ENGLISHMain English Grammar

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, AS, WHAT) — EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS (WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, AS, WHAT) — EXPLAINED IN HINDI 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

परिभाषा: कोई Relative Pronoun एक ऐसी pronoun होती है जो अपने से पहले use की गयी किसी noun अथवा pronouns के लिए use की जाती है. उस noun/pronoun को इस Relative Pronoun का antecedent कहा जाता है. Relative Pronouns को दो clauses को जोड़ने के लिए use किया जाता है; जैसे

I met Sohan who had just returned from Mumbai.

(इस वाक्य में WHO एक Relative Pronoun है क्योंकि यह अपने से पहले प्रयुक्त noun Sohan के लिए use की गयी है. अर्थात Sohan इस Relative Pronoun का antecedent है.)

Relative Pronouns मुख्य रूप से ये होती हैं:

Who Whom Which That As What

1. क्या Relative Pronoun की noun (antecedent) के पहले हमेशा article THE का use आवश्यक होता है? 

आमतौर पर Relative Pronoun की noun (antecedent) के पहले article THE का use होता है; परन्तु कभी-कभी THE की अपेक्षा a/an, all, none, anybody, somebody आदि और those का use भी संभव है; जैसे

1. That story is about a boy who goes to temple daily.
2. They should give the money to somebody who they think needs the treatment most.
3. This is a man who takes his responsibilities seriously.
4. Do you have anything that will help my throat?
5. Everything that you say seems silly to me.
6. I’m sorry, but that is althat I saw.

NOTE: कभी-कभी किसी word या phrase से Relative Pronoun की noun (antecedent) से अलग भी कर दिया जा सकता है; जैसे 

a) There’s a girl here who wants your help.
b) I read something in this book which attracted me most.

2. Relative Pronouns के कार्य (functions)

A) किसी verb के subject के रूप में

i) He is the boy who has stood first in the examination. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHO verb HAS STOOD का subject है.)
ii) This is the cat which drank all the milk. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH verb DRANK का subject है.)
iii) The book that is lying on the table is mine. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun THAT verb IS LYING का subject है.)

B) किसी verb के object के रूप में

i) She is the girl whom I met in the garden yesterday. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHOM verb MET का object है.)
ii) This is the book which I like most. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH verb LIKE का object है.)

C) किसी preposition के object के रूप में

i) This is the doll with which I usually play. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH preposition WITH का object है.)
ii) There is no room in which we can stay tonight. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH preposition IN का object है.)
iii) He is the boy about whom I was talking. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHOM preposition ABOUT का object है.)

3. Defining Relative Clause

जब Relative Pronoun वाला clause एक adjective का कार्य करता तो उस clause को Defining Relative Clause कहा जाता है; जैसे

The man who lives here is my friend.

[इस वाक्य का clause WHO LIVES HERE एक adjective का कार्य कर रहा है, ये clause adjective इसलिए adjective का कार्य कर रहा है क्योंकि ये noun MAN को describe कर रहा है. अतः ये एक Defining Relative Clause है. इस Relative Clause के बिना ये पता नहीं चल रहा है कि हम किस आदमी की बात कर रहे हैं जो मेरा दोस्त है. ध्यान रहे कि किसी Defining Clause के पहले comma का use नहीं किया जाता.]

4. Non-defining Clause

जब Relative Pronoun वाला clause एक adjective का कार्य नहीं करता है तो उस clause को Non-defining Relative Clause कहा जाता है. ऐसी Relative pronouns किसी noun या pronoun के बारे में सिर्फ कोई अतिरिक्त जानकारी देती हैं. किसी वाक्य में किसी Relative Pronoun का use आवश्यक नहीं होता. ध्यान रहे कि किसी Non-defining Clause के पहले comma का use आवश्यक होता है; जैसे

I have bought a shirt, which is white.

[इस वाक्य में relative clause WHICH IS WHITE अपनी noun SHIRT को describe नहीं कर रहा है बल्कि यह SHIRT के बारे में कोई अतरिक्त जानकारी दे रहा है कि वह shirt सफेद रंग की है. इसलिए ये एक Non-defining Clause है. बिना इस clause के clause I HAVE BOUGHT A SHIRT अपने आप में अकेला भी use किया जाये तो पूर्ण अर्थ दे रहा है.]

5. Relative Pronouns WHO, WHOM और WHOSE 

A) WHO को subject के रूप में use किया जाता है जबकि WHOM को object के रूप में; इन दोनों का ही use मानव जाती के लिए ही किया जा सकता है; जैसे

i) The boy who met you in the park is my brother.
ii) We don’t know the person who donated this money.
iii) There’s this guy at work, who’s one of my friends.
iv) He is the actor whom I like most. (यहाँ verb LIKE के object की आवश्यकता है; इसलिए WHO के objective case WHOM का use किया गया है.)
v) The response of those managers whom I have consulted has been very positive and we are looking forward to meeting together.

NOTE: Collective human nouns के लिए अक्सर Relative Pronoun का use किया जाता है; जैसे committee, government, group, panel, police,  team; e.g.

Sujata phoned the fire brigade, who then alerted the police.

