letter,” he said. “I must go home.”
= He said that he had just received a letter and must go home.
= He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home.

iii) When MUST can remain unchanged or becomes HAD TO in the indirect speech

‘HAD TO’ can replace MUST for something that is necessary to do, for obligations where times for fulfillment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported: e.g.

a) He said, “I must be there by nine tomorrow.”
= He said that he must be there by nine the next day.
= He said that he had to be there by nine the next day.

b) He said, “I must wash my hands.”
= He said that he must wash his hands.
= He said that he had to wash his hands.

iv) When MUST can remain unchanged or becomes ADVISE + OBJECT in the indirect speech

MUST used for ADVICE can remain unchanged or be reported by ADVISE+OBJECT; e.g.

He said, “You must grow your own vegetables.”
= He said that I MUST grow my own vegetables.
= He ADVISED ME to grow my own vegetables.

[The same thing applies with OUGHT TO and SHOULD when the reported speech is a piece of advice.]

v) When MUST changes into DEMAND + TO-INFINITIVE
MUST used for ASKING OF SOMETHING or FORMAL INVITATIONS or TO ASK SOMEBODY SPEAK, ETC. is reported in the following manner:

DEMAND + TO-INFINITIVE

CALL ON/UPON + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE

URGE + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE

a) He said, “I must know your decision soon.”
= He demanded to know my decision soon.

b) Dr Jain said to the crowds, “It must be a peaceful demonstration.”
= Dr Jain called on/upon the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.
= Dr Jain urged the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.

[(i) CALL ON/UPON SOMEBODY= to formally invite or ask somebody to speak, etc.; e.g.

I now call on/upon the chairman to address the meeting.

(ii) URGE = to advise or try to persuade somebody to do something; e.g.

She urged him to stay.]

B) MUST QUESTIONS
MUST can remain unchanged here at times, but as MUST in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future it usually becomes HAD TO; e.g.

“Must you go so soon?” I said.
= I asked him if he had to go so soon.

[If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, MUST will change into HAS TO or HAVE TO as the case may be.]

C) MUST NOT
FIRST PERSON + MUST NOT usually remains unchanged. SECOND AND THIRD PERSON + MUST NOT either remains unchanged or is expressed as a negative command; e.g.

He said, “You mustn’t tell anyone.”
= He said that she mustn’t tell anyone.
OR He said that she wasn’t to tell anyone.
OR He told her not to tell anyone.

8. NEEDN’T

A) NEEDN’T (Negative Sentences)

i) NEEDN’T can remain unchanged and usually does; e.g.

He said, “You needn’t wait.”
= He said that I needn’t wait.

ii) When NEEDN’T either remains unchanged or becomes WOULDN’T HAVE TO in the indirect speech

When the obligation depends on some future action or the fulfillment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, NEEDN’T either remains unchanged or is changed into WOULDN’T HAVE TO; e.g.

I said, “If you can lend me the money I needn’t go to the bank.”
= I said that if he could lend me the money I needn’t go to the bank.
= I said that if he could lend me the money I WOULDN’T HAVE TO go to the bank.

iii) When NEEDN’T can remain unchanged or becomes DIDN’T HAVE TO in the indirect speech

DIDN’T HAVE TO can replace NEEDN’T for obligations where times for fulfillment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported: e.g.

He said, “I needn’t be in the office till ten tomorrow morning.”
= He said that he needn’t be in the office till ten the next morning.
= He said that he didn’t have to be in the office till ten the next morning.

B) NEED QUESTIONS
NEED can remain unchanged here at times, but as NEED in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future, it usually becomes HAD TO; e.g.

“Need I finish my pudding?” asked the small boy.
= The small boy asked if he had to finish his pudding.

[If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, NEED will change into HAS TO or HAVE TO according to the requirement.]

