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PASSIVE VOICE OF CAUSATIVE VERBS (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

Passive Voice of Causative Verbs (Explained in Hindi) 

Causative Verbs – Active and Passive Voice)

Verb की causative form तब use की जाती है जब हमें खुद को कोई कार्य करना नहीं होता; बल्कि किसी अन्य व्यक्ति से अपना कार्य करवाते हैं. Causative verbs तीन होती हैं — have, let और make. ये तीनों ही verb अपने objects के साथ bare infinitive (बिना TO के V1) लेती हैं.

ये ध्यान रखने की बात है कि ऐसे ही अर्थों वाली कुछ और verb भी होती हैं; लेकिन वे causative verb नहीं होतीं. वे verb हैं — get, force, allow और cause, आदि. इन सभी verbs के साथ full infinitive (to + V1) use होती है; causative verbs की तरह bare infinitive नहीं.

Causative संरचनाएं दो तरह की होती हैं:

a) Active Causative संरचनाएं
b) Passive Causative संरचनाएं

1. Active Causative

Verbs Let, Make, and Have का active pattern

Subject (person) + have/let/make + object (person) + bare Infinitive (V1 without TO)

इन verbs के use में अंतर:

LET

Verb LET का use तब किया जाता है जब हम किसी को कुछ करने की permission दे देते हैं; जैसे

a) She lets me borrow her book. (= वह मुझे अपनी पुस्तक लेने देती है.)
b) Their employer lets them leave early on Fridays in the summer. (= उनके नियोक्ता (employers) उनको गर्मियों में शुक्रवार को जल्दी जाने देते हैं.)

MAKE

Verb MAKE का use तब किया जाता है जब हम किसी को कुछ करने के लिए बाध्य करते हैं; जैसे

a) My wife made me write a letter for her mother. (= मेरी पत्नी ने अपनी माँ के पास भेजने के लिए एक पत्र लिखवाया.)
b) My mother makes me do my home work. (= मेरी माँ ने मुझसे मेरा homework करवाया.)

HAVE

Verb HAVE का use तब किया जाता है जब हम किसी से कोई कार्य अधिकारपूर्वक करवाते हैं; जैसे

a) My English teacher has me do the homework in a week. (= मेरे अध्यापक मुझसे हर सप्ताह मुझसे मेरा homework करवाते है.)
b) The production manager had the technicians modify the electrical outlets.

Verbs ‘have’, ‘let’ और ‘make’ के इस तरह के use के कुछ और उदहारण:

a) I had my friends tell me what happened. (not told)
b) She will let her friend borrow her new jacket. (not borrows or will borrow)
c) Mark’s teacher makes him do homework every day. (not does)
d) Sudha made her husband sell their house.
e) Sudha will have her husband sell their house.
f) Sudha let her husband sell their house.
g) Have Ritu call.
h) Let the dogs go outside after dinner.
i) Make her secretary type out the report.

NOTE-I: Causative वाक्यों का subject आमतौर पर कोई व्यक्ति होता है; परन्तु कभी-कभी subject कोई thing भी हो सकता है; जैसे

a) The heavy rain made the paint peel off the building.
b) The phone message made him feel nervous.
c) We let the dogs run wild at the beach.

a) Have Ritu call
b) Let the dogs go outside after dinner.
c) Make her secretary type out the report.

NOTE-II: Non-Causative Verbs: Get, Force, Allow, and Cause, आदि की संरचना

Subject + Get/force/allow/cause + object (person) + full infinitive (TO + V1)

जैसा कि ऊपर बताया गया है ऐसे ही अर्थों वाली कुछ और verb भी होती हैं; लेकिन वे causative verb नहीं होतीं. वे verb हैं — get, force, allow और cause, आदि. क्योंकि ये verb true causative verbs नहीं होतीं इन सभी verbs के साथ full infinitive (to + V1) use होती है; causative verbs की तरह bare infinitive नहीं; जैसे

a) He got his friend to help him move.
b) My mother forces me to practice the piano every day.
c) Our teacher is going to allow us to go home early today.
d) The test is causing them to panic. It’s really difficult.
e) Sudha wants her husband to sell their house.
f) Sudha will allow her husband to sell their house.
g) Sudha persuaded her husband to sell their house.

2. Passive Causative

Passive Causative क्या होता है?

Passive causative के लिए आमतौर पर दो verbs का use किया जाता है. वे हैं: HAVE और GET. इसके अतिरिक्त causative verbs के Passive Voice में कोई agent नहीं होता. Action verb का रूप Past Participle (V3) होता है और object इसके पहले आता है; जैसे

Causative verbs के Passive Voice की संरचना:

Subject (person) + have/get + object (thing) + past participle (V3)

उदहारण:
a) He had his car repaired. (इस वाक्य में action ‘repair’ है; देखिये वाक्य में इसकी V3 use की गयी है.)
b) She got her hair cut yesterday. (इस वाक्य में action ‘cut’ है; देखिये वाक्य में इसकी V3 use की गयी है. Verb ‘cut’ की V3 ‘cut’ ही होती है.)
c) My sister got her nails done.
d) Sudha had their house sold by her husband.
e) Sudha got their house sold by her husband.

Active Causative and Passive causative में अंतर समझने के लिए निम्नलिखित examples को देखिये:

1. Active Causative: The manager had the assistant write the report.
Passive Causative: The report was/got written.

2. Active Causative: I had someone clean my house.
Active Causative: I had/got my house cleaned.

NOTE-I: परन्तु, verb GET के बाद यदि किसी व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा (personal noun) का use हुआ है तो full infinitive (to + V1) का use किया जाता है; Past Participle (V3) का नहीं; जैसे 

Compare

a) I got the house painted.
b) I got John to paint the house.

NOTE-II: इसके अतरिक्त causative sentence की सरंचना में modal verb का use भी किया जा सकता है; ऐसे में modal verb किसी सुझाव (suggestion) को व्यक्त करती है; जैसे Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, e.g.

a) You should have your hair cut.
b) He should get his decision changed.
c) She will have the food cooked.

NOTE-III: Need & Want

Passive Causative वाक्यों में verb need और want का use भी किया जा सकता है. कभी-कभी Passive Causative verb had/got का use जरूरी नहीं होता; जैसे

a) I need/want to have my hair cut. (Active structure)
b) I need/want my hair cut. (Passive structure)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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Passive Voice of Causative Verbs (Explained in English) 

Causative Verbs – Active and Passive Voice)

In English, the causative form is used when we don’t do something ourselves, instead we arrange for someone else to do it for us. In other words Causative Verbs are verbs where one person is ‘causing’ another to do something. English has three true causative verbs: HAVE, LET, and MAKE. All these verbs take the base form of verbs (bare infinitives) after their objects.

It’s also important to point out the other verbs with a similar meaning that are not, in fact, causative verbs. Such verbs are GET, FORCE, ALLOW, and CAUSE. They take full infinitive (TO+V1), not bare infinitive (base verb).

Verb की causative form तब use की जाती है जब हमें खुद को कोई कार्य करना नहीं होता; बल्कि किसी अन्य व्यक्ति से अपना कार्य करवाते हैं. Causative verbs तीन होती हैं — have, let और make. ये तीनों ही verb अपने objects के साथ bare infinitive (बिना TO के V1) लेती हैं.

There are two kinds of causative structure:

a) Active Causative structures
b) Passive Causative structures

1. Active Causative

Verbs that take active forms of causative are Let, Make, and Have

Pattern: Subject (person) + have/let/make + object (person) + bare infinitive (V1 without TO)

Difference in their uses:

LET

LET is used when we want to allow someone to do something; e.g.

a) She lets me borrow her book. (= वह मुझे अपनी पुस्तक लेने देती है.)
b) Their employer lets them leave early on Fridays in the summer. (= उनके नियोक्ता (employers) उनको गर्मियों में शुक्रवार को जल्दी जाने देते हैं.)

MAKE

MAKE is used when we want to force someone to do something; e.g.

a) My wife made me write a letter for her mother. (= मेरी पत्नी ने अपनी माँ के पास भेजने के लिए एक पत्र लिखवाया.)
b) My mother makes me do my home work. (= मेरी माँ ने मुझसे मेरा homework करवाया.)

HAVE

HAVE is used when a person wants to use his authority to obtain the result, e.g.

a) My English teacher has me do the homework in a week. (= मेरे अध्यापक मुझसे हर सप्ताह मुझसे मेरा homework करवाते है.)
b) The production manager had the technicians modify the electrical outlets.

Some examples of the use of verbs ‘have’, ‘let’ and ‘make’:

a) I had my friends tell me what happened. (not told)
b) She will let her friend borrow her new jacket. (not borrows or will borrow)
c) Mark’s teacher makes him do homework every day. (not does)
d) Sudha made her husband sell their house.
e) Sudha will have her husband sell their house.
f) Sudha let her husband sell their house.
g) Have Ritu call.
h) Let the dogs go outside after dinner.
i) Make her secretary type out the report.

NOTE-I: The subject and object of causative sentences are usually people, but things are also possible; e.g.

a) The heavy rain made the paint peel off the building.
b) The phone message made him feel nervous.
c) We let the dogs run wild at the beach.

NOTE-II: Non-Causative Verbs: Get, Force, Allow, and Cause

Pattern: Subject + get/force/allow/cause + object (person) + full infinitive (TO + V1)

There are other verbs that have the meaning of cause, but because they aren’t true causative verbs, they take an full infinitive verb form instead of a base verb. Such common verbs are FORCE, CAUSE, GET, and ALLOW; e.g.

a) He got his friend to help him move.
b) My mother forces me to practice the piano every day.
c) Our teacher is going to allow us to go home early today.
d) The test is causing them to panic. It’s really difficult.
e) Sudha wants her husband to sell their house.
f) Sudha will allow her husband to sell their house.
g) Sudha persuaded her husband to sell their house.

2. Passive Causative

What Is the Passive Causative?

There are two verbs generally used in the passive causative form; they are HAVE and GET. In addition, there is usually no agent in this form; it’s not like in active form which has the agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it.

Pattern: Subject (person) + have/Get + object (thing) + past participle (V3)

Can causative sentences be passive? Yes! The passive causative is quite common for services; e.g.

a) He had his car. (by a mechanic)
b) She got her hair cut yesterday.
c) My sister got her nails done.
d) Sudha had their house sold by her husband.
e) Sudha got their house sold by her husband.

See these example sentences to understand the difference between Active Causative and Passive Causative

1. Active Causative: The manager had the assistant write the report.
Passive Causative: The report was/got written (by the assistant).

2. Active Causative: I had someone clean my house.
Active Causative: I had/got my house cleaned.

NOTE-I: But, if the verb GET followed by personal nouns, past participle can’t be used in it. Instead, we must use TO-INFINITIVE. So it will become just like in active causative form; e.g.

Compare

a) I get the house painted.
b) I get John to paint the house.

NOTE-II: In addition, modal auxiliary verbs may be used with the causative sentence structure. Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, e.g.

a) You should have your hair cut.
b) He should get his decision changed.
c) She will have the food cooked.

NOTE-III: Need & Want

Need and want may be used in passive causative sentences. In some cases, the passive causative verb (HAD/GOT) may be dropped altogether; e.g.

a) I need/want to have my hair cut. (Active structure)
b) I need/want my hair cut. (Passive structure)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

 

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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