HOW WORDS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES FORM THEIR PLURAL
1. Words ending in IN ‘is’
Words ending in ‘is’ form their plurals by changing ‘is’ into ‘es’.
|1. analysis||analyses||6. ellipsis||ellipses|
|2. axis||axes||7. hypothesis||hypotheses|
|3. basis||bases||8. hypnosis||hypnoses|
|4. crisis||crises||9. metamorphosis||metamorphoses|
|5. diagnosis||diagnoses||10. narcosis||narcoses|
|11. oasis||oases||12. parenthesis||parentheses|
|13. synthesis||syntheses||14. synopsis||synopses|
HYPOTHESIS = an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved (परिकल्पना). HYPNOSIS = a mental state like sleep, in which a person’s thoughts can be easily influenced by someone else; e.g. Under deep hypnosis she remembered the traumatic events of that night. (सम्मोहन(METAMORPHOSIS = a complete change; e.g. Under the new editor, the magazine has undergone a metamorphosis. NARCOSIS = a state of stupor, drowsiness, or unconsciousness produced by drugs (अचेतनता). OASIS = a fertile spot in a desert, where water is found ( मरुस्थल के बीच हरित भूमि). PARENTHESIS = Either or both of the upright curved lines, used to mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in writing or printing (ब्रैकेट). SYNOPSIS = a short description of the contents of something such as a film or book (रूप-रेखा)
2. Words ending in ‘um’
A) Words that form their plurals by adding ‘s’ at the end.
|1. album||albums||8. petroleum||petroleums|
|2. asylum||asylums||9. podium||podiums|
|3. auditorium||auditoriums||10. premium||premiums|
|4. decorum||decorums||11. forum||forums|
|5. euphonium||euphoniums||12. gymnasium||gymnasiums|
|6. nostrum||nostrums||13. harmonium||harmoniums|
|7. pendulum||pendulums||14. mausoleum||mausoleums|
|15. museum||museums||16. quorum||quorums|
|17. rostrum||rostrums||18. stadium||stadiums|
ASYLUM = an institution for the care of people who are mentally ill; e.g. He’d been committed to an asylum. (पागलखाना). EUPHONIUM = a large musical instrument made from brass that you play by blowing into it. MAUSOLEUM = a building in which the bodies of dead people are buried (मकबरा). NOSTRUM = an idea for solving a problem, especially one that is not very good PODIUM = a small platform on which a person may stand to be seen by an audience, as when making a speech or conducting an orchestra (मंच). ROSTRUM = a raised surface on which a person making a speech or a music conductor (= leader) stands) (मंच)
B) Words that form their plurals by changing ‘um’ into ‘a’.
|1. addendum||addenda||6. curriculum||curricula|
|2. agendum||agenda||7. datum||data|
|3. bacterium||bacteria||8. dictum||dicta|
|4. corrigendum||corrigenda||9. erratum||errata|
|5. crematorium||crematoria||10. maximum||maxima|
|11. minimum||minima||12. memorandum||memoranda|
|13. momentum||momenta||14. stratum||strata|
CREMATORIUM = a place where a dead person’s body is cremated (श्मशान). DICTUM = a short statement, especially one expressing advice or a general truth; e.g. He followed the famous American dictum ‘Don’t get mad, get even’. (कहावत). ERRATUM = a mistake in a printed or written document. STRATUM = one of the parts or layers into which something is separated; e.g. The report shows that drugs have penetrated every stratum of American society.
C) Words that form their plurals in two ways; you can either change ‘um’ into ‘a’ or add ‘s’ at the end.
|1. aquarium||aquariums or aquaria||4. millennium||millenniums or millennia|
|2. emporium||emporiums or emporia||5. symposium||symposiums or symposia|
|3. medium||mediums or media|
AQUARIUM = a transparent tank of water in which live fish and other water creatures and plants are kept (मछलीघर). SYMPOSIUM = an occasion at which people who have great knowledge of a particular subject meet in order to discuss a matter of interest
3. Words ending in ‘on’
A) Words that form their plurals by changing ‘on’ into ‘a’.
|1. criterion||criteria||2. phenomenon||phenomena|
B) Words that form their plurals by changing ‘on’ into ‘s’.
|1. demon||demons||3. neutron||neutrons|
|2. electron||electrons||4. proton||protons|
DEMON = an evil spirit
C) Words that form their plurals by changing ‘on’ into ‘s’ or ‘a’.
|automaton||automatons or automata|
AUTOMATON = a machine that operates on its own without the need for human control, or a person who acts like a machine, without thinking or feeling; e.g. I take the same route to work every day, like some sort of automaton.
4. Words with no fixed pattern
|1. bandit||banditti (or bandits)||7. metropolis||metropolises|
|2. Cherub||cherubim (or cherubs)||8. monsieur||messieurs|
|3. dogma||dogmas||9. radius||radii|
|4. formula||Formulas/Formulae||10. seraph||seraphim (or seraphs)|
|5. libretto||libretti or librettos||11. tempo||tempi or tempos|
|6. madame (madam)||mesdames||12. terminus||termini (or terminuses)|
BANDIT = a thief with a weapon, especially one belonging to a group that attacks people travelling through the countryside (डाकू(CHERUB = an angel that is represented in art as a beautiful, fat, naked child with small wings. DOGMA = a fixed, especially religious, belief or set of beliefs that people are expected to accept without any doubts. FORMULA = as plural form formulae is used by scientists. LIBRETTO = the words that are sung or spoken in a musical work for the theatre. MONSIEUR = a title or form of address used of or to a French-speaking man, corresponding to Mr or Sir. SERAPH = an angel of the highest rank. TEMPO = the speed at which an event happens; e.g. We’re going to have to up the tempo (= work faster) if we want to finish on time.
NOTE-I: AGENDUM is not used in English. AGENDA, though a Latin plural, is treated as singular in English. Plural for AGENDA is both AGENDA and AGENDAS; e.g.
i) What is the agenda today?
ii) The agenda has not been drawn up yet.
NOTE-II: DATA is plural, therefore, we prefer a plural verb for this word generally, but in a certain context it is treated as a collective noun denoting a single body of facts rather than a number of individual points, and therefore use a singular verb in that meaning; e.g.
i) Is that all data we have in all?
ii) What are the data Sir? (used not as collective noun)
NOTE-III: The plural of METROPOLIS is METROPOLISES. There is a big difference in the usage of METROPOLIS and METROPOLITAN. METROPOLIS is a noun whereas METROPOLITAN is an adjective mainly; e.g.
1. i) Mumbai is a metropolis.
ii) There are seven metropolises in India.
iii) The temperature of all the metropolises has been here.
2. i) metropolitan police
ii) metropolitan life
iii) metropolitan culture
[But you can’t say metropolitan city as the term METROPOLITAN itself means relating to a city (very big city). Therefore the following sentences are incorrect.]
INCORRECT: He lives in a metropolitan city.
CORRECT: He lives in metropolis.
INCORRECT: Delhi is a metropolitan city.
CORRECT: Delhi is a metropolis.
We use the word METROPOLITAN as a noun also. METROPOLITAN here means an inhabitant of a metropolis. ; e.g.
I) He is a metropolitan.
II) They are metropolitans.