9. LET

A) LET’S/LET US

i) FOR A SUGGESTION
LET’S/LET US usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by:

SUGGEST + GERUND

OR

SUGGEST + POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE (my, his, their, etc) + GERUND

OR

SUGGEST THAT + SUBJECT + V1 without S/ES (present Subjunctive)

OR

SUGGEST THAT + SUBJECT + SHOULD

OR

SUGGESTED THAT + SUBJECT + V2

OR

SUGGESTED THAT + SUBJECT + SHOULD

OR

SUGGEST TO + OBJECT + THAT

OR

SUGGEST + NOUN/PRONOUN

EXAMPLES:

a) He said, “Let’s leave the case at the station.”
= He suggested leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested our leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested that we should leave the case at the station.

b) She said to me, “Let’s have a meeting.”
= She suggested having a meeting.
= She suggested our having a meeting.
= She suggested a meeting.
= She suggested that we should have a meeting.
= She suggested to me that we should have a meeting.

c) He said, “Let’s stop now and finish it later.”
= He suggested stopping then and finishing it later.
= He suggested that we should stop then and finish it later.

d) He said, “Let’s not say anything about it till we hear the facts.”
= He suggested not saying anything about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested saying nothing about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested they shouldn’t say anything till they heard the facts.

NOTE: ‘LET’S NOT + VERB’ can also be reported by such constructions; e.g.

He was against saying anything about it till they heard the facts.

e) “Let’s camp by this stream,” said Hema. “If we go on, it may be dark before we find another good place.”
= Hema suggested camping by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested camping by the stream pointing out that if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested their camping by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.
= Hema suggested that they should camp by the stream as if they went on it might be dark before they found another good place.

f) “Let’s go to the cinema,” said Ved. “Yes, let’s” I said.
= Ved suggested going to the cinema and I agreed.

NOTE-I: But ‘LET’S NOT’ used alone in answer to an affirmative suggestion is often reported by some phrase such as OPPOSED THE IDEA or WAS AGAINST etc; e.g.

“Let’s sell the house.” said Ram. “Let’s not.” said Ritu.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu was against it/the idea.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu opposed the idea.
= Ram suggested selling the house but Ritu was opposed to the idea

NOTE-II: SHOULD+V1 can be replaced by the subjunctive (pure form of V1); e.g.

I suggest that you be careful.
= I suggest that you should be careful.

ii) FOR ADVICE or TO EXPRESS A CALL TO AN ACTION
LET’S/LET US sometimes expresses a call to an action; it is then usually reported by URGE/ADVICE + OBJECT + INFINITIVE; e.g.

The strike leader said, “Let’s show the bosses that we are united.”
= The strike leader urged the workers to show the bosses that they were united.

B) LET + 3rd PERSON

i) FOR OBLIGATION
When ‘LET + THIRD PERSON’ expresses an obligation, we normally report them by OUGHT/SHOULD; e.g.

“It’s not my business,” said the postman. ”Let the government do something about it.”
= The postman said that it wasn’t his business and that the government ought to/should do something about it.

ii) FOR COMMAND
Sometimes, however, ‘LET + THIRD PERSON’ does express a command. It is then usually reported by ‘SAY/ORDER + BE + INFINITIVE’; e.g.

a) “Let the boys clear up this mess.” said the headmaster.
= The headmaster said/ordered that the boys were to clear up the mess.

b) “Let the guards be armed,” he ordered.
= He ordered/said that the guards should be armed.

iii) FOR GIVING PERMISSION
Here LET = to allow or permit. In this meaning in the direct speech LET changes to MAY BE ALLOWED or TO LET; e.g.

a) “Let him come with us, mother; I’ll take care of him,” I said.
= I asked/requested my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.
= I asked/requested my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.
= I said that he might be allowed

b) “Let me go!” the boy said to the policeman.
= The boy asked/requested the policeman to let him go.

c) The officer said to the peon, “Let the man go in”.
= The officer ordered/asked the peon to allow the man to go in.

NOTE-I: LET can be converted to TO LET in this meaning of LET; e.g.

a) Hari said to Seema, “Let the children go to play.”
= Hari ordered Seema to let the children go to play.
= Hari told Seema that the children might be allowed to go to play.

b) We said, “Let him tell the story.”
= We said that he might be allowed to tell the story.

c) She said, “Let him eat whatever he likes.”
= She said that he might be allowed to eat whatever he liked.

iv) FOR SUGGESTION
Sometimes ‘LET + THIRD PERSON’ is more a suggestion than a command or advice. In such cases it is usually reported by SUGGEST, or SAY + SHOULD; e.g.

She said, “Let them go to their consul.”
= He suggested their going to the consul.
= He suggested that they should go to their consul.
= He said that they should go their consul.

v) FOR INDIFFERENCE
‘LET + THIRD PERSON’ can also indicate the speaker’s indifference; e.g.

“The neighbours will complain,” said Ritu. “Let them, “ said Rahul.
= Ritu told Rahul that the neighbor would complain. On this Rahul expressed indifference.
= Rahul said he didn’t mind (if they complained).

C) LET = ALLOW/PERMIT
LET is also an ordinary verb meaning ALLOW/PERMIT; e.g.

a) “Let him come with us, mother; I’ll take care of him,” I said.
= I asked/requested my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.

b) “Let me go!” the boy said to the policeman.
= The boy asked/requested the policeman to let him go.

c) The officer said to the peon, “Let the man go in”.
= The officer ordered/asked the peon to allow the man to go in.

NOTE-I: LET can be converted to TO LET in this meaning of LET; e.g.

Hari said to Seema, “Let the children go to play.”
= Hari ordered Seema to let the children go to play.
= Hari told Seema that the children might be allowed to go to play.

D) LET THERE BE
Here the speaker could be ordering, advising, urging or begging; e.g.

“Let there be no reprisals,” said the widow of the murdered man.
= The widow urged/begged that there should be no reprisals.

10. SUGGESTION
A suggestion can be reported in any of the following manners:

Suggest/suggested + (Possessive adjective) + Gerund

OR

Suggest that + Subject + V1 without S/ES (present Subjunctive)

OR

Suggest that + Subject + Should

OR

Suggested that + Subject + V2

OR

Suggested that + Subject + Should

OR

Suggest to + Object + That

OR

Suggest + noun/pronoun

EXAMPLES:

a) Ram said, “Let’s have a meeting.
= Ram suggested having a meeting.
= Ram suggested our having a meeting.
= Ram suggested that they should have a meeting.
= Ram suggested a meeting.

b) Ritu says to Rahim, “You should sell your house.”
= Ritu suggests selling the house.
= Ritu suggests selling his house.
= Ritu suggests that he sells his house.
= Ritu suggests that he should sell his house.
= Ritu suggests to Rahim that he should sell his house.

NOTE: SHOULD+V1 can be replaced by the subjunctive (pure form of V1); e.g.

I suggest that you be careful.
= I suggest that you should be careful.

11.  WHAT ABOUT
‘WHAT ABOUT’ often introduces a suggestion and is then reported by SUGGEST; e.g.

a) “What about flying?” she said.
= She suggested flying.

b) “I can’t come at 1.00,” said Sangeeta. “Then what about 2.00?” said Tarun.
= Sangeeta said she couldn’t come at 1.00, so Tarun suggested 2.00.

12. WHY DON’T YOU
‘WHY DON”T YOU’ often introduces suggestions or advice and is then reported by SUGGEST or ADVICE; e.g.

“I wonder if Rohan is coming,” said Seema. “Why don’t you ask him?” I said.
= Seema wondered if Rohan was coming. I advised her to ask him.
= Seema wondered if Rohan was coming. I suggested asking him.

13. WOULD YOU MIND
‘WOULD YOU MIND + GERUND’

“Would you mind signing the register?” he said.
= He asked me to sign the register.
= He asked me if I would mind signing the register.

14. WOULD for past routine

“How long does the journey take?” my co-passenger asked me.
= My co-passenger wanted to know how long the journey would take.

15. ADMIT

“You’re right. I can’t remember where I’ve left the car,” he said.
= He admitted that he couldn’t remember where he had left the car.

 

 INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

a) When it’s a question in the direct speech, it’s necessary that we change it to the assertive form. The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in the indirect speech and the full stop is used instead; e.g.

He said, “Where does she live?”
= He asked where she lived.

b) If the question begins with a helping/modal verb we use the conjunction IF or WHETHER. If the question begins with a WH-FAMILY word we use that WH-FAMILY word itself as conjunction, we don’t use IF or WHETHER in such a case; e.g.

a) Pooja said to me, “Are you busy now?”
= Pooja asked me if/whether I was busy then.

b) She said to me, “What are you doing?”
= She asked me what I was doing.

c) When the question begins with a helping/modal verb, though we use either IF or WHETHER in the indirect speech, when a choice between two or more things has to be made, we use WHETHER (not IF); e.g.

a) “Do you want to go by air or by sea?” the travel agent asked.
= The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea.

b) After the election, we asked, “Should the parties change their leaders, their policies, or both?”
= After the election, we asked whether the parties should change their leaders, their policies, or both.

INCORRECT: The travel agent asked if I wanted to go by air or by sea.
CORRECT: The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea.

NOTE-I: But if the choice has to be made by just answering YES or NO we can use OR NOT with IF and WHETHER. With WHETHER we can use OR NOT immediately after WHETHER or in end position. With IF we use OR NOT in end position only; e.g.

“Do you want to insure your luggage or not?” he asked.
= He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage.
= He asked whether I wanted to insure my luggage or not.
= He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

INCORRECT: He asked if or not I wanted to insure my luggage.
CORRECT: He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

NOTE-II: WHETHER + INFINITIVE is possible after WONDER, WANT TO KNOW; e.g.

“Shall I wait for them or go on?” he wondered.
= He wondered whether he would wait for them or go on.
= He wondered whether to wait for them or go on.

d) The verb ASK in the indirect speech of an interrogative sentence either can be used alone or followed by an object, but the verbs INQUIRE, WONDER, or WANT TO KNOW cannot take an object; e.g.

a) He said, “What have you got in your bag?”
= He asked what I had got in my bag.
= He asked me what I had got in my bag.

b) He said, “Mary, when is the next train?”
= He asked Mary when the next train was.

[If we use INQUIRE, WONDER or WANT TO KNOW here we must omit Mary from the indirect speech; e.g. He enquired when the next train was.]

e) YES & NO answers in questions
YES and NO are expressed in either of the following way:

Subject + Appropriate helping verb

OR

We convert YES into ANSWERED/REPLIED IN THE AFFIRMATIVE; we convert NO into ANSWERED/REPLIED IN THE NEGATIVE

a) He said, “Can you swim?” and I said “NO.”
= He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldn’t.
= He asked (me) if I could swim and I replied/answered in the negative.

b) He said, “Will you have time to do it?” and I said “Yes.”
= He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.
= He asked if I would have time to do it and I replied/answered in the affirmative.

 

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES (Commands/Orders/Requests/Advice)

Verbs ADVISE, ASK, BEG, COMMAND, FORBID, ORDER, RECOMMEND, REQUEST, TELL, URGE, WARN, INVITE are used with an OBJECT + INFINITIVE; e.g.

a) He said, “Get your coat, Mohan!”
= He told Mohan to get his coat.
= He told Mohan that he was to get his coat.
= He asked Mohan to get his coat.

b) “Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said.
= I warned/told/the boys not to swim too far.
= I told the boy that they weren’t to swim too far.
= I forbade the boys to swim too far.
= I forbade the boys from swimming too far.

c) He said, “Don’t open the door.”
= He told me not to open the door.
= He told me that I wasn’t to open the door.
= He forbade me to open the door.
= He forbade me from opening the door.

d) He says, “Meet me at the station.”
= He says that we are to meet at the station.
= He tells us to meet him at the station.

e) He said, “If she leaves the house follow her.”
= He said that if she left the house I was to follow her.
= He told me to follow her if she left the house.

[Note that if we use the TELL + INFINITIVE structure we must change the order of the sentence so as to put the command first.]

f) “You had better hurry, Rahul!” said she.
= She advised Rahul to hurry.

NOTE-I: In direct speech the person addressed i.e. the object is often not mentioned in commands, requests, advice; but in the indirect speech we must add a noun or pronoun with the above mentioned verbs; e.g.

He said, “Go away.”
= He told me/him/her/us/them/the boys/Rahul to go away.

NOTE-II: The verb ASK differs from the above mentioned verbs as it can be used both with object and without object. The verbs that can follow ASK without the object being mentioned are SEE, SPEAK TO, TALK TO; e.g.

He said, “Could I see Ritu, please?”
= He asked to see Ritu.

NOTE-III: We do not use words like KINDLY and PLEASE in the indirect speech; e.g.

She said to me, “Give me that book please.”
= She requested me to give her that book.
[NOT ‘She kindly requested me to give her that book.]

 

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

Exclamations usually become statements in indirect speech. The exclamation mark (!) disappears and the FULL STOP (.) takes place instead.

A) How expressions like ALAS, HURRAY, WOW, OH, AH, FIE, UGH, WELL DONE, BRAVO, etc are changed:

i) Alas/Ah exclaim with sorrow
ii) Hurray/Wow exclaim with joy
iii) Fie/Ugh exclaim with anger / disapproval / disappointment /  despise/disgust, etc.
iv) Oh exclaim with surprise/regret, etc
v) Bravo/Well done shouted with applause, or ‘applaud + object + saying that’

b) Exclamations beginning with WHAT, HOW, etc can be reported by ‘Exclaim/Say That’ or ‘Give an Exclamation of Delight/Disgust/Horror/Relief/Surprise, etc’; e.g.

a) He said, “What a dreadful idea!”
= He exclaimed that it was a very dreadful idea.
= He gave an exclamation of disgust at the idea.

b) He said, “How dreadful!”
= He exclaimed that it was dreadful.
= He gave an exclamation of disgust.

c) You said, “Well done! my friends.”
= You shouted with applause that your friends had done well.

d) The old woman said, “Ah! I am ruined.”
= The old woman exclaimed with sorrow that she was ruined.

NOTE: If the exclamation is followed by an action we can use the construction ‘With an exclamation of delight /disgust, etc + He/she, etc+Verb’.

c) Exclamations such as Good! /Marvelous! /Splendid! /Heavens! /Oh! /Ugh!, etc can be reported by ‘Give an exclamation of Delight/Disgust/Horror/Relief/Surprise, etc’ or ‘With an exclamation of Delight/Disgust, etc’; e.g.

a) “Good!” he exclaimed.
= He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.

b) “UGH!” she exclaimed, and turned the programme off.
= With an exclamation of disgust she turned the programme off.

NOTE ALSO

a) He observed, “How dirty the house is!”
= He exclaimed that the house was very dirty.

b) He said, “By God! What a good news.”
= He swore by God that it was a very good news.

c) He said to them, “Bravo! You have done well.”
= He applauded them saying that they had done well.

d) The old man said to him, “Fie, you are such a coward.”
= The old man exclaimed that it was shameful that he was such a coward.
= The old man exclaimed with disgust that he was such a coward.

e) He said, “Poor fellow! How changed you are.”
= He pitied the man and exclaimed that he was greatly changed.

f) “Good Heavens!” We have reached the station.” said the boys.
= The boys exclaimed with delight that they had reached the station.

