Error FindingPractice Sets - English

ERROR FINDING – PRACTICE SET-6 – SOLVED (Hindi & English)

Error Finding — Practice Set-6 — Solved (Both Hindi & English)

NUMBER OF QUESTIONS: 25                                                            MAXIMUM TIME: 10 minutes

1. She always fed /her children /before she fed her dog. / NE

2. This is / the man whose all sons / are mad. / NE

3. Vikash is younger / than I / by at least three years. /NE

4. What kind/ of a man / you are! / NE

5. I have picked / a basket of oranges / but none is sweet and tasty. /NE

6. He / died of / an accident. NE

7. My sister doesn’t know / whether / tomorrow will be a holiday for her. /NE

8. It had laid / in the closet / for a week before we found it. / NE

9. Our office building comprises / seven floors and a restaurant at the top in an / area of about eight hundred sq. metres. / NE

10. These all / mangoes / are ripe. /NE

11. They gave / witness to / their faith. / NE

12. I have not come across / many people / who think of thing beyond / their daily work. NE

13. The Indian way of thinking is superior / to most of the / countries of the world. / Ne

14. He was present / in the court / to give witness. /NE

15. I am / too glad / to meet you. / NE

16. This is the woman / that always wears / a black shawl to work. / NE

17. Nothing but trees / were seen / in the garden. / NE

18. What to speak of food / even water / was not available there. / NE

19. No proposal should aim to seek funding with a view to use it / for achieving a partial fulfillment of goals / without any plan for completing the remainder. / NE

20. She was to have married / my brother but she had been killed in a plane crash / a month before the wedding date. / NE

21. Mohan wishes / he will be / richer. / NE

22. Go slowly / otherwise we might meet / with an accident. / NE

23. The museum’s revolving doors / stopped the crooks / as they jam half way round. / NE

24. Everyone gathered around grandmother / to listen to her stories /which were interesting and very animated. / NE

25. With a lot of persuasion / Mrinal was able to get the professor to agree / to review her article. / NE

Answer Key

1. D 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. A
11. D 12. C 13. B 14. B 15. B 16. C 17. B 18. A 19. A 20. B
21. B 22. A 23. C 24. A 25. B

Solution with explanation (in Hindi)

1. No error. वाक्य के दोनों ही clauses में habitual actions दिए गये हैं. जब किसी वाक्य के दोनों ही clauses में habitual actions दिए गये हों तो दोनों ही clauses में Simple Tenses का use किया जाता है. इस वाक्य में क्योंकि past की बात है तो यहाँ दोनों clauses में Past Simple Tense का ही use होगा.

2. Replace ‘whose all sons’ by ‘all of whose sons’ in part ‘B’. किसी noun से पहले यदि कोई ‘all’ वाला possessive adjective आना हो तो ‘all of + whose + noun’ का use किया जाता है.

3. No error. Adjective ‘younger’ का use करके comparison करते हुए कुछ लोग ‘to’ का use करते हैं, लेकिन यह गलत होता है क्योंकि जिन adjectives के अंत में ‘er’ आता है उन का use करके comparison करते हुए ‘than’ का use होता है; और जिन adjectives के अंत में ‘ior’ आता है जैसे  superior, inferior etc. उन का use करके comparison करते हुए ‘to’ का use होता है.

इसके अतिरिक्त कुछ लोग ‘than’ के बाद objective pronouns like Me, Them, etc. का use करते हैं, लेकिन ये हमेशा सही नहीं होता, देखना पड़ता है. अगर किसी वाक्य के subject का comparison किया जा रहा हो तो subjective case की pronouns जैसे कि ‘I’, We, He, They, etc. का use होता है; अगर किसी object का comparison किया जा रहा हो तो objective case की pronouns जैसे कि Me, Us, Him, Them, etc. का use होता है; e.g.

a) He is as slow as I. (not ‘me’ क्योंकि यहाँ subject ‘he’ का comparison किया जा रहा है)
b) You run faster than he. (not ‘him’ क्योंकि यहाँ subject ‘you’ का comparison किया जा रहा है)
c) He loves you as much as me. (not I क्योंकि यहाँ object ‘you’ का comparison किया जा रहा है)

4. Remove the article ‘A’ before ‘man’ from part ‘B’. निम्नलिखित के बाद प्रयुक्त हुई nouns के पहले कोई article use नहीं किया जाता.

Type of Kind of Sort of Variety of

INCORRECT: She does not like this kind of the movies.
CORRECT: She does not like this kind of movies.

INCORRECT: Recently I have bought a new variety of the horses.
CORRECT: Recently I have bought a new variety of horses.

INCORRECT: What sort of a person he is!
CORRECT: What sort of person he is!

NOTE: Interrogative sentences में Kind of, Type of, Sort of के बाद article use किया जा सकता है लेकिन फिर meanings बिल्कुल अलग हो जाते हैं; जैसे

a) What kind of poet is he?
b) What kind of a poet is he?

[इन दोनों ही sentences के एकदम से भिन्न अर्थ हैं. पहले sentence में किसी poet के trade या occupation के बारे में यह पूछा गया है कि वह poet romantic कविताएँ लिखता है या sad कविताएँ लिखता है जबकि दूसरे में उस poet की  कविता लिखने की निपुणता  व क्षमता, आदि के बारे में पूछा गया है, अर्थात वह किसी कविता की रचना ढंग से कर भी पाता है कि नहीं.]

5. Replace ‘is’ by ‘are’ in part ‘C’. ‘None’ के बाद की verb हम singular भी use कर सकते हैं और plural भी, ये इस बात पर निर्भर करता है कि ‘none’ का use singular noun के लिए किया गया है अथवा plural noun के लिए; जैसे

a) I’m always looking for inspiration. None ever comes. (‘Inspiration’ एक singular noun है जिसके लिए pronoun ‘none’ का use हुआ है, और इसलिए ही verb भी यहाँ singular form में use हुई है.)

b) She’s always looking for ideas. None ever come. (‘Ideas’ एक plural noun है जिसके लिए pronoun ‘none’ का use हुआ है, और इसलिए ही verb भी यहाँ plural form में use हुई है.)

c) None of this furniture is ready to use yet. (‘Furniture’ एक uncountable noun है जिसके लिए pronoun ‘none’ का use हुआ है, सभी uncountable nouns के लिए singular verb को use किया जाता है.)

दिए गये sentence में pronoun ‘none’ का use ‘oranges’ के लिए हुआ है जो एक plural noun है.

NOTE: ‘None of’ के बाद verb singular भी use की जा सकती है और plural भी, ये हमारी मर्जी पर होता है; जैसे

None of these suggestions is very helpful.
= None of these suggestions are very helpful.

6. Replace ‘died of’ by ‘died in’ in part ‘B’. Verb ‘die’ के साथ preposition ‘of’ या ‘from’ तब use किया जाता है जब कोई किसी बीमारी अथवा कोई चोट लगने पर मर जाता है, नहीं तो इसके साथ कोई दूसरा suitable preposition use किया जाता है. कोई ‘accident’ न तो कोई बीमारी है और न ही कोई injury, ‘accident’ होना तो कोई घटना होती है.

7. Replace ‘will be’ by ‘is’ in part ‘C’. sentence के सन्दर्भ (context) के अनुसार कल छुट्टी का होना पहले से ही निर्धारित हो चुका है. future में घटित होने वाली ऐसी घटनाओं जिनका होना पहले से ही निर्धारित हो चुका हो; के लिए Present Simple Tense का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) Today match starts at 9 a.m.
b) The Mumbai Rajdhani Express leaves at 5 in the evening.
c) When does the shop open?
d) His marriage comes off next Friday.

8. Replace ‘laid’ by ‘lain’ in part ‘A’ क्योंकि यहाँ verb का कोई object नहीं दिया गया है. Translation in Hindi: यह एक सप्ताह से अलमारी (closet) में पड़ी हुई थी इस से पहले की हम इसे ढूंड पाते.

Verbs ‘lay’ और ‘lie’ का use हमें अक्सर confuses कर देता है क्योंकि दोनों का अर्थ एक ही होता है. Lay = किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु को flat position में नीचे रखना. Lie = किसी का flat position में होना. अगर हम दोनों ही verbs के अर्थों को देखें तो पाएंगे कि इन दोनों ही का use एक ही तरह के सन्दर्भ में होता है. लेकिन इन दोनों के uses में फर्क है .

Three Forms of these verbs:

I II III
Lay Laid Laid
Lie Lay Lain

A) LAY

Verb ‘lay’ एक transitive verb होती है, अर्थात इसका कोई न कोई object आवश्यक रूप से होता है, जैसे

a) Lay the child on the bed. (यहाँ verb ‘lay’ का object (child) दिया हुआ है, अतः ये verb ‘lay’ की 1st form है.)
b) I laid the book on the table. (यहाँ verb ‘laid’ का object (book) दिया हुआ है, अतः ये verb ‘lay’ 2nd form है.)
c) The hen has laid an egg. (यहाँ verb ‘has laid’ का object (egg) दिया हुआ है, अतः ये verb ‘lay’ की 3rd form है.)

B) LIE

The verb ‘lie’ is an intransitive verb, means it doesn’t take an object; e.g.

a) The boy lay on the sofa and slept. (यहाँ verb ‘lay’ का कोई object नहीं दिया हुआ है, अतः यह verb ‘lie’ की 2nd form है)
b) Let me lie. (यहाँ verb ‘lie’ का कोई object नहीं दिया हुआ है, अतः यह verb ‘lie’ की 1st formहै.)
c) How long had he lain there? (यहाँ verb ‘had lain’ का कोई object नहीं दिया हुआ है, अतः यह verb ‘lie’ की 3rd form है.)
d) I love to lie on a beach and read.
e) She lay on the bed and gazed at the ceiling, daydreaming.
f) The dog was lying by the gate waiting for me to come home.

NOTE: Verb ‘lie’ का एक अर्थ कुछ झूठ बोलना भी होता है, इस अर्थ में इसकी three forms ये होती हैं:

I II III
Lie Lied Lied

Example:
I lied to my teacher about my homework. (= मैं अपने अध्यापक से अपने homework के बारे में झूठ बोला.)

9. Replace ‘and’ by ‘with’ in part ‘B’. कोई restaurant किसी building की एक पूरी की पूरी floor पर बना होता है या किसी floor के एक हिस्से में, अर्थात जिस restaurant की बात की जा रही है वह उस  building  की 7 floors का हिस्सा ही है, अतः यहाँ आप conjunction ‘and’ का use नहीं कर सकते. लेकिन ‘and’ को किसी अन्य word से बदले जाने की जरूरत है, context के अनुसार इसको यहाँ हम preposition ‘with’ से बदलेंगे.

10. Replace ‘these all’ by ‘all these’ or ‘all of these’ in part ‘A’. अगर किसी noun के पहले कोई determiner [articles, possessives (my, our, your, etc.) अथवा demonstratives (this, these, that, those)] हो तो हम उस determiner के पहले ‘all’ या ‘all of’ का use करते हैं, बाद में नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: I have sent an invitation to my all friends.
CORRECT: I have sent an invitation to all my friends. OR I have sent an invitation to all of my friends.

11. No error. In one of the meanings अपने एक अर्थ में ‘give witness’ = किसी चीज में भरोसा जताना

Translation in Hindi: उन्होंने अपने भाग्य पर भरोसा जताया.

12. Replace ‘thing’ by ‘a thing’ or ‘things’ in part ‘C क्योंकि ‘thing’ एक countable noun होती है.

13. Replace ‘to most of’ by ‘to that of most’ in part ‘B’ क्योंकि comparison यहाँ India और अन्य देशों के बीच नहीं है, बल्कि यह भारत के लोगों के सोचने का तरीका (way of thinking in India) और अन्य देशों के लोगों के सोचने के तरीके (way of thinking in other countries) के बीच में है.  अतः यहाँ हमे ‘way of thinking’ के लिए एक pronoun चाहिए; स्पष्टतया ये ‘that’ ही होगी. इसे और समझिये:

याद रखें की कोई भी Comparison हमेशा एक ही तरह की वस्तुओं के बीच होता है, अतः ‘that/to’ के पश्चात उन वस्तुओं के लिए एक उचित pronoun ka use आवश्यक बन जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: The price of this table is as much as that table.
CORRECT: The price of this table is as much as that of that table.

INCORRECT: The climate of Shimla is better than Delhi.
CORRECT: The climate of Shimla is better than that of Delhi.

INCORRECT: The people of Mumbai are more hard-working than Banglore.
CORRECT: The people of Mumbai are more hard-working than those of Banglore.

14. Remove the article ‘the’ before the noun ‘court’ in part ‘B’. जब किसी court/bed/church/hospital/prison/school/college/university में वहां जाने के प्राथमिक (primary) उद्देश्य के लिए जाया जाता है तो इनमें से किसी के पहले article ‘the’ का use नहीं किया जाता. यदि कोई आदमी witness देने या कोई मुकदमा  लड़ने के लिए court जाता है तो वहां जाने का ये प्राथमिक उद्देश्य होता है. ‘To give witness’ का यहाँ use पूर्णतया शुद्ध है.

Give witness = किसी बात के सच होने का प्रमाण (evidence) देना

15. Replace ‘too’ by ‘very’ in part ‘B’. Construction ‘too — to’ ka use नकारात्मक (negative) बातों को कहने के लिए किया जाता है; सकारात्मक (positive) बातों को कहने के लिए ‘very — to’ construction का use होता है. दिए गये वाक्य में एक सकारात्मक बात कही गयी है.

Translation in Hindi: मुझे तुमसे मिलकर बहुत ख़ुशी हुई.

COMPARE:
a) She is too weak to climb a tree. (= वह इतनी कमजोर है कि किसी पेड़ पर चढने में समक्ष नहीं है.)
b) She is very happy to meet me. (उसको मुझे तुमसे मिलकर बहुत ख़ुशी हुई.)

16. Replace ‘to work’ by ‘for work’ in part ‘C’. Preposition ‘to’ का use किसी motion की verb (जिस कार्य के करने से किसी आदमी का स्थान बदलता रहता है)  के लिए किया जाता है; static verbs (जिनको करने से स्थान नहीं बदलता) के लिए हम ‘for’ का use करते हैं. जब कोई आदमी कुछ पहनता (wear) है तो उसको इधर उधर नहीं जाना पड़ता, मतलब यह static verb है; जैसे

He drives to work by car. [गाडी चलाने (drive) करने में आदमी का स्थान बदलता रहता है; अर्थात यह एक motion verb है.]

17. Replace ‘were’ by ‘was’ in part ‘B’. देखिये ‘nothing but trees’ में वास्तविक subject ‘nothing’ है, और ‘nothing’ के साथ किसी verb की singular form ही use होती है. ‘But’ तो यहाँ एक preposition है; अतः वास्तविक subject ‘trees’ नहीं हो सकता.

Translation in Hindi: बाग़ में पेड़ों के अलावा कुछ भी नहीं था.

ये भी पढ़िए:

‘With’, ‘along with’, ‘as well as’, etc. के साथ subject-verb agreement

यदि किसी वाक्य के subject में दो nouns/pronouns निम्नलिखित में से किसी से भी जुडी होती हैं तो verb इनमें से पहली noun या pronoun के अनुसार प्रयुक्त होती है. हालाँकि words का ऐसा group पूरा का पूरा subject ही प्रतीत होता है लेकिन ऐसा होता नहीं है:

with together with as well as accompanied by
headed by guided by governed by led by
dominated by controlled by run by in addition to
like unlike and not rather than
but besides except no less than
along with

INCORRECT: He, and not his friends, are guilty.
CORRECT: He, and not his friends, is guilty.

INCORRECT: He together with his friends are coming today.
CORRECT: He together with his friends is coming today.

INCORRECT: All the teachers as well as the principal has decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.
CORRECT: All the teachers as well as the principal have decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.

INCORRECT: Nothing but cars are sold here.
CORRECT: Nothing but cars is sold here.

INCORRECT: Everyone but you do work regularly.
CORRECT: Everyone but you does work regularly.

INCORRECT: She and not her friends are guilty.
CORRECT: She and not her friends is guilty.

18. Replace ‘what to speak of’ by ‘not to speak of’ in part ‘A’. जब भी हम ये कहना चाहते हैं कि किसी अन्य बात का जिक्र करना ही उचित नहीं है तो हम ‘not to speak of’ का use करते हैं.

19. Replace ‘use’ by ‘using’ in part ‘A’. निम्नलिखित के बाद या हम कोई noun ही use कर सकते हैं या फिर कोई gerund (ing form). परन्तु इन के बाद अगर कोई action दिया हुआ हो तो हम सिर्फ gerund ही use कर सकते हैं, कोई noun नहीं. ऊपर दिए गये sentence में ‘with a view to’ के बाद action use दिया हुआ हुआ है तो यहाँ हम सिर्फ gerund ही use कर सकते हैं, अर्थात ‘using’ ही  use कर सकते हैं.

accustomed to habituated to owing to be/become/get used to
addicted to in addition to with a view to
averse to look forward to prone to
devoted to object to taken to

a) I am looking forward to your reply. (‘Reply’ एक noun है)
b) I am looking forward to receiving my payment soon. (‘Receiving’ एक gerund है)

a) I am used to noise. (‘Noise’ एक noun है)
b) I am used to working in a noisy environment. (‘Working’ एक gerund है)

a) This road is prone to accidents. (‘Accidents’ एक noun है)
b) In his youth he was prone to gambling. (‘Gambling’ एक gerund है)
[PRONE =  likely to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic]

He comes to me with a view to getting some help.

My father is addicted to smoking.

NOTE: ‘Used to’ के बाद अगर ‘be/become/get’ नहीं दिया हुआ हो तो हम फिर gerund की अपेक्षा infinitive (V1) use करते हैं; जैसे

‘I used to smoke earlier.’

20. Replace ‘had been killed’ by ‘was killed’ in part ‘B’. दिए गये sentence में ‘before’ एक preposition है, conjunction नहीं. एक conjunction के रूप में ‘before’ का use सिर्फ clauses के पहले ही किया जा सकता है, लेकिन ‘the wedding date’ कोई clause नहीं है क्योंकि न तो इसमें subject है और न ही verb. क्योंकि sentence का सन्दर्भ (context) past time का है तो यहाँ Past Simple Tense ही use होगा, हाँ, अगर इसका use किसी clause के पहले होता तो किसी और tense के use के बारे में भी सोचा जा सकता था.

Translation in Hindi: उसकी मेरे भाई से शादी होनी थी लेकिन शादी की तारीख से एक महीना पहले ही वह एक plane crash में मारी गयी.

21. Replace ‘will be’ by ‘were’ in part ‘B’. Verb ‘wish’ का use यदि किसी that-clause के पहले हुआ हो तो उस that-clause में present या future tenses का use नहीं किया जाता, बल्कि past tenses का use ही किया जाता है. Verb ‘wish’ के use में clause से पहले ‘that’ का use optional होता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: I wish I have a car.
CORRECT: I wish I had a car. OR I wish that I had a car.

22. Replace ‘slowly’ by ‘slow’ in part ‘A’. ‘Slow’ एक adjective भी हो सकता है और एक adverb भी, जबकि ‘slowly’ एक adverb ही होती है. ‘Go slowly’ इस sentence का imperative part है, जैसा की हम imperative sentences में देखते हैं. Imperative sentences/clauses में adverb ‘slow’ का use किया जाता है, adverb ‘slowly’ का नहीं. Adverb ‘slowly’ का use सिर्फ उन sentences में ही किया सकता है जो sentence imperative नहीं होते; जैसे

Compare:
a) Drive slow. (Imperative sentence)
b) He drives slowly. (Not an imperative sentence)

23. Replace ‘jam’ by ‘jammed’ in part ‘C’. यहाँ Word ‘museum’s’ का प्रयोग बिल्कुल सही रूप में हुआ है. किसी निर्जीव वस्तु का possessive उसके साथ (‘s) को add करके भी बनाया जा सकता है बशर्ते कि उन निर्जीव वस्तुओं में किसी प्रकार की मानवीय क्रियाएं होती हों; जैसे .

a) the game’s history (or the history of the game)
b) the book’s author (or the author of the book)
c) the college’s president (or the president of the college)
d) the plan’s importance (or the importance of the plan)

24. Place the possessive adjective ‘his’ before the noun ‘grandmother’ in part ‘A’. Rule:

कुछ शब्द जैसे कि Anybody, Everybody, Everyone, Anyone, Each, आदि से यह पता ही नहीं लगता है कि उनमें सिर्फ पुरुष हैं या सिर्फ स्त्रियाँ हैं या फिर उनमें पुरुष और स्त्रियाँ दोनों ही विद्यमान हैं; ऐसे शब्दों के लिए हमेशा पुरुषवाचक सर्वनामों का प्रयोग ही शुद्ध होता है; और वे सर्वनाम (pronouns) singular form में use की जाती हैं; जैसे

a) Anyone can do this sum if he tries.
b) Everyone has to do his work.
c) Each of them has submitted his report.

25. Replace ‘to agree’ by ‘agreed’ in part ‘B’. यदि कोई घटना किसी past time में घटित हुई हो तो ‘get + object’ के साथ V3 का use होता है. उपर्युक्त sentence में verb was से पता लगता है कि यह घटना किसी past time में घटित हुई है.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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Solution with explanation (in English)

1. No error. Actions in both the clauses are habitual actions. For habitual actions in both the clauses we use Simple Tenses at both places (not The Past Simple Tenses and the Past Perfect Tense in togetherness). In this sentence because it’s a past habitual activity, we’ll use the Past Simple Tense in both the clauses.

2. Replace ‘whose all sons’ by ‘all of whose sons’ in part ‘B’. When a noun has a possessive adjective having the word ‘all’ we use ‘all of + whose + noun’ structure.

3. No error. Some people use ‘to’ instead of ‘than’ while comparing people using the adjective ‘younger’. But it’s incorrect. Remember one thing, if the words end with ‘er’ then use ‘than’; if the words end with ‘ior’ like superior, inferior etc. then use ‘to’.

Also, some people tend to use the objective pronouns like Me, Them, etc. after ‘than’, but it’s also incorrect. In fact it all depends on the persons/things being compared. If the subject is being compared we use the pronouns in the subjective case like ‘I’, We, He, They, etc.; if a object is being compared we use the pronouns in the objective case like Me, Us, Him, Them, etc.; e.g.

a) He is as slow as I. (not ‘me’ as the subject ‘he’ is being compared)
b) You run faster than he. (not ‘him’ as the subject ‘you’ is being compared)
c) He loves you as much as me. (not I as the object ‘you’ is being compared)

4. Remove the article ‘A’ before ‘man’ from part ‘B’. We do not use an article with nouns used after the following:

Type of Kind of Sort of Variety of

INCORRECT: She does not like this kind of the movies.
CORRECT: She does not like this kind of movies.

INCORRECT: Recently I have bought a new variety of the horses.
CORRECT: Recently I have bought a new variety of horses.

INCORRECT: What sort of a person he is!
CORRECT: What sort of person he is!

NOTE: In interrogative sentences, we can use A/AN after Kind of, Type of, Sort of, but in this case meanings will be entirely different; e.g.

a) What kind of poet is he?
b) What kind of a poet is he?

[Both these sentences have different meanings. The first sentence asks about the person’s trade or occupation, means whether he composes romantic or sad, etc. Whereas the second sentence asks about the person’s proficiency or capability, whether he composes good or not.]

5. Replace ‘is’ by ‘are’ in part ‘C’. Verb after ‘none’ is either singular or plural depending on what it is referring to; e.g.

a) I’m always looking for inspiration. None ever comes. (‘Inspiration’ is singular, so the verb is also singular)
b) She’s always looking for ideas. None ever come. (‘Ideas’ is plural, so the verb is also plural)
c) None of this furniture is ready to use yet.

In the given sentence you see ‘none’ has been used for ‘oranges’, which is plural.

NOTE: Verb after ‘none of’ is optional, means it’s our wish whether we use it in singular or plural form; e.g.

None of these suggestions is very helpful.
= None of these suggestions are very helpful.

6. Replace ‘died of’ by ‘died in’ in part ‘B’. With the verb ‘die’ we use preposition ‘of’ or ‘from’ when one dies because of injuries or any illness, otherwise we use any other suitable preposition with the verb ‘die’. An ‘accident’ is neither an illness nor an injury, it’s an event rather.

7. Replace ‘will be’ by ‘is’ in part ‘C’. According to the context the plan for tomorrow’s holiday has already been decided, means it’s a part of a fixed timetable now. To express an event that is a part of a fixed timetable we use the Present Simple Tense to express future. In other words we can say that to state facts we use the Present Simple Tense ; e.g.

a) Today match starts at 9 a.m.
b) The Mumbai Rajdhani Express leaves at 5 in the evening.
c) When does the shop open?
d) His marriage comes off next Friday.

8. Replace ‘laid’ by ‘lain’ in part ‘A’ as we have no object of the verb ‘had laid’ here. Translation in Hindi: यह एक सप्ताह से अलमारी (closet) में पड़ी हुई थी इस से पहले की हम इसे ढूंड पाते.

Use of the verbs ‘lay’ and ‘lie’ often confuses us as both these verbs have a similar meaning. Lay = to put something down carefully in a flat position. Lie = to be in or put yourself into a flat position. By going through the meanings of both of these verbs we can say that they are used in the same context. But there is a difference between the usages of both. Forms of these verbs are also different.

Three Forms of these verbs:

I II III
Lay Laid Laid
Lie Lay Lain

A) LAY

Verb ‘lay’ is a transitive verb, means it must have an object; e.g.

a) Lay the child on the bed. (The verb has an object, so it’s 1st form of ‘lay’.)
b) I laid the book on the table. (The verb ‘laid’ has an object, so it’s 2nd form of ‘lay’.)
c) The hen has laid an egg. (The verb ‘has laid’ has an object here, so it’s 3rd form of ‘lay’.)

B) LIE

The verb ‘lie’ is an intransitive verb, means it doesn’t take an object; e.g.

a) The boy lay on the sofa and slept. (You see that there is no object of the verb ‘lay’ in the sentence, so it’s 2nd form of ‘lie’ here.)
b) Let me lie. (There is no object of the verb ‘lie’ in the sentence, so it’s the 1st form of ‘lie’.)
c) How long had he lain there? (There is no object of the verb ‘lain’ in the sentence, so it’s the 3rd form of ‘lie’ here.)
d) I love to lie on a beach and read.
e) She lay on the bed and gazed at the ceiling, daydreaming.
f) The dog was lying by the gate waiting for me to come home.

NOTE: The verb ‘lie’ can also mean ‘say something which is not true’. With this meaning its three forms are:

I II III
Lie Lied Lied

Example:
I lied to my teacher about my homework.

9. Replace ‘and’ by ‘with’ in part ‘B’. A restaurant is part of one of the floors of the building; it’s not made on a separate floor. Therefore you can’t use a conjunction here, hence, here the conjunction ‘but’ needs to be replaced by another type of word. Here the preposition ‘with’ will be the right choice.

10. Replace ‘these all’ by ‘all these’ or ‘all of these’ in part ‘A’. If there is a determiner [articles, possessives (my, our, your, etc.) or demonstratives (this, these, that, those)] before a noun we use ‘all’ or ‘all of’ before that determiner, not after; e.g.

INCORRECT: I have sent an invitation to my all friends.
CORRECT: I have sent an invitation to all my friends. OR I have sent an invitation to all of my friends.

11. No error. In one of the meanings ‘give witness’ = to declare belief in something

Translation in Hindi: उन्होंने अपने भाग्य पर भरोसा जताया.

12. Replace ‘thing’ by ‘a thing’ or ‘things’ in part ‘C as ‘thing’ is a countable noun.

13. Replace ‘to most of’ by ‘to that of most’ in part ‘B’ because the comparison here is not between India and other countries of the world, rather it’s between the way of thinking in India and the way of thinking in other countries. Therefore here we need the pronoun for way of thinking, ‘that’ is the right pronoun to use here. Read this:

Comparison is always made in two or more similar type of things, therefore we should use a correct noun/pronoun after ‘that/to’; e.g.

INCORRECT: The price of this table is as much as that table.
CORRECT: The price of this table is as much as that of that table.

INCORRECT: The climate of Shimla is better than Delhi.
CORRECT: The climate of Shimla is better than that of Delhi.

INCORRECT: The people of Mumbai are more hard-working than Banglore.
CORRECT: The people of Mumbai are more hard-working than those of Banglore.

14. Remove the article ‘the’ before the noun ‘court’ in part ‘B’. When a
court/bed/church/hospital/prison/school/college/university is visited for its
primary purpose is not preceded by the article ‘the’. If a person goes to a court to give witness is one of the primary purposes of going there. ‘to give witness’ is right.

‘Give witness’ is an idiom which means to provide evidence of the truth of
something.

15. Replace ‘too’ by ‘very’ in part ‘B’. Construction ‘too — to’ is used for negative ideas, but for positive ideas we use ‘very — to’ construction. Here it’s a positive statement.

Translation in Hindi: मुझे तुमसे मिलकर बहुत ख़ुशी हुई.

Compare:
a) She is too weak to climb a tree. (= वह इतनी कमजोर है कि किसी पेड़ पर चढने में समक्ष नहीं है.)
b) She is very happy to meet me. (उसको मुझे तुमसे मिलकर बहुत ख़ुशी हुई.)

16. Replace ‘to work’ by ‘for work’ in part ‘C’. Preposition TO is used for verbs of motion, for static verbs we use ‘for’ The verb ‘wear’ does not indicate a motion, we don’t go anywhere while wearing clothes; e.g.

He drives to work by car. (‘Drive’ is a verb of motion.)

17. Replace ‘were’ by ‘was’ in part ‘B’. In ‘nothing but trees’ the real subject is ‘nothing’, with ‘nothing’ the verb is always singular. ‘But’ is a preposition here, therefore ‘trees’ can’t be subject.

Translation in Hindi: बाग़ में पेड़ों के अलावा कुछ भी नहीं था.

Also read this:

Subject-verb Agreement with ‘with’, ‘along with’, ‘as well as’, etc.

When two nouns/pronouns in the subjects are joined by the following, the verb agrees with the first noun/pronoun. Though such a group of words appears to be the part of the subject, but it’s not like that:

with together with as well as accompanied by
headed by guided by governed by led by
dominated by controlled by run by in addition to
like unlike and not rather than
but besides except no less than
along with

INCORRECT: He, and not his friends, are guilty.
CORRECT: He, and not his friends, is guilty.

INCORRECT: He together with his friends are coming today.
CORRECT: He together with his friends is coming today.

INCORRECT: All the teachers as well as the principal has decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.
CORRECT: All the teachers as well as the principal have decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.

INCORRECT: Nothing but cars are sold here.
CORRECT: Nothing but cars is sold here.

INCORRECT: Everyone but you do work regularly.
CORRECT: Everyone but you does work regularly.

INCORRECT: She and not her friends are guilty.
CORRECT: She and not her friends is guilty.

18. Replace ‘what to speak of’ by ‘not to speak of’ in part ‘A’. When we want to indicate that there is so little of something that it is hardly worth mentioning we use ‘not to speak of’.

19. Replace ‘use’ by ‘using’ in part ‘A’. After the following expressions either we use a noun or a gerund. If a verb form is given after these expressions we use the gerund (ing form). In the above sentence a verb form (use) is given after ‘with a view to’, therefore we’ll use ‘using’ in place of ‘use’.

accustomed to habituated to owing to be/become/get used to
addicted to in addition to with a view to
averse to look forward to prone to
devoted to object to taken to

a) I am looking forward to your reply. (Construction with a noun)
b) I am looking forward to receiving my payment soon. (Construction with a gerund)

a) I am used to noise. (Construction with a noun)
b) I am used to working in a noisy environment. (Construction with a gerund)

a) This road is prone to accidents. (Construction with a noun)
b) In his youth he was prone to gambling. (Construction with a gerund)
[PRONE =  likely to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic]

He comes to me with a view to getting some help.

My father is addicted to smoking.

NOTE-I: ‘Used to’ without ‘be/become/get’ takes infinitive, not gerund; e.g.

‘I used to smoke earlier.’

NOTE-II: Use of ‘aim to seek’ is quite correct here. You can also use ‘at’ in place of ‘to’ here, but then that part of the sentence will have to be rephrased like ‘no proposal should be aimed at seeking funding’, as when the preposition ‘at/for’  is used after the verb ‘aim’, structure is  ‘be aim at/for + gerund’.

20. Replace ‘had been killed’ by ‘was killed’ in part ‘B’. In the above sentence ‘before’ is a preposition, not a conjunction. ‘Before’ as a conjunction can only be used before clauses, but ‘the’ ‘wedding date’ is not a clause as it has no subject and verb. As it’s a context of a past event we need to use the Past Simple Tense here. But yes, if its use was before a clause, use of any other tense would also be possible.

Translation in Hindi: उसकी मेरे भाई से शादी होनी थी लेकिन शादी की तारीख से एक महीना पहले ही वह एक plane crash में मारी गयी.

21. Replace ‘will be’ by ‘were’ in part ‘B’. When ‘wish’ is a verb with a ‘that-clause’ we never use a present or a future tense in the ‘that-clause’, rather we use a past tense there. After the verb ‘wish’ use of ‘that’ is optional; e.g.

INCORRECT: I wish I have a car.
CORRECT: I wish I had a car. OR I wish that I had a car.

22. Replace ‘slowly’ by ‘slow’ in part ‘A’. ‘Slow’ is an adjective as well as an adverb while ‘slowly’ is only an adverb. ‘Go slowly’ is an imperative part of the sentence. In imperative sentences/clauses we use the adverb ‘slow’, not ‘slowly’. We use the adverb ‘slowly’ in sentences which are not imperatives; e.g.

Compare:
a) Drive slow. (Imperative sentence)
b) He drives slowly. (Not an imperative sentence)

23. Replace ‘jam’ by ‘jammed’ in part ‘C’. Use of ‘museum’s’ is correct. The possessive by adding (‘s) to a noun can also be used with lifeless nouns that have some relationship of human activity; e.g.

a) the game’s history (or the history of the game)
b) the book’s author (or the author of the book)
c) the college’s president (or the president of the college)
d) the plan’s importance (or the importance of the plan)

24. Place the possessive adjective ‘his’ before the noun ‘grandmother’ in part ‘A’. Rule:

When the sex is not known we use the pronoun of the masculine gender for Anybody, Everybody, Everyone, Anyone, Each, etc.; and that pronoun is in the singular; e.g.

a) Anyone can do this sum if he tries.
b) Everyone has to do his work.
c) Each of them has submitted his report.

25. Replace ‘to agree’ by ‘agreed’ in part ‘B’. If a past reference is given (here ‘was’) after ‘get + object’ we use V3. Here in this sentence we are given an object (the professor) after ‘get’.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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