B) WHO/WHOM का use God, gods, fairies, angels आदि के लिए भी किया जाता है; जैसे

i) You must worship God, who is the creator of the universe.
ii) There are many stories about fairies, who fly.

 C) WHO/WHOM का use pet animals के लिए भी किया जा सकता है यदि उनको आदमियों की तरह माना गया हो; जैसे

i) Moti, who is always barking, frightens everyone passing by.
ii) That’s the dog who doesn’t like me.

D) WHOSE का use  मानव जाती, पशुओं और निर्जीव वस्तुओं सभी के लिए होता है; जैसे

i) He’s marrying a girl whose family don’t seem to like him. (possessive of GIRL)
ii) She has a dog whose colour is white. (possessive of dog, an animal)
iii) A triangle whose three sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle. (possessive of TRIANGLE, a thing)
iv) Look at the setting sun whose rays have reddened the sky. (possessive of SUN)

Relative Pronouns WHO और WHOM के बीच का अंतर 

इन दोनों के बीच के use के बारे मुख्य संशय बातचीत करने की भाषा होती है क्योंकि Standard English में जहाँ WHOM का use शुद्ध होता है वहां WHO का use कर दिया जाता है.

i) WHO
WHO का use किसी verb के subject के रूप में ही किया जा सकता है. इसलिए इसके तुरंत बाद किसी verb का

a) She is my sister, who is a teacher.
b) The teacher who teaches you is very intelligent.

[यहाँ पर आप WHO के स्थान पर WHOM का use नहीं कर सकते क्योंकि यहाँ हमें पहले वाक्य में verb IS, और दूसरे वाक्य में verb TEACHES के subject की आवश्यकता है.]

ii) WHOM
WHOM का use किसी verb के object के रूप में ही किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) Meera is a good girl, whom I love. (object of the verb LOVE)
b) Mohit is your friend, whom I met in morning. (object of the verb MET)
c) He is the actor whom I like most. (object of the verb LIKE)

कैसे जानें कि कहाँ WHO प्रयोग में लाया जाना है और कहाँ  WHOM

ये समझने के लिए इन दो वाक्यों को देखिये:

a) The person WHO (or WHOM) we thought was guilty proved to be innocent.
b) The man WHO (or WHOM) we feared we had injured proved to be unharmed.

[अधिकतर लोग सोचते हैं कि इन दोनों ही वाक्यों में Relative Pronoun WHOM होना है; शायद इसलिए कि वे सोचते हैं पहले वाक्य में verb THOUGHT को object की आवश्यकता है; और दूसरे वाक्य में भी verb FEARED को object की आवश्यकता है. लेकिन वास्तव में ऐसा है नहीं.

ये पता लगाने के लिए कि WHO का use होना है अथवा WHOM का हमें पहले यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहिए कि Relative Pronoun के बाद वाली verb को subject की आवश्यकता है या object की. उस verb को अगर subject की आवश्यकता है तो WHO का use होगा; उस verb को अगर object की आवश्यकता है तो WHOM का use होगा.

अब दिए गये इन्हीं दो वाक्यों को देख लीजिये; पहले वाले वाक्य में verb WAS को subject चाहिए इसलिए यहाँ WHO का use किया जायेगा, और दूसरे वाले वाक्य में verb HAD INJURED को object चाहिए तो यहाँ WHOM का use होगा.]

NOTE-I: ये पता लगाने के लिए कि कहाँ WHO का use होना है और कहाँ WHOM का; एक और तरीका भी है. वाक्य में दी गयीं verbs की संख्या का पता लगाइए और ये देखिये उनमें से कितनी verbs के subject दिए गये हैं; यदि वाक्य की सभी verbs के subject दिए हुए हैं तो WHOM का use होगा; और यदि वाक्य की सभी verbs के subject नहीं दिए हुए हैं तो WHO का use होगा.

ये बात सही से समझने के लिए ये वाक्य देखिये:

The doctor who/whom you recommended is not available for three months.

(इस वाक्य में दो verb हैं; एक तो recommended है और दूसरी is. इनमें से verb RECOMMENDED का subject YOU दिया हुआ है; और verb IS का subject DOCTOR दिया हुआ है; अर्थात जितनी verb उतने ही subject दिए हुए हैं; अतः यहाँ WHOM का use शुद्ध होगा.)

NOTE-II: एक preposition के बाद में हमेशा objective case का use किया जाता है, अतः prepositions के साथ WHOM का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) You are the boy about whom I was talking. (ABOUT एक preposition होता है.)
b) She is the girl with whom Mohan lives. (WITH एक preposition होता है.)

6. Relative Pronoun WHICH 

A) Relative Pronoun WHICH use सिर्फ जानवरों और निर्जीव वस्तुओं के लिए किया जाता है. WHO के विपरीत जिसके subjective और objective case अलग-अलग होते हैं, WHICH के ये एक समान ही होते हैं; अर्थात subject में भी WHICH का use होता है और object में भी; जैसे

i) The dog which barked at me did not fortunately bite. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH verb BARKED का subject है.)
ii) It was the same picture which I saw at the National Gallery. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH verb SAW का object है.)
iii) He won’t have much time to prepare for the meeting, which is this afternoon. (यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH verb IS का subject है.)