 

OPTATIVE SENTENCES

(wish, curse, etc)

a) Mary said, “May God bless you!”
= Mary prayed that God might bless me.

b) He said, “May you succeed in the examination!”
= He wished/prayed that I might succeed in the examination.

c) They said, “Long live the Indo-Russian friendship”
= They wished/prayed that the Indo-Russian friendship might live long.

d) We said, “God save the P.M.!”
= We wished/prayed that the P.M. might live long.

e) She said, “O that I were extremely beautiful!”
= She eagerly wished that she were extremely beautiful.

NOTE ALSO

1. He said, “Thank you!”
= He thanked me.

2. He said, “Curse this fog!”
= He cursed the fog.

3. He said, “Good luck!”
= He wished me luck.

4. He said, “Happy Holi!”
= He wished me a happy Holi.

5. He said, “Congratulations!”
= He congratulated me.

6. He said, “Liar!”
= He called me a liar.

7. He said, “Damn!”
= He swore.

8. The notice said, “Welcome to Delhi!”
= The notice welcomed visitors to Delhi.

9. I said to him, “May you be happy.”
= I wished that he might be happy.

10. Mother said to me, “May God bless you.”
= Mother prayed for me that God might bless me.
= Mother prayed that God might bless me.

11. He said, “May his soul rest in peace.”
= He prayed that his soul might rest in peace.

12. The girl said, “Oh, had I the wings of dove.”
= The girl wished that she could have the wings of a dove.

13. “Help! Help!” shouted the woman.
=The woman shouted for help.

14. He said, “Good bye, my friends!”
= He bade goodbye to his friends.

15. The teacher said, “Thank you my boys.”
= The teacher thanked the boys.

16. So help me Heaven.” he cried, “I’ll never do so again.”
= He prayed to Heaven to help him and resolved not to do so again.

 

VERB+TO-INFINITIVE

A) VERB+TO-INFINITIVE
OFFER /LONG /REFUSE /VOLUNTEER + TO-INFINITIVE can sometimes be used instead of SAY; e.g.

1. RITU: Would you lend me another Rs 5,000?
RAHUL: No, I won’t lend you any more money.
= Rahul said that he wouldn’t lend her any more money.
= Rahul refused to lend her any more money.

2. RANJAN: I’ll help you if you like, Ritu.
= Ranjan said that he’d help her if she liked.
= Ranjan offered to help her.

3. He said, “If you can’t find anyone else, I’ll drive you to the airport.”
= He volunteered to drive me to the airport if I couldn’t find anyone else. (not HE VOLUNTEERED ME ….)

B) VERB+OBJECT+TO-INFINITIVE
By using ASSURE /COMMAND /ENCOURAGE /INSTRUCT /INVITE /PERSUADE /REMIND /CALL ON /TELL /WARN /URGE

1. RITU: I’ll pay you back next week. Really I will.
= Ritu said that she would pay him back the following week.
= Ritu promised to pay him back the following week.
= Ritu assured him that she would pay him back the following week.

2. She said, “You should take the job, Mohan.”
= She encouraged/advised Mohan to take the job.

3. Dr Jain said to the crowds, “It must be a peaceful demonstration.”
= Dr Jain called on the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.
= Dr Jain urged the crowds to demonstrate peacefully.

[(a) CALL ON/UPON SOMEBODY= to formally invite or ask somebody to speak, etc.; e.g. I now call on/upon the chairman to address the meeting. (b) URGE = to advise or try to persuade somebody to do something; e.g. She urged him to stay.]

4. “Would you like to come on a picnic with us?”, he said.
= He invited us to come on a picnic with them.

5. “Don’t forget to go to the supermarket after work,” he said.
= He reminded me to go to the supermarket after work.

6. He said, “Stay away from me.”
= He warned me to stay away from him.

C) ‘VERB + TO-INFINITIVE’ or ‘VERB + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE’
By using ASK/BEG/EXPECT/INTEND

1. I said, “Could I speak to Mrs Sharma?”
= I asked to speak to Mrs Sharma.

2. I said, “Mohan, would you speak to her?”
= I asked Mohan to speak to her.

3. “Let me explain,” she said.
= She begged him/her/me to explain.
= She begged to explain.
= She begged to be allowed to explain

D) ‘VERB + TO-INFINITIVE’ or ‘VERB + THAT-CLAUSE’
By using AGREE /CLAIM /DEMAND /EXPECT /GUARANTEE /HOPE /PROMISE /REQUEST /SWEAR /THREATEN /VOW, etc.

[VOW = to make a formal and serious promise to do something or a final statement that is true.; e.g. (i) She vowed never to speak to him again. (ii) He vowed that he had not hurt her. (iii) He vowed eternal friendship.]

1. He said, “He is innocent.”
= He claimed to be innocent.
= He claimed that he was innocent.

2. She said, “I’ve never seen you before.”
= She swore never to have seen him before.
= She swore not to have seen him ever before.
= She swore (that) she’d never seen him before.

3. He said, “I must know your decision soon.”
= He demanded to know my decision soon.

4. “If you don’t give me a pay rise, I’ll resign,” he said.
= He threatened to resign if I/we didn’t give him a pay rise.
= He threatened that I would resign if I/we didn’t give him a pay rise.

5. She said, “I will collect the children from school today.”
= She promised to collect the children from school that day.
= She promised that she would collect the children from school that day.

6. I said, “The machine parts may be received today.”
= I expected to receive the machine parts that day.
= I expected that the machine parts might be received that day.

7. The Foreign Minister said, “Please re-open the peace talks.”
= The Foreign Minster requested to re-open the peace talks.
= The Foreign Minister requested that the peace talks should be re-opened.

8. “We’ll turn back the invaders or die fighting,” said the army leaders.
= The army leaders vowed to turn back the invaders or die fighting.
= The army leaders vowed that they would turn back the invaders or die fighting.

9. RITU: Would you wait half an hour?
RAHUL: All right.
= Rahul said he would wait.
= Rahul agreed to wait.
= Rahul agreed that he would wait.

E) ‘VERB + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE’ or ‘VERB + THAT-CLAUSE’
By using ORDER

1. He said, “Let the goods be sent by air.”
= He ordered the goods to be sent by air.
= He ordered that the goods should be sent by air.

2. He said, “Send the goods by air.”
= He ordered me to send the goods by air.

 

VERB+GERUND

A) VERB + GERUND
ACCUSE OF/ APOLOGIZE FOR+ GERUND (ing form of the verb) can sometimes be used instead of SAY; e.g.

1. He said, “You took the money.”
= He said that I had taken the money.
= He accused me of taking the money.

2. “I’m sorry I’m late,” he said.
= He apologized for being late.

B) ‘VERB + GERUND’ or ‘VERB + THAT-CLAUSE’
By using ADMIT/ DENY/ INSIST/ MENTION/ REPORT/ SUGGEST

1. I said, “I stole it.”
= I admitted that I had stolen it.
= I admitted stealing it.

2. I said, “I didn’t steal it.”
= I denied stealing it.
= I denied that I had stolen it.

3. Mohan said, “She met Ritu at a conference in Japan.”
= Mohan mentioned that she had met Ritu at a conference in Japan.
= Mohan mentioned meeting Ritu at a conference in Japan.

4. He said, “I saw bright flashing lights in the sky.”
= He reported that he had seen bright flashing lights in the sky.
= He reported seeing bright flashing lights in the sky.

5. He said, “Let’s leave the case at the station.”
= He suggested leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested our leaving the case at the station.
= He suggested that we should leave the case at the station.

6. He said, “Let’s not say anything about it till we hear the facts.”
= He suggested not saying anything about it till they heard the facts.
= He suggested they shouldn’t say anything till they heard the facts.

7. RAHUL: Let me pay for myself.
RANJAN: Certainly not!
= Ranjan said/insisted that he’d pay for himself.
= Ranjan insisted on paying.

[If you use gerund in the sentence the verb should be INSIST ON, not INSIST.]

C) ‘VERB + GERUND’ or ‘VERB + THAT-CLAUSE’ or ‘VERB + INFINITIVE’
By using PROPOSE

1. They say, “The theatre will be built next to the town hall.”
= They propose building the theatre next to the town hall.
= They propose to build the theatre next to the town hall. (not THEY PROPOSE THEM ….)
= They propose that they will build the theatre next to the town hall.

2. The government said, “We’ll close a number of primary schools.”
= The government proposed closing a number of primary schools.
= The government proposed to close a number of primary schools.
= The government proposed that it would close a number of primary schools.

3. The government said, “To raise more money, it will increase income tax.”
= The government proposed increasing income tax to raise more money.
= The government proposed to increase income tax to raise more money.
= The government proposed that it would increase income tax to raise more money.

NOTE: We use the infinitive after PROPOSE only when if you intend to do something yourself; e.g.

I propose to focus attention on one type of resource.

INCORRECT: They proposed to me to join the party and work for the welfare of the downtrodden.
CORRECT: They proposed that I should join the party and work for the welfare of the downtrodden.

D) ‘VERB + GERUND’ or ‘VERB + THAT-CLAUSE’ or ‘VERB + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE’
By using ADVISE/RECOMMEND

1. My doctor said, “Because you are overweight take more exercise.”
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised taking more exercise.
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised that I should take more exercise.
= Because I was overweight, my doctor advised me to take more exercise.

2. He said, “The subject of holiday pay should be raised at the next meeting.”
= He advised that the subject of holiday pay should be raised at the next meeting.”
= He advised the co-workers to raise the subject of holiday pay at the next meeting.
= He advised raising the subject of holiday pay at the next meeting.

3. The lecturer said, “Read a number of books before the exam.”
= The lecturer recommended reading a number of books before the exam.
= The lecturer recommended his students to read a number of books before the exam.
= The lecturer recommended that you should read a number of books before the exam.

 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN INDIRECT SPEECH

A) TYPE-I CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (basic form)

Tenses change in the usual way; e.g.
She said, “If you work hard you’ll pass the exam.”
= She said if she worked hard she would pass the exam.

B) TYPE-II CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (basic form)

Tenses do not change; e.g.
He said, “If I had a permit I could get a job.”
= He said that if he had a permit he could get a job.

C) TYPE-III CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (basic form)

Tenses do not change; e.g.
“If she had loved Jitesh, he said, “she wouldn’t have left him.”
= He said that if she had loved Jitesh she wouldn’t have left him.

D) IF-CLAUSES + COMMANDS /REQUESTS IN INDIRECT SPEECH 

He said, “If you have time wash the floor.” or He said. “If you have time would you wash the floor?”
= He told/asked me to wash the floor if I had time. or He said that if I had time I was to wash the floor.

E) IF-CLAUSES + EXPRESSIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH

1. “If you feel ill,’ she said, “why don’t you go to bed?” or “If you feel ill,” she said, “you’d better go to bed”
= She advised me to go to bed if I felt ill or She said that if I felt ill I’d better go to bed. or She said that if I felt ill I should go to bed.

2. “If I were you I’d stop taking pills.” she said.
= She advised me to stop taking pills.

F) IF-CLAUSES + QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH
If-clauses + questions are usually reported with the if-clause last.

1. “If the baby is a girl what will they call her?” he wondered.
= He wondered what they would call the baby if it was a girl.

2. “If the door is locked what shall I do?” she asked
= She asked what she would do if the door was locked.

 

CONVERTING QUESTION TAGS INTO INDIRECT SPEECH

Question Tag part of a sentence is not converted into the Indirect Speech; e.g.

The lady said to her husband, “Prepare a cup of coffee for me, will you?”
= The lady asked her husband to prepare a cup of coffee for her.

 

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

 

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
Previous post

SSC Delhi Police CONSTABLE EXAM RESULTS, CUT-OFFS, RANKS

Next post

LAST DATE OF PAYMENT OF FEE OF MTS EXAM-2020 EXTENDED

Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

No Comment

Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *