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INFINITIVE, GERUND & PARTICIPLE (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

INFINITIVE, GERUND & PARTICIPLE (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

Types of Verbs

मुख्यता verbs को इन दो भागों में बांटा जाता है:
a) Finite Verbs        b) Non-finite verbs

Finite Verbs
एक verb जिसका कोई subject होता है उसको Finite Verb कहते हैं; जैसे

a) Rahul is good player of cricket.
b) He sings very well.

[पहले वाक्य में verb is है और इसका subject Rahul है; और दूसरे वाक्य में verb sings है और इसका subject he है. अतः ये दोनों ही verb finite verbs हैं.]

Non-finite Verbs
एक verb जिसका कोई subject नहीं होता है उसको Non-finite Verb कहते हैं; ऐसी verbs वाक्य में noun अथवा adjective का कार्य करती हैं; इन verbs को Infinitive, Gerund और Participle के नाम से जाना जाता है. .

ये यहाँ समझिये:
ऐसे शब्द जो किसी कार्य अथवा किसी बात के होने की अवस्था (an action or a state of being) को बताते हैं वे वाक्य में या तो verb का कार्य करते हैं, या noun का या फिर adjective का. यदि कोई शब्द noun का कार्य करता है तो वह या तो infinitive होता है या फिर gerund, और यदि वह adjective का कार्य करता है तो वह participle होता है. इस बात को सही से समझने के लिए ये ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ें:

They try to beat me.

[जैसा कि हम देख रहे हैं इस वाक्य में दो action हैं; वे हैं  ‘try’ और ‘beat’. इनमे से एक तो verb है परन्तु दूसरा नहीं है. चलो इन दोनों में से verb को ढूँढने की कोशिश करते हैं.  जैसा कि हम जानते हैं किसी subject का पता लगाने के लिए किसी action word से पहले ‘who’ अथवा ‘what’ लगा कर question बनाते हैं; अगर उस question का हमें कोई उत्तर मिलता है तो वह action word verb होती है अन्यथा नहीं.

तो ऊपर बताये अनुसार हमें दो question मिले — ’Who try?’ और ‘Who beat?’. हम देख रहे हैं कि question ‘Who try’ का तो हमें answer ‘they’ मिल रहा है, परन्तु question ‘Who beat’ का हमें कोई answer नहीं मिल पा रहा. तो हम कह सकते हैं कि word ‘try’ तो वाक्य की verb है लेकिन word ‘beat’ नहीं.

अब हम देखेंगे कि word ‘beat’ यहाँ कार्य क्या कर रहा है. हम जानते हैं कि किसी verb के बाद अगर ‘whom’ अथवा ‘what’ रखा जाये तो उत्तर के रूप में हमें उस verb का object मिलता है. लेकिन ‘beat’ एक action word है इसलिए हमें ‘who/what’ के साथ ‘to do’ भी लगाना पड़ेगा. इस प्रकार हमें question मिला — ‘try to do what’. इस question का उत्तर है ‘beat’. इसलिए हम कह सकते हैं कि ‘beat’ verb ‘try’ का object है. हम ये भी जानते हैं कि कोई object या तो एक noun होता है या फिर एक pronoun. ‘beat’ अब एक pronoun तो है नहीं, अतः ये यहाँ एक noun है.]

1. Infinitive

किसी कार्य अथवा किसी बात के होने की अवस्था (an action or a state of being) को बताने वाला कोई word यदि किसी वाक्य में noun का कार्य करता है और वह word किसी verb की first form में होता है तो उसको infinitive कहते हैं. अतः ऊपर दिए गये वाक्य में word ‘beat एक infinitive है.

किसी infinitive के पहले कभी तो word ‘to’ का use किया जाता है और कभी नहीं किया जाता. अगर किसी infinitive के पहले word ‘to’ लगा होता है तो उसको full infinitive कहा जाता है; और अगर word TO नहीं लगा होता तो उसको bare infinitive कहते हैं; जैसे

a) She wants to take a rest. (‘To take’: full infinitive)
b) My wife made me take a rest. (‘Take’: bare infinitive)

Verb + Object + Bare Infinitive

अधिकतर verbs के साथ full infinitive (TO + V1) ही use होती है, परन्तु कुछ verb ऐसी भी हैं जिनके साथ full infinitive use नहीं होती, बल्कि उनके साथ bare infinitive ही use होती है. उनके साथ आमतौर पर कोई object भी होता है. चलो देखते हैं वे कौन सी हैं:

वे verb जिनके साथ bare infinitive use होती है: 

Bid Make See Watch Hear Feel Observe
Smell Let Behold Notice Overhear

a) I heard him sing a song.

[इस वाक्य की verb ‘heard’ है, और ‘sing’ infinitive है. दूसरे infinitive ‘sing’ के पहले ‘to’ नहीं लगा है; अतः ये bare infinitive है; और ‘him’ verb ‘heard’ का object है.]

b) He made me move my car.
c) I saw him do his homework.
d) She noticed him run away from the house.
e) They let him see the case file.
f) My mother bade me go to the bazar.
g) I overheard him say that he was thinking of moving to Nagpur.

NOTE-I: Passive Voice में verb ‘let’ को छोड़कर इन verbs के साथ full infinitive use होती है. निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को देखिये:

Active: He made me move my car. (‘Move’: bare infinitive)
Passive: I was made to move my car. (‘Move’; to infinitive)

NOTE-II: हमारी ज्ञानेन्द्रियों से सम्बन्धित verbs See, Hear, Feel, Smell; और Listen (to), Notice, Overhear, Watch के साथ Object + Present Participle का use भी किया जा सकता है, Present Participle क्या होता है इसको इसी lesson में बाद में समझाया गया है; जैसे

a) I see him crossing the road every day. (‘Crossing’: present participle)
= I see him cross the road every day. (‘Cross’: bare infinitive)

b) Didn’t you hear the clock striking?
= Didn’t you hear the clock strike?

c) I saw him changing the wheel.
=I saw him change the wheel.

d) She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising.
=She smelt something burn and saw smoke rise.

e) I watched them rehearsing the play.
=I watched them rehearse the play.

NOTE-III: HELP
‘Help’ एकमात्र ऐसी verb है जिसके साथ full infinitive का use भी किया जा सकता है और bare infinitive का भी; जैसे

He helped us to push it. (‘Push’: to-infinitive)
= He helped us push it. (‘Push’: bare infinitive)

NOTE-IV:  निम्नलिखित के बाद या तो ‘Object + Full infinitive’ का use होता है या or ‘Object + That-clause’ का:

Command Direct Entreat Implore Instruct
Remind Require Trust Warn Order
Persuade

A) जब verbs Command, Direct, Entreat, Implore, Order, Require, Trust के साथ ‘that-clause’ का use होता है तो इन verbs के साथ object का use नहीं होता; जैसे

The commander ordered his troops to lay down their arms.
= The commander ordered that his troops should lay down their arms.

B) जब verbs Persuade, Remind के साथ ‘that-clause’ का use होता है तो इन verbs के साथ object का use करना आवश्यक होता है; जैसे

a) He persuaded me to change my mind.
b) He persuaded me that his plan was preferable.

C) जब verbs Instruct, Teach (how to) के साथ ‘that-clause’ का use होता है तो इन verbs के साथ object का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है; जैसे

The chancellor warned unions not to press for higher wages.
= The chancellor warned unions that higher wages would mean higher prices.
= The chancellor warned that higher wages would mean higher prices.

NOTE-V: Split infinitive
Standard English में split infinitive का use अशुद्ध होता है; अर्थात TO और V1 के बीच में कोई और शब्द का use नहीं किया जा सकता; जैसे 

INCORRECT: It would take ages to really master this subject.
CORRECT: It would take ages
 really to master this subject.

2. Gerund

इन वाक्यों को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िए:

a) Ram is swimming in the river at the moment.
b) Swimming is a good exercise.

[‘Swimming’ पहले वाक्य में verb है. परन्तु आप देखिये, ‘swimming’ दूसरे वाक्य में subject है. ये हमें पता ही है कि कोई subject या तो noun हो सकता है या pronoun, ‘swimming’ कोई pronoun तो हो नहीं सकता, अर्थात ये यहाँ noun है. जैसा की ऊपर हमने पढ़ा है कि कोई action word जब noun का काम करता है तो वो infinitive होती है, हमने ये भी पढ़ा है की कोई infinitive verb की first form होती है; अर्थात ‘swimming’ दूसरे वाक्य में noun होते हुए भी infinitive नहीं है. ऐसे action word जिसमे ing लगी होती है और वह noun का कार्य करता है उसको gerund कहते हैं.]

NOTE: किसी preposition के बाद अगर कोई action word आना हो तो हम gerund का use करते हैं; जैसे 

a) He left without making the payment. (Without: preposition; Making: gerund)
b) I apologize for not writing before. (For: preposition; Writing: gerund)
c) She insisted on paying for herself. (On: preposition; Paying: gerund)
d) Before starting to attempt the paper, read the instructions carefully. (Before: preposition; Starting: gerund)
e) Have you any objection to going to her house? (To: preposition; Going: gerund)

कुछ विशेष तरह की VERBS

i) Mind
Verb ‘mind’ के साथ कभी infinitive का use नहीं होता; हमेशा ‘gerund/Noun/Pronoun’ अथवा ‘Possessive Adjective + Gerund’ का use होता है; जैसे

Compare:

a) I don’t mind living here. (= मैं यहाँ रहता हूँ और इस बात से मुझे कोई ऐतराज नहीं है.)
b) I don’t mind his living here. (= वह  यहाँ रहता है और इस बात से मुझे कोई ऐतराज नहीं है.)

c) He didn’t mind leaving home. (= वह ख़ुशी-ख़ुशी घर से चला गया.)
d) He didn’t mind Renu’s leaving home. (= रेनू घर से चली गयी और उसको इस बात से कोई ऐतराज नहीं था.)

ii) Mean
Verb ‘mean’ के दो अर्थ हो सकते हैं; एक तो किसी बात का इरादा होना (to intend something), दूसरे किसी बात का किसी अन्य बात में संलग्न (तो involve) होना. पहले अर्थ में तो verb ‘mean’ के साथ infinitive use होती है और दूसरे अर्थ में इसके साथ gerund use होती है; जैसे

a) I mean to get to the top of the hill. (यहाँ Mean = इरादा होना)
b) He is determined to get a seat even if it means standing in a queue all night. (यहाँ Mean = संलग्न होना)

iii) Propose
Verb ‘propose के भी दो अर्थ हो सकते हैं; एक तो किसी बात का इरादा होना (to intend something), दूसरे किसी बात के लिए कोई सुझाव (to suggest something) देना; पहले अर्थ में तो verb ‘propose’ के साथ infinitive use होती है और दूसरे अर्थ में इसके साथ gerund use होती है; जैसे

a) I propose to start tomorrow. (यहाँ Propose = इरादा होना)
b) I propose waiting till the police get here. (यहाँ Propose = सुझाव देना)

कैसे पता लगायें कि कहीं हमें infinitive की जरुरत है अथवा gerund की

Word ‘to’ एक preposition भी हो सकता है और किसी infinitive का part भी. इसलिए,  ये पता लगाने के लिए की हमे infinitive की जरूरत है अथवा gerund की, ये आवश्यक है कि पहले इस बात को देखें कि word ‘to’ preposition है अथवा infinitive का part. ये जानने का एक अच्छा रास्ता है कि हम ये दखें की word ‘to’ के बाद किसी noun या pronoun का use संभव है कि नहीं. ये आपको पहले से ही पता है कि किसी preposition के साथ हमेशा  noun या pronoun ही का use होता है, और ये भी पता है की कोई gerund एक noun ही होती है; इसलिए अगर word ‘to’ preposition है तो इसके साथ gerund आएगी; अन्यथा to-infinitive का part होगा. आओ इस बात को एक उदहारण से समझते हैं:

I’m accustomed to ———— .
Accustomed = किसी बात का आदि होना

[Word ‘accustomed’ के अर्थ से पता लगता है कि यहाँ ‘to’ के बाद कोई noun ही होनी चाहिए. उदाहरण के तौर पर ‘She is accustomed to noise’. हम देखते हैं कि word ‘noise’ एक noun है. अतः अब ये स्पष्ट है की ‘to’ यहाँ preposition है. अर्थात अगर यहाँ कोई action word चाहिए तो वह gerund होगी; जैसे

She is now accustomed to working in noise.]

कुछ अभिव्यक्तियां (expressions) जिनके साथ gerund का use किया जाता है:

accustomed to habituated to owing to
addicted to in addition to with a view to
averse to look forward to prone to
devoted to objection to taken to
be/become/get used to

a-i) I am looking forward to your reply. (यहाँ ‘to’ preposition है और इसके साथ noun ‘reply’ का use है.)
ii) I am looking forward to receiving my payment soon. (यहाँ ‘to’ के साथ gerund का use हुआ है.)

b-i) I am used to noise. (यहाँ ‘to’ preposition है और इसके साथ noun ‘noise use है.)
ii) I am used to working in a noisy environment. (यहाँ ‘to’ के साथ gerund का use हुआ है.)

c-i) This road is prone to accidents. (यहाँ ‘to’ preposition है और इसके साथ noun ‘accident’ का use है.)
ii) In his youth he was prone to gambling. (यहाँ ‘to’ के साथ gerund का use हुआ है.)

d) He comes to me with a view to getting some help.
e) My father is addicted to smoking.

NOTE-I: जब ‘used to’ के पहले be/become/get का use न हो तो इसके साथ infinitive का use होता है; gerund का नहीं; जैसे

I used to smoke earlier.

NOTE-II: Verbs Advise, Allow, Forbid, Permit, Recommend के साथ यदि किसी व्यक्ति का जिक्र भी हो तो इनके साथ full infinitive (TO + V1) का use होता है; जैसे

a) He advised me to see the doctor at once. (यहाँ verb ‘advised’ के साथ person ‘me’ का use है; इसलिए full infinitive का use हुआ है.)
b) She recommends housewives to buy branded products. (यहाँ verb ‘recommends’ के साथ person ‘housewives’ का use है; इसलिए full infinitive का use हुआ है.)
c) They don’t allow us to park here. (यहाँ verb ‘allow’ के साथ person ‘us’ का use है; इसलिए full infinitive का use हुआ है.)

लेकिन जब person का जिक्र न हो तो gerund का use होता है; जैसे

a) He advised seeing the doctor at once.
b) She recommends buying branded products.
c) They don’t allow parking here.

3. Participle

निम्नलिखित वाक्य को पढ़िए:

Yesterday Raman met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.

[अब देखिये word ‘carrying’ इस वाक्य में क्या कार्य (function) कर रहा है. बेशक यह word ‘girl’ के बारे में कुछ बता रहा है; दूसरे शब्दों में यह ‘girl’ को describe कर रहा है. ‘Girl’ एक noun होती है. हम जानते हैं कि किसी noun अथवा pronoun को describe करने वाले word को adjective कहते हैं. अतः अब ये कहा जा सकता है कि word ‘carrying’ यहाँ एक adjective है. लेकिन ‘carrying’ एक action होता है. कोई action word जब एक adjective का कार्य करता है तो उसको Participle कहा जाता है. अतः word ‘carrying’ यहाँ Participle है.]

Paerticiple तीन प्रकार के होते हैं:
A) Present Participle        B) Past Participle        C) Perfect Participle.

A) Present Participle 
इस वाक्य को एक बार फिर से देखिये, ये है ‘Yesterday Raman met a girl carrying a basket of flowers’. हालांकि यह वाक्य past tense में है लेकिन participle ‘carrying’ वास्तव में present tense में है क्योंकि रमन जब उस लड़की से मिला था तो उस समय उस लड़की द्वारा basket carry करने की स्थिति जारी थी, अर्थात उस समय basket carry करने की स्थिति present tense में थी. ऐसे participle को Present Participle कहा जाता है.

Participle और gerund की एक ही form होती है; दोनों ही के साथ ing form use होती है. अब प्रश्न उठता है कि ये कैसे जानें कि ing वाला कोई action word gerund है अथवा participle. हम जानते हैं कि gerund एक noun का काम करती है और participle एक adjective का. इसलिए ये बात अब बहुत ही सरल हो जाती है; ing वाला कोई action word किसी वाक्य में अगर noun का कार्य कर रहा है तो वो gerund है, अगर वह adjective का कार्य कर रहा है तो वह participle है. देखिये कैसे:

i) The old man is tired of walking.
ii) Walking along the road, Rohit noticed a dead cobra.

[पहले वाक्य में word ‘walking का use preposition (of) के बाद है. ये हम जानते ही हैं कि किसी preposition के बाद या तो कोई noun use होती है या फिर कोई pronoun. अतः यहाँ ‘walking’ एक noun है; अर्थात ये Gerund है.

दूसरे वाक्य को हम ऐसे भी लिख सकते हैं — Rohit noticed a dead cobra when he was walking along the road. सपष्ट रूप से clause ‘when he was walking along the road’ noun ‘Rohit’ को describe कर रहा है; अतः ये phrase एक adjectival phrase है; जिसका main word ‘walking’ है. किसी adjectival phrase का main word adjective होता है; अतः ये यहाँ participle है. और क्योंकि ये ing वाला participle है तो ये Present Participle है.]

Present Participle एक ऐसे action को बताता है जो उस समय जारी हो; जैसे

i) Loudly knocking at the gate, he asked to enter my room. (= दरवाजा जोर-जोर से खटखटाते हुए उसने मेरे कमरे में आने की आज्ञा मांगी.)
ii) The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
iii) I see him passing my house every day.
iv) The boy stood on the burning deck.
v) The weather being fine, I went out.

B) Past Participle

निम्नलिखित वाक्य को पढ़िए:

A burnt child dreads the fire. (एक जले हुए बच्चे को आग से डर लगता है.)

[इस वाक्य में Word ‘brnt’ noun ‘child’ को describe कर रहा है; अर्थात ये adjective है. लेकिन ये एक action भी है; इसलिए ये एक participle है. लेकिन इस participle की form Present Participle से भिन्न है, ये verb की third form है जबकि Present Participle में ing लगता है. ऐसा participle जो किसी verb की third form हो उसको Past Participle कहते हैं. Past Participle एक समाप्त हुए कार्य या स्थिति को बताता है; अर्थात दिए गये वाक्य में ‘burnt child’ का अर्थ है वह बच्चा जो पहले से ही जला हुआ था.]

Past Participle एक समाप्त हुए कार्य या स्थिति को बताता है, और वह action passive में होने को बताता है; जैसे

i) Blinded by a dust storm, they fell into disorder. (= आंधी भरे तूफ़ान द्वारा अंधे होने के कारण वे तीतर-बीतर हो गये.)
ii) Driven by hunger, he ate every thing.
iii) We saw many trees laden with fruit.
iv) The man seems worried.

C) Perfect participle 
Present Participle और Past  Participle के अतिरिक्त एक और तरह का participle होता है; उसको Perfect Participle कहते हैं. यह हमें किसी past time में समाप्त हुए किसी कार्य या स्थिति को बताता है. इसकी form active voice में ‘having + V3’ होती है और passive voice में ‘having been + V3′ होती है.

Past Participle और Perfect Participle दोनों ही past time में पूर्ण हुए किन्ही कार्यों को दर्शाते हैं; लेकिन Perfect Participle का अर्थ active होता है जबकि Past Participle का अर्थ passive में होता है. इसके अतरिक्त Past Participle द्वारा दर्शाए गये अर्थ में समय का कुछ अन्तराल (gap) भी होता है. Past Participle के passive use के लिए इसकी passive form use करनी होती है जैसा की ऊपर बताया गया है; जैसे

i) Having rested, I again started to work. (आराम करने के बाद मैंने फिर से कार्य करना शुरू किया.)
ii) The sun having risen, the fog disappeared.

INCORRECT: The sun having been risen the fog disappeared.
CORRECT: The sun having risen the fog disappeared. (यहाँ active voice चाहिए.)

INCORRECT: Having deserted by her husband, she committed suicide.
CORRECT: Having been deserted by her husband, she committed suicide. (यहाँ passive voice चाहिए.)

आम अशुद्धियाँ जो हम participles के use में करते हैं 

क्योंकि participle एक adjective का काम करता है; describe करने के लिए इसको किसी noun या pronoun की जरूरत होती है. कभी-कभी वह noun या pronoun वाक्य में दी गयी नहीं होती. इसको सही से समझने के लिए ये पढ़िए:

अशुद्ध वाक्य: Walking in the garden, a tree fell down.

[‘Walking’ इस वाक्य में Present Participle है, अतः describe करने के लिए इसके लिए कोई noun या pronoun भी चाहिए. लेकिन इस वाक्य में वह दी नहीं गयी है. देखो ‘tree’ तो वह noun हो नहीं सकती क्योंकि कोई tree walk तो कर सकता नहीं. इसका शुद्ध वाक्य होगा: Walking in the garden, I saw a tree falling down.]

INCORRECT: Being a rainy day, I did not go out.
CORRECT: It being a rainy day, I did not go out.

INCORRECT: Being too costly for him, he could not buy the car.
CORRECT: The car being too costly for him, he could not buy it.

NOTE: लेकिन कभी-कभी किसी वाक्य में किसी participle को noun/pronoun की जरूरत नहीं होती क्योंकि वह noun/pronoun understood होती है; जैसे

Being ill, I could not attend the meeting.

[इस वाक्य में हमें participle ‘being’ के noun/pronoun बताने की जरूरत नहीं है क्योंकि वह understood है, और वह है ‘I’ खुद ही.]

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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INFINITIVE, GERUND & PARTICIPLE (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

Types of Verbs

Chiefly we divide verbs in the following two categories
a) Finite Verbs        b) Non-finite verbs

Finite Verbs
A verb that has its subject is called a Finite Verb; e.g.

a) Rahul is good player of cricket.
b) He sings very well.

[In the first sentence the verb ‘is’ has Rahul as its subject and in the second the verb ‘sings’ has HE as its subject, so both of these verbs are finite verbs.]

Non-finite Verbs
A verb that does not have a subject, is called a Non-finite Verb. Such a verb does work of a noun or an adjective in a sentence. They are called Infinitive, Gerund and Participle.

Understand this here:
A word referring to ‘an action or a state of being’ can work as either a verb or a noun or an adjective. If it works as a noun it is either the infinitive or gerund, and if it performs the action of an adjective it’s the participle. To understand this read it carefully.

They try to beat me.

[We see that there are two action words in the above sentence ‘try’ and ‘beat’. One of them is verb and the other not. Now, let’s try to find out the verb out of them. Of course we put ‘who’ or ‘what’ before an action word to find the subject; if an answer is there to the question, it’s a verb, otherwise not. So two questions now are ’Who try’?’ and ‘’Who beat’?’. We see that the question ‘who try’ is giving an answer ‘they’, but the question ‘who beat’ isn’t giving us any answer. So, we can say that the word ‘try’ is the verb in the sentence, but the word ‘beat’ not.

Now we’ll see what function the action word ‘beat’ is doing here. We know that if we put ‘whom’ or ‘what’ after the verb we get the object of that verb as our answer. But ‘beat’ is an action word, so the question will be ‘Try to do what’’, not just ‘’Try what’’. The answer to the question ‘try to do what?’ is ‘beat’ of course. Therefore we can say that ‘beat’ is the object of the verb ‘try’. Also we know that an object is always a noun or pronoun. ‘beat’ is not a pronoun at all, so it’s now clear that the action word ‘beat’ is a noun here.]

1. Infinitive

‘An action word or a state of being’ doing work of a noun is called an infinitive if it’s in the first form of a verb. So, ‘beat’ is an infinitive in the above sentence.

An infinitive can take the word ‘to’ before it or not. If the word ‘to’ is there before an infinitive, it is called full infinitive. And if an infinitive is without the word ‘to’ it’s called bare infinitive; e.g.

a) She wants to take a rest. (To take: full infinitive)
b) My wife made me take a rest. (Take: bare infinitive)

Verb + Object + Bare Infinitive

Most of the verbs take full infinitive i.e. to-infinitive, but there are some verbs that do not take full infinitive, rather it’s a bare infinitive after them. They also take an object after them. Let’s see what they are:

Verbs that take bare infinitive

Bid Make See Watch Hear Feel Observe
Smell Let Behold Notice Overhear

a) I heard him sing a song.

[You can know from above that the verb here is ‘heard’, and ‘sing’ an infinitive. Also ‘sing’ is without ‘to’; so it’s a bare infinitive; and ‘him’ is the object of the verb ‘heard’]

b) He made me move my car.
c) I saw him do his homework.
d) She noticed him run away from the house.
e) They let him see the case file.
f) My mother bade me go to the bazar.
g) I overheard him say that he was thinking of moving to Nagpur.

NOTE-I: All these verbs except ‘let’ take full infinitive in the passive voice. See the following sentences in both active and passive; e.g.

Active: He made me move my car. (Move: bare infinitive)
Passive: I was made to move my car. (Move; to infinitive)

NOTE-II: The basic verbs of sensation See, Hear, Feel, Smell, and Listen (to), Notice, Overhear, Watch can also be followed by ‘object + present participle’. What the Present Participle is made understood later in this chapter; e.g.

a) I see him crossing the road every day. (Crossing: present participle)
= I see him cross the road every day. (Cross: bare infinitive)

b) Didn’t you hear the clock striking?
= Didn’t you hear the clock strike?

c) I saw him changing the wheel.
=I saw him change the wheel.

d) She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising.
=She smelt something burn and saw smoke rise.

e) I watched them rehearsing the play.
=I watched them rehearse the play.

But there is some difference in the use of the present participle and the infinitive. Use of the infinitive means the action is complete whereas use of the present participle means the action is either complete or incomplete; e.g.

a) I saw him changing the wheel. (This sentence could mean that I watched the whole action or that I saw only part of it.)
b) I saw him change the wheel. (This sentence means that I saw the whole action.)

NOTE-III: Help
Help’ is the only verb that may be followed by either the full infinitive or the bare infinitive; e.g.

He helped us to push it. (Push: to-infinitive)
= He helped us push it. (Push: bare infinitive)

NOTE-IV:  After the following verbs we use either ‘object + to-infinitive’ or ‘object + that-clause’:

Command Direct Entreat Implore Instruct
Remind Require Trust Warn Order
Persuade

A) When we use Command, Direct, Entreat, Implore, Order, Require, Trust with ‘that-clause’ we do not put an object after them; e.g.

The commander ordered his troops to lay down their arms.
= The commander ordered that his troops should lay down their arms.

B) When we use the verbs Persuade, Remind with ‘that-clause’ we must put an object after them; e.g.

a) He persuaded me to change my mind.
b) He persuaded me that his plan was preferable.

C) When we use the verbs Instruct, Teach (= how to), Warn with ‘that-clause’ putting an object after them is optional; e.g.

The chancellor warned unions not to press for higher wages.
= The chancellor warned unions that higher wages would mean higher prices.
= The chancellor warned that higher wages would mean higher prices.

NOTE-V: Split Infinitive
To split the infinitive, though fine in informal English, is incorrect in the formal/standard use.

INCORRECT: It would take ages to really master this subject.
CORRECT: It would take ages
 really to master this subject.

2. Gerund

Study these sentences:

a) Ram is swimming in the river at the moment.
b) Swimming is a good exercise.

[Of course ‘swimming’ in the first sentence is a verb. But if you see, ‘swimming’ in the second sentence is the subject, hence it’s noun here. Now again we see that an action word is a noun, but unlike the infinitive its form is different. Such an action word is called Gerund; means an action word with ‘ing’ is a gerund if it’s doing the work of a noun.]

NOTE: Action words placed immediately after prepositions must be in the gerund form; e.g.

a) He left without making the payment. (Without: preposition; Making: gerund)
b) I apologize for not writing before. (For: preposition; Writing: gerund)
c) She insisted on paying for herself. (On: preposition; Paying: gerund)
d) Before starting to attempt the paper, read the instructions carefully. (Before: preposition; Starting: gerund)
e) Have you any objection to going to her house? (To: preposition; Going: gerund)

Exceptions to above
The only exceptions to the above rule are ‘except’ and ‘but’ (preposition), which take the bare infinitive; e.g.

a) What could I do but accept his condition? (Here ‘but’ is a preposition; and is following the bare infinitive ‘accept’)
b) He did nothing but complain. (Here ‘but’ is a preposition, and is following the bare infinitive ‘complain’)

Some special verbs:

i) Mind
The verb ‘mind’ can never be followed by an infinitive; rather it takes ‘Gerund/Noun/Pronoun’ or ‘Possessive adjective + gerund’; e.g.

Compare:

a) I don’t mind living here. (= I live here and don’t object to it.)
b) I don’t mind his living here. (= He lives here and I don’t object to it.)

c) He didn’t mind leaving home. (= He left home quite happily.)
d) He didn’t mind Renu’s leaving home. (= Renu left home and he was quite happy about it.)

ii) Mean
The verb ‘mean’ can have two meanings. If it means ‘intend’, it takes an infinitive; but if it means ‘involve’, it takes a gerund; e.g.

a) I mean to get to the top of the hill. (Here ‘mean’ = intend)
b) He is determined to get a seat even if it means standing in a queue all night. (Here ‘mean’ = involve)

iii) Propose
‘Propose’ meaning ‘intend’ takes an infinitive, but ‘propose’ meaning ‘suggest’ takes a gerund; e.g.

a) I propose to start tomorrow. (Here ‘propose’ = intend)
b) I propose waiting till the police get here. (Here ‘propose’ = suggest)

How to decide whether we need infinitive or gerund

The word ‘to’ can be a preposition or part of an infinitive. So, to decide whether the gerund is needed or the infinitive, it’s important to determine whether ‘to’ is a preposition or part of an infinitive. A good way of finding this out is to see whether it’s possible to put a noun or pronoun after it. You already know that a preposition always takes a noun or pronoun after it, and also a gerund is a noun. So if ‘to’ is a preposition, it’ll take the gerund; otherwise ‘to’ will be part of the infinitive. Let’s understand this by the following example.

I’m accustomed to ———— .

Acustomed = familiar with something or used to

[Meaning of ‘accustomed’ suggests that it must be a noun after ‘to’. For example ‘She is accustomed to noise’. We see that the word ‘noise’ is a noun. So it’s clear now that ‘to’ is a preposition here; hence if an action word is to be used here it will be the Gerund; e.g.

She is now accustomed to working in noise.]

Some of such confusing expressions are the following. We use a gerund after all of them.

accustomed to habituated to owing to
addicted to in addition to with a view to
averse to look forward to prone to
devoted to object to taken to
be/become/get used to

a-i) I am looking forward to your reply. (‘To’ is a preposition here as ‘reply’ is a noun after it.)
ii) I am looking forward to receiving my payment soon. (Construction with a gerund)

b-i) I am used to noise. (‘To’ is a preposition here as ‘noise is a noun after it.)
ii) I am used to working in a noisy environment. (Construction with a gerund)

c-i) This road is prone to accidents. (‘To’ is a preposition here as  ‘accidents’ is a noun after it.)
ii) In his youth he was prone to gambling. (Construction with a gerund)

[Prone = likely to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic]

d) He comes to me with a view to getting some help.
e) My father is addicted to smoking.

NOTE-I: ‘Used to’ without ‘be/become/get’ takes infinitive, not gerund; e.g.

I used to smoke earlier.

NOTE-II: With Advise, Allow, Forbid, Permit, Recommend if the person concerned is mentioned we use the full infinitive (TO + V1); e.g.

a) He advised me to see the doctor at once. (The person concerned here is ‘me’)
b) She recommends housewives to buy branded products. (The persons concerned here are ‘housewives’)
c) They don’t allow us to park here. (The persons concerned here are ‘us’)

But if this person is not mentioned, the gerund is used; e.g.

a) He advised seeing the doctor at once.
b) She recommends buying branded products.
c) They don’t allow parking here.

3. Participle

Read the following sentence:

Yesterday Raman met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.

[Now see what function the word ‘carrying’ is doing here. Of course it’s describing the GIRL, which is a noun. We know that a word describing a noun or pronoun is an adjective. So, the word ‘carrying’ is an adjective here. Also ‘carrying’ is an action word. An action word or a state of being doing the work of an adjective is called Participle.]

‘Participles’ are of three types:

A) Present Participle        B) Past Participle        C) Perfect Participle.

A) Present Participle 
Now see the given example once again ‘Yesterday Raman met a girl carrying a basket of flowers’. This sentence though is in the past, the participle ‘carrying’ is in the present in fact. The action denoted by ‘carrying’ was present when Raman met the girl, means she was carrying the basket at the time he met her. Such a participle is called present participle.

This has the same form that the gerund has i.e. ‘ing form’. Now the question is how to know whether an action word with ‘ing’ is a gerund or participle. We have now known that the gerund works as a noun and the participle as an adjective. So, if an ‘ing’ form of an action word is a noun in the sentence it’s a gerund, and if it’s an adjective it’s a participle. See how:

i) The old man is tired of walking.
ii) Walking along the road, Rohit noticed a dead cobra.

[In the first sentence the word ‘walking’ is used after a preposition, i.e. ‘of’. We know that a preposition must follow a noun/pronoun. Hence, ‘walking’ is a noun here; means a gerund.

We can re-write the second sentence as: Rohit noticed a dead cobra when he was walking along the road. Obviously the phrase ‘when he was walking along the road’ is describing the noun ‘Rohit’; hence it’s an adjectival phrase, the main word of which is ‘walking’. As ‘walking’ is the main word of an adjectival phrase, it’s an adjective. Therefore it’s a participle here.]

The present participle denotes an action going on or incomplete action.

See these examples on use of the present participle:
i) Loudly knocking at the gate, he asked to enter my room.
ii) The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
iii) I see him passing my house every day.
iv) The boy stood on the burning deck.
v) The weather being fine, I went out.

B) Past Participle 

Read the following sentence:

A burnt child dreads the fire. (एक जले हुए बच्चे को आग से डर लगता है.)

[The word ‘burnt’ is describing the noun ‘child’, hence it’s a participle here. As it’s in the third form of a verb, it represents a completed action/state of being (The child who was burnt already). So it’s called Past Participle.]

The past participle denotes a completed action, and that action expresses a passive action. See these examples on use of the past participle:

i) Blinded by a dust storm, they fell into disorder.
ii) Driven by hunger, he ate every thing.
iii) We saw many trees laden with fruit.
iv) The man seems worried.

C) Perfect participle
Besides the present and past participle, we have one more participle what is called the Perfect Participle. It represents an action as completed at some past time. Its form is ‘having + V3’ in the active voice and ‘having been + V3’ in the passive.

Like the past participle the perfect participle denotes a completed action, but this time the action expresses an active meaning. Also there is a certain time gap between the actions. See these examples on use of the past participle.

i) Having rested, I again started to work. (आराम करने के बाद मैंने फिर से कार्य करना शुरू किया.)
ii) The sun having risen, the fog disappeared.

INCORRECT: The sun having been risen the fog disappeared.
CORRECT: The sun having risen the fog disappeared. (Active voice is required.)

INCORRECT: Having deserted by her husband, she committed suicide.
CORRECT: Having been deserted by her husband, she committed suicide. (Passive voice is required.)

Common errors made in use of particles

As a participle does work of an adjective it must have a noun/pronoun to describe. Sometimes that noun/pronoun is missing from the sentence. See these sentences to understand it well.

Wrong: Walking in the garden, a tree fell down.

[‘Walking’ in this sentence is a present participle, so it must have a noun/pronoun to describe. But you’ll see it’s missing that. Of course the ‘tree’ is not that noun as a tree cannot walk. Therefore the correct sentence will be: Walking in the garden, I saw a tree falling down.]

INCORRECT: Being a rainy day, I did not go out.
CORRECT: It being a rainy day, I did not go out.

INCORRECT: Being too costly for him, he could not buy the car.
CORRECT: The car being too costly for him, he could not buy it.

NOTE-I: But sometimes we do not need to mention the subject of a participle as it’s already understood; e.g.

Being ill, I could not attend the meeting.

[In this sentence we do not need to mention the subject with the participle BEING as it’s understood that ‘I’ itself is the subject here.]

NOTE-II: Some participles are also there which do not need a noun/pronoun to be associated with, they are:

Allowing, Concerning, Considering, Granting, Judging, Owing to, Referring, Regarding, Speaking, Supposing, Touching, etc.; e.g.

a) He performed well, considering his age.
b) Owing to his carelessness, the accident took place.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)