NOTE-I: अगर किसी वाक्य का एक पूरा clause ही Relative Pronoun का antecedent है तो WHICH का use होता है; WHO, WHOM अथवा THAT का नहीं; जैसे

i) He has paid off his debts, which is a clear proof of his honesty.
ii) She has passed this examination with good marks, which proves that she is intelligent.

[इन दोनों ही वाक्यों में WHICH noun debts अथवा marks की Relative Pronoun नहीं है बल्कि ये पूरे के पूरे clause He has paid off his debts; और She has passed this examination with good marks की Relative Pronoun है. अतः आप यहाँ WHO, WHOM अथवा THAT का use नहीं कर सकते.]

B) दोनों ही ‘OF WHICH’ और ‘WHOSE’ Relative Pronoun WHICH के possessive होते हैं; जैसे

A building whose walls are not painted looks ugly.
= A building walls of which are not painted looks ugly.

7. Relative Pronouns AS और THAT 

A) Relative Pronoun THAT का use subject के रूप में भी किया जा सकता है और object के रूप में भी, मानव जाती के लिए भी इसका use किया जा सकता है और वस्तुओं के लिए भी; अर्थात WHO, WHOM और WHICH की जगह भी किया जा सकता है. परन्तु हाँ इसका use केवल Defining Clauses में ही किया जा सकता है; Non-defining Clauses में नहीं; जैसे

i) This is the man who met me in the garden.
= This is the man that met me in the garden.

ii) The table which is red is mine.
= The table that is red is mine.

iii) The man whom I like most is my father.
= The man that I like most is my father.

NOTE:  नीचे दिए गये किसी भी वाक्य  में Relative Pronoun THAT का use नहीं किया जा सकता क्योंकि इन सभी के clause Non-defining Clause हैं; जैसे

INCORRECT: He is a famous dancer, that lives in my town.
CORRECT: He is a famous dancer, who lives in my town.

INCORRECT: I have bought a car, that is white.
CORRECT: I have bought a car, which is white.

INCORRECT: Mohit is your friend, that I met in morning.
CORRECT: Mohit is your friend, whom I met in morning.

B) निम्नलिखित के बाद हम Relative Pronoun THAT का use करते हैं; WHO, WHOM अथवा WHICH का नहीं:

i) Superlative Degree

a) He is the most hardworking boy that I have ever seen. (MOST HARDWORKING की degree superlative है.)
b) The Wimbledon men’s final was the best game of tennis that I’ve ever seen.

ii) निम्नलिखित के बाद:

All (=Everything) All  + Uncountable Nouns All + Countable Nouns जो things से सम्बन्धित हों

a) I have told you all that I know. (यहाँ ALL = everything)
b) She has spent all the money that I gave her. (MONEY एक uncountable noun है.)
c) All the apples that are in the refrigerator are rotten. (APPLES एक countable noun है जो things से सम्बन्धित है.)

NOTE: यदि ALL का use persons के लिए हुआ है तो WHO और THAT में से किसी का भी use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

A welcome is extended to all who wish to come.
= A welcome is extended to all that wish to come.

iii) Everything, Nothing, Much, Little

a) I have given you everything that I had.
b) I do nothing that can harm anybody.
c) She has spent the little money that she borrowed from me in the morning.

iv) निम्नलिखित के बाद अगर ये things के लिए use हुए हैं:

Few Any Only None No

a) He has lost the few rupees that his father gave him yesterday.
b) This is the only dress that can fit you.
c) Any help that you can give me will be appreciated.

NOTE: यदि ये शब्द persons के लिए use हुए हैं तो WHO और THAT में से किसी का भी use किया जा सकता है.

v) THE SAME + NOUN के बाद Relative Pronouns THAT /AS के नियम

A) बाद वाले clause का अगर subject भी दिया हुआ हो तो Relative Pronoun THAT का use किया जाता है; AS का नहीं; जैसे

He told me the same story that he told you.

(यहाँ बाद वाले clause HE TOLD YOU का subject (HE) दिया हुआ है.

B) यदि बाद वाले clause का subject नहीं दिया हुआ हो, बल्कि उस clause की verb दी गयी हो तो भी THE SAME + NOUN के बाद Relative Pronoun THAT का ही use किया जाता है, किसी और का नहीं; जैसे 

a) This is the same girl that deceived him. (इस वाक्य के बाद वाले clause DECEIVED HIM का subject नहीं दिया हुआ है, बल्कि verb दी हुई है; अतः यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHO का use अशुद्ध होगा.)
b) This is the same dog that bit me. (इस वाक्य के बाद वाले clause BIT ME का subject नहीं दिया हुआ है, बल्कि verb दी हुई है; अतः यहाँ Relative Pronoun WHICH का use अशुद्ध होगा.))

NOTE: लेकिन जब हमें दो के बीच में कोई समानता दिखानी होती है तो THE SAME + NOUN के बाद Relative Pronoun AS का use किया जाता है; that का नहीं; जैसे 

a) This is the same dog as mine.
b) I like the same dress as my brother.
c) She has the same fair hair and blue eyes as her mother had.
d) This coffee is the same as we had at Mr Sharma’s. (not THAT)

vi) SUCH + NOUN के बाद Relative Pronouns THAT /AS के नियम

SUCH + NOUN के बाद आमतौर पर Relative Pronoun AS का use किया जाता है; परन्तु यदि वाक्य के पहले वाले clause में किसी बात का कारण दे रखा हो और बाद वाले clause में उसका परिणाम दे रखा हो तो Relative Pronoun  THAT का use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: There was such a noise as I was not able to hear anything.
CORRECT: There was such a noise that I was not able to hear anything.

NOTE: अगर SUCH शब्द के तुरंत साथ किसी verb का use हो तो THAT का use किया जाता है; जैसे 

Such was his behaviour that everybody disliked him.

vii) प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनामों (Interrogative Pronouns) जैसे कि Who, Whom, Whose, Which, What के साथ THAT का use होता है; जैसे

a) Who that I know has beaten you?
b) Who am I that I should prevent you from going to the mall?
c) What is that that is shining so brightly?
d) Whose is this house that looks exceptionally beautiful?

viii) ‘It + be + Nouns other than Proper Nouns’ के बाद में Relative Pronoun THAT का use होता है; परन्तु ‘It + be + Proper Nouns’ के बाद में Relative Pronouns WHO/WHOM का use भी शुद्ध होता है; जैसे

a) It is the boss that has finalized the report. (BOSS proper noun नहीं है.)
b) It is careless driving that causes accidents. (DRIVING proper noun नहीं है.)
c) It is Rakesh Gupta who teaches English here. (RAKESH GUPTA proper noun है.)

ix) यदि दो noun AND से जुडी हों और उनमें से एक मानव जाती के लिए use हुई हो और दूसरी किसी animal अथवा thing के लिए use ही हो तो Relative Pronoun THAT का use किया जाता है; WHO/WHOM/WHICH का नहीं; जैसे

a) The man and his dog that I saw yesterday have been murdered.
b) I like everybody and everything that are simple.

x) THAT का कोई Possessive Case नहीं होता; अर्थात इसको THAT’S नहीं लिखा जा सकता, और ना ही इसके पहले OF शब्द का use करके इसका possessive बनाया जा सकता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: The girl of that mother works in my office is very fashionable.
CORRECT: The girl whose mother works in my office is very fashionable.

INCORRECT: The pen of that colour is red is mine.
CORRECT: The pen of which colour is red is mine. OR The pen whose colour is red is mine.

xi) अगर किसी preposition के बाद एक Relative Pronoun की आवश्यकता हो तो THAT का use अशुद्ध होता है, बल्कि हम WHOM/WHICH का use करते हैं; जैसे

INCORRECT: This is the house in that I live.
CORRECT: This is the house in which I live.

NOTE: ऐसी स्थिति में Relative Pronoun THAT का use तभी किया जा सकता है जब preposition का use verb के बाद कर दिया जाये. अगर preposition को verb के बाद use कर दिया जाये तो किसी Relative Pronoun का use हम बिल्कुल न भी करें तो भी वाक्य शुद्ध होता है; जैसे

a) This is the man to whom I have talked on this point already.
= This is the man that I have talked to on this point already.
= This is the man I have talked to on this point already.

b) This is the house in which I live.
= This is the house that I live in.
= This is the house I live in.

xii) ‘As + Quantitative Adjective + Noun’ के बाद Relative Pronoun AS का use किया जाता है;  Who, Whom, Which अथवा That का नहीं; जैसे

a) You can take as many books as you like.
b) She asked as many questions as she could.

xiii) अगर कोई antecedent न हो तो  Relative Pronoun THAT का use नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

INCORRECT: The more that you earn, the more you spend.
CORRECT: The more you earn, the more you spend.

INCORRECT: The sooner that we start, the sooner we shall arrive.
CORRECT: The sooner we start, the sooner we shall arrive.

INCORRECT: The further that we went, the worse the weather became.
CORRECT: The further we went, the worse the weather became.

8. Relative Pronouns WHAT 

Relative Pronoun के रूप में WHAT केवल निम्नलिखित अर्थों में ही हो सकती है:

That which Those which The thing which The things which

a) What he says is incorrect. (यहाँ WHAT = that which)
b) What cannot be cured must be endured. (यहाँ WHAT = that which)
c) You can take what you like. (यहाँ WHAT = the thing/things which)

NOTE: Relative Pronoun के रूप में WHAT वाक्य में कोई antecedent/noun नहीं दिया होता; इसकी noun तो understood होती है, ये noun हैं: THAT THING, THOSE THINGS, THE THING/THINGS WHICH; जैसे

INCORRECT: You can take the dress what you like.
CORRECT: You can take the dress which/that you like.

(इस वाक्य में antecedent DRESS दिया हुआ है; अतः आप यहाँ WHAT का use नहीं कर सकते.)

9. Relative Pronouns का omission (हटाना) 

Relative pronouns केवल defining clauses से ही हटाई जा सकती हैं; Non-defining Clauses से आमतौर पर  नहीं हटाई जा सकतीं.

A) जब कोई Relative Pronoun subject हो उसको हटाना

i) आमतौर पर subject के रूप में use की हुई Relative Pronoun को हटाया नहीं जा सकता; लेकिन अगर किसी Relative Pronoun की verb BE (is/am/are/was/were, आदि) हो और इसके साथ कोई noun/pronoun हो तो Relative Pronoun को हटाया जा सकता है बशर्ते कि वह कोई Non-defining Clause हो; जैसे

She is Miss Monica, who is our class teacher.
= She is Miss Monica, our class teacher.

Ram, who is my friend, is a good teacher.
= Ram, my friend, is a good teacher.

ii) कोई Relative Pronoun अगर किसी Defining Clause का subject है तो वो हटाई जा सकती है; लेकिन ऐसे में उस Relative Pronoun की verb को उसके antecedent के participle  (adjective) के रूप में use करना आवश्यक होता है; जैसे

I know the girl who is dancing with your brother.
= I know the girl dancing with your brother.

The man who led the procession was killed by the police.
= The man leading the procession was killed by the police.

All the persons who were injured in the accident were sent to hospital.
= All the persons injured in the accident were sent to hospital.

iii) कोई Relative Pronoun अगर किसी Defining Clause का subject है तो वो तब भी हटाई जा सकती है जब उस Relative Pronoun की verb में BE (is/am/are/was/were) + AVAILABLE/POSSIBLE हो; लेकिन ऐसे में फिर verb BE को भी हटाना पड़ता है; जैसे

I am going to send you all the books that are available with me.
= I am going to send you all the books available with me.

Monday is the only day that is possible to spare.
= Monday is the only day possible to spare.

iv) अगर वाक्य में किसी antecedent की subject के रूप में दो Relative Pronoun हैं, तो बाद वाली Relative Pronoun को हटाया जा सकता है; जैसे

I have invited Dr Ratan, who lives in Agra and who comes here once a month.
= I have invited Dr Ratan, who lives in Agra and comes here once a month.

B) जब कोई Relative Pronoun object हो उसको हटाना

अगर कोई Relative Pronoun किसी Defining Clause में object के रूप में use हुई है तो उसको हटाया जा सकता है; जैसे

She is the girl whom I love.
= She is the girl I love.

He is the actor that I like most.
= He is the actor I like most.

This is the flat which Mohan bought.
= This is the flat Mohan bought.

NOTE-I: Never use any other kind of pronoun like me, us, you, him, her, it, them, once the Relative Pronoun has been removed; e.g.

INCORRECT: She is the girl I love her.
CORRECT: She is the girl I love.

INCORRECT: He is the actor I like him most.
CORRECT: He is the actor I like most.

INCORRECT: This is the flat Mohan bought it.
CORRECT: This is the flat Mohan bought.

NOTE-II: किसी Relative Pronoun के सामने अगर किसी preposition का use हुआ है तो उस Relative Pronoun को नहीं हटाया जा सकता; जैसे

INCORRECT: He is the man about I was talking.
CORRECT: He is the man about whom I was talking.

(ऐसे वाक्य में Relative Pronoun को हटाया जा सकता है अगर preposition को verb के बाद use कर दिया जाये. इस प्रकार ऊपर दिए गये वाक्य को ऐसे भी लिखा जा सकता है:

He is the man I was talking about.

10. Position of Relative Pronouns

किसी वाक्य के अर्थ को सही से स्पष्ट करने के लिए किसी Relative Pronoun को उसकी noun अथवा pronoun के अधिकतम पास में रखा जाना चाहिए; जैसे

a) The girl who died here was the daughter of Dr Verma.
b) The girl was the daughter of Dr Verma who died here.

[Relative Pronoun के स्थान ने इन दोनों ही वाक्यों के अर्थों को एकदम से बदल दिया है. पहले वाक्य के अनुसार तो लड़की मर जाती है जबकि दूसरे के अनुसार उस लड़की का पिता. ]

NOTE-I: Relative Pronouns को गलत जगह use करने पर इन वाक्यों को अशुद्ध बना दिया है क्योंकि उनको उनकी noun अथवा pronoun के साथ में नहीं रखा गया है; जैसे 

INCORRECT: The issue is very sensitive which she has raised.
CORRECT: The issue which she has raised is very sensitive.

INCORRECT: I have read Shakespeare’s plays, who is the greatest dramatist of English.
CORRECT: I have read the plays of Shakespeare, who is the greatest dramatist of English.

INCORRECT: I have read the plays of Shakespeare, which are very interesting.
CORRECT: I have read Shakespeare’s plays, which are very interesting.

NOTE-II: लेकिन यदि कोई noun किसी वर्णनात्मक phrase (descriptive phrase) से वर्णित (described) की गयी हो तो Relative Pronoun को उस phrase के बाद में रखा जाता है; जैसे 

a) I met Dr Rajan, the Director, who gave me this information.
b) I have to meet Mrs Pushpa, the Manager’s Secretary, who did our accounts.

NOTE-III: अगर किसी noun अथवा pronoun के साथ में शब्द ONLY का use हो तो उस noun अथवा pronoun की Relative Pronoun ALSO PHRASE के बाद में use की जाती है; जैसे

They also serve who stand and wait.

11. Relative Clauses में prepositions का उपयुक्त स्थान  

A) किसी Relative Pronoun से पहले use हुए किसी preposition को वाक्य के अंत में ले जाना अशुद्ध होता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: He is the boy whom I was playing with.
CORRECT: He is the boy with whom I was playing.

INCORRECT: This is the shop which she purchased her dress from.
CORRECT: This is the shop from which she purchased her dress.

NOTE-I: लेकिन यदि Relative Pronoun को ही हटा दिया जाये तो preposition को वाक्य के अंत में ही use किया जाता है; जैसे

They are the persons with whom I was running.
They are the persons I was running with.

This is the shop from which I bought my computer.
= This is the shop I bought my computer from.

NOTE-II: यदि किसी preposition का object Relative Pronoun THAT हो तो उस preposition को वाक्य के अंत में रखा जाता है; THAT के पहले नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Here is the book for that you were looking.
CORRECT: Here is the book that you were looking for.

INCORRECT: This is the man with that I stay.
CORRECT: This is the man that I stay with.

ऐसे में Relative Pronoun THAT को वाक्य से हटाया भी जा सकता है. THAT को हटाने पर ऊपर वाले वाक्य ये बनेंगे:

a) Here is the book you were looking for.
b) This is the man I stay with.

12. Compound Relative Pronouns

कुछ Relative Pronouns के अंत में ever, so soever लगा होता है जैसे कि Whoever, Whosoever, Whoso, Whatsoever, Whichever; ऐसी Relative Pronouns Compound Relative Pronouns कहा जाता है; जैसे

a) Whoever comes late will be fined. (WHOEVER = anyone who)
b) You can do whatever you like. (WHATEVER = anything that)
c) I have asked him to buy whichever he likes. (WHICHEVER = any that)

13. Relative Pronouns से सम्बन्धित महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य 

A) Defining Clauses में Relative Pronouns की nouns के पहले Possessive Adjectives (my, our, your, his, her, their, its) अथवा Demonstrative Adjectives (this, that, these, those) का use नहीं किया जाता, बल्कि article THE का use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) The car that you have needs servicing. (not YOUR CAR)
ii) The dress which she bought is beautiful. (not HER DRESS)

B) Chiefly, Especially, Including, Mainly, Namely, Notably and Particularly के तुरंत बाद में कोई Relative Pronoun use नहीं की जाती. इन शब्दों के बाद में पहले शब्द THOSE use किया जाता है; फिर इसके बाद Relative Pronouns; जैसे

INCORRECT: All the workers, including whom you have appointed, have gone against you.
CORRECT: All the workers, including those whom you have appointed, have gone against you.

INCORRECT: Most of the members, especially who have not paid their dues, have not come to attend the meeting.
CORRECT: Most of the members, especially those who have not paid their dues, have not come to attend the meeting.

C) यदि किसी Relative Pronouns के पहले किसी preposition का use हुआ हो तो फिर वाक्य में उस preposition को दोहराया नहीं जाता; जैसे  

INCORRECT: You are the man with whom we can live with safety.
CORRECT: You are the man with whom we can live safely.

INCORRECT: This is the room in which they live in.
CORRECT: This is the room in which they live.

NOTE: लेकिन यदि आप उस दूसरी बार आये हुए preposition को वाक्य में रखना चाहते हो तो फिर पहली बार use हुए preposition को Relative Pronouns के साथ हटाना होगा; जैसे

i) You are the man we can live with safety.
ii) This is the room they live in.

D) यदि किसी noun/antecedent के लिए दो Relative Pronouns use हुई हैं तो दूसरे वाली Relative Pronouns के पहले हमें conjunction AND लगाना होगा; जैसे

INCORRECT: He is a famous writer, who lives in this hostel who wants to open a hospital for the poor
CORRECT: He is a famous writer, who lives in this hostel and who wants to open a hospital for the poor.

E) यदि किसी वाक्य में एक ही Relative Pronoun use हुई तो उसके पहले conjunction AND का use नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

INCORRECT: He is Amit, and who is my brother.
CORRECT: He is Amit, who is my brother.

F) Relative Pronouns की nouns के लिए pronouns It, Him, Them, She, They, use नहीं की जातीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: This is the pen which I bought it for you.
CORRECT: This is the pen which I bought for you.

G) किसी Relative Pronoun के लिए verb उस Relative Pronoun की noun/pronoun के अनुसार use की जाती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: I, who is a doctor, will examine you.
CORRECT: I, who am a doctor, will examine him.

INCORRECT: The boys who lives here are always disturbing.
CORRECT: The boys who live here are always disturbing.

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS (WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, AS, WHAT) — EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Definition: A Relative Pronoun is one which is used to refer to nouns/pronouns mentioned before. That noun/pronoun is called its antecedent. Relative Pronouns can be used to join two sentences/clauses; e.g.

I met Sohan who had just returned from Mumbai.

(The word WHO relates to the noun Sohan; therefore it is a relative pronoun here, and Sohan is its antecedent.)

Relative pronouns are:

Who Whom Which That As What

1. Use of ‘THE’ before the noun of a Relative Pronoun

Usually we use THE + NOUN before Relative clauses, but sometimes we can also use ‘a/an + noun’, ‘plural nouns without THE’ and ‘all, none, anybody, somebody etc. and those’; e.g.

1. That story is about a boy who goes to temple daily.
2. They should give the money to somebody who they think needs the treatment most.
3. This is a man who takes his responsibilities seriously.
4. Do you have anything that will help my throat?
5. Everything that you say seems silly to me.
6. I’m sorry, but that is althat I saw.

NOTE: Sometimes we separate these clauses from their noun/pronoun by using a word or phrase; e.g.

a) There’s a girl here who wants your help.
b) I read something in this book which attracted me most.

2. Functions of Relative Pronouns

A) As a subject of a verb

i) He is the boy who has stood first in the examination. (Here Relative Pronoun WHO is the subject of the verb HAS STOOD.)
ii) This is the cat which drank all the milk. (Here Relative Pronoun WHICH is the subject of the verb DRANK.)
iii) The book that is lying on the table is mine. (Here Relative Pronoun THAT is the subject of the verb IS LYING)

B) As object of the verb

i) She is the girl whom I met in the garden yesterday. (Here Relative Pronoun WHOM is the object of the verb MET.)
ii) This is the book which I like most. (Here Relative Pronoun WHICH is the object of the verb LIKE.)

C) As object of a preposition

i) This is the doll with which I usually play. (Here Relative Pronoun WHICH is the object of the preposition WITH.)
ii) There is no room in which we can stay tonight. (Here Relative Pronoun WHICH is the object of the preposition IN.)
iii) He is the boy about whom I was talking. (Here Relative Pronoun WHOM is the object of the preposition ABOUT.)

3. Defining Relative Clause

When a clause with a Relative Pronoun works as an adjective and the Relative Pronoun defines its antecedent; it’s called Defining Relative Clause; e.g.

The man who lives here is my friend.

[In this sentence the clause WHO LIVES HERE is working as an adjective does, therefore this clause is an example of DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE. Without this Relative Clause it’s not clear which man we are talking about. Comma is not used before the Defining Clause.]

4. Non-defining Clause

We place Non-defining Relative Clauses after nouns which are definite already. Therefore they do not define the noun, means they do not work like adjectives, rather they only give some more information about it. These relative clauses are not necessary in the sentence and therefore can be omitted without causing confusion. Also we separate them from their nouns by using a comma; e.g.

I have bought a shirt, which is white.

[In this sentence the relative clause WHICH IS WHITE is not defining its noun SHIRT, rather it’s giving additional information about that SHIRT. Therefore this clause is an example of NON-DEFINING CLAUSE. Without this relative clause, the clause I HAVE BOUGHT A SHIRT is making a good sense on its own. You see that there is a comma between the noun SHIRT and the Non-Defining Clause.]

5. WHO, WHOM and WHOSE as Relative Pronouns

A) WHO and its objective case WHOM are used specifically for human beings; e.g.

i) The boy who met you in the park is my brother.
ii) We don’t know the person who donated this money.
iii) There’s this guy at work, who’s one of my friends.
iv) He is the actor whom I like most. (Here object of the verb LIKE is needed; so the objective case of WHO i.e. WHOM is used.)
v) The response of those managers whom I have consulted has been very positive and we are looking forward to meeting together.

NOTE: We often use WHO with collective human nouns; e.g. committee, government, group, panel, police,  team); e.g.

Sujata phoned the fire brigade, who then alerted the police.

B) WHO/WHOM are also used for God, gods, fairies, angels; e.g.

i) You must worship God, who is the creator of the universe.
ii) There are many stories about fairies, who fly.

 C) WHO/WHOM are also used for pet animals if they have been thought like persons; e.g.

i) Moti, who is always barking, frightens everyone passing by.
ii) That’s the dog who doesn’t like me.

D) WHOSE is possessive of WHO and is used for human beings, animals and also lifeless things; e.g.

i) He’s marrying a girl whose family don’t seem to like him. (possessive of GIRL)
ii) She has a dog whose colour is white. (possessive of dog, an animal)
iii) A triangle whose three sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle. (possessive of TRIANGLE, a thing)
iv) Look at the setting sun whose rays have reddened the sky. (possessive of SUN)

Difference between usage of Relative Pronouns WHO and WHOM

The main confusion between their uses is because of conversational language as WHO is seen being used frequently in place of WHOM. But in standard English both the words should be used according to the rules associated with them.

i) WHO
WHO can only be used as a subject of a clause, and therefore is equal to the subjective cases of the pronouns I, WE, YOU, HE, SHE, THEY; Being so it must take a verb after it; e.g.

a) She is my sister, who is a teacher.
b) The teacher who teaches you is very intelligent.

[You cannot use WHOM in place of WHO here as we need subject of the verb IS in the first sentence and subject of the verb TEACHES in the second.]

ii) WHOM
WHOM is objective case of WHO; therefore it can only be used as an object of some verb. Being so it’s equal to the objective cases of the pronouns (ME, US, YOU, HIM, HER, THEM), and does not have its own verb; e.g.

a) Meera is a good girl, whom I love.
b) Mohit is your friend, whom I met in morning.
c) He is the actor whom I like most. (object of the verb LIKE)

How to know where to use WHO and where to use WHOM

Problem is mainly seen in the following type of sentences between the use of WHO and WHOM

a) The person WHO (or WHOM) we thought was guilty proved to be innocent.
b) The man WHO (or WHOM) we feared we had injured proved to be unharmed.

[People always tempt themselves to use WHOM in both the given sentences; maybe because it is felt that the it is the object of the verb THOUGHT in the first sentence and verb FEARED in the second sentence. But it is not so. In the first sentence the subject of WAS GUILTY is required, hence WHO is correct; and in the second sentence the object of HAD INJURED is required, hence WHOM is correct.]

NOTE-I: In case of confusion count the number of verbs and see whether or not there are as many subjects in the sentence. If every verb of the sentence has a subject, we need WHOM otherwise WHO.

See this sentence to understand it clearly:

The doctor who/whom you recommended is not available for three months.

(In this sentence, the verb RECOMMENDED has the subject YOU, the verb IS has the subject THE DOCTOR. There is no verb left now. Therefore we need WHOM here.)

NOTE-II: After a preposition, objective case is used; so we use WHOM (not WHO) after a preposition; e.g.

a) You are the boy about whom I was talking. (ABOUT is a preposition.)
b) She is the girl with whom Mohan lives. (WITH is a preposition.)

6. WHICH as a Relative Pronoun

A) WHICH is used for animals and lifeless things only. Unlike WHO, both the subjective and objective cases are the same for WHICH; means we use WHICH for subjective as well as objective case; e.g.

i) The dog which barked at me did not fortunately bite. (Subject of the verb BARKED)
ii) It was the same picture which I saw at the National Gallery. (Object of the verb SAW)
iii) He won’t have much time to prepare for the meeting, which is this afternoon.

NOTE-I: We use WHICH (not WHO, WHOM or THAT) if the whole clause is the antecedent for a relative pronoun; e.g.

i) He has paid off his debts, which is a clear proof of his honesty.
ii) She has passed this examination with good marks, which proves that she is intelligent.

[In both the sentences above, WHICH is not the Relative Pronoun of DEBTS or MARKS, rather it’s Relative Pronoun of the complete clauses He has paid off his debts and She has passed this examination with good marks. So you can’t use WHO, WHOM or THAT here.]

NOTE-II: We use WHICH or THAT, not WHAT; e.g.

INCORRECT: Another activity what I have chosen is photography.
CORRECT: Another activity which/that I have chosen is photography.

B) ‘Both ‘OF WHICH’ and ‘WHOSE’ are possessives of WHICH

A building whose walls are not painted looks ugly.
= A building walls of which are not painted looks ugly.

7. AS and THAT as Relative Pronouns

A) THAT as a relative pronoun can be used in both subjective and objective cases, for both human beings and things, means it can take place of WHO, WHOM and WHICH. However THAT can only be used in Defining Clauses, never in Non-Defining Clauses; e.g.

i) This is the man who met me in the garden.
= This is the man that met me in the garden.

ii) The table which is red is mine.
= The table that is red is mine.

iii) The man whom I like most is my father.
= The man that I like most is my father.

NOTE: You cannot use THAT in the below sentences as they have Non-Defining Clauses.

INCORRECT: He is a famous dancer, that lives in my town.
CORRECT: He is a famous dancer, who lives in my town.

INCORRECT: I have bought a car, that is white.
CORRECT: I have bought a car, which is white.

INCORRECT: Mohit is your friend, that I met in morning.
CORRECT: Mohit is your friend, whom I met in morning.

B) After the following we use THAT (not WHO, WHOM or WHICH):

i) Superlative Degree

a) He is the most hardworking boy that I have ever seen. (MOST HARDWORKING is a superlative degree)
b) The Wimbledon men’s final was the best game of tennis that I’ve ever seen.

ii) After the following:

All (=Everything) All  + Uncountable Nouns All + Countable Nouns Referring to Things

a) I have told you all that I know. (ALL means everything here)
b) She has spent all the money that I gave her. (MONEY is an uncountable noun)
c) All the apples that are in the refrigerator are rotten. (APPLES is a countable noun referring to a thing)

NOTE: If ALL has been used for persons we can use either WHO or THAT; e.g.

A welcome is extended to all who wish to come.
= A welcome is extended to all that wish to come.

iii) Everything, Nothing, Much, Little

a) I have given you everything that I had.
b) I do nothing that can harm anybody.
c) She has spent the little money that she borrowed from me in the morning.

iv) After the following when they are referring to things:

Few Any Only None No

a) He has lost the few rupees that his father gave him yesterday.
b) This is the only dress that can fit you.
c) Any help that you can give me will be appreciated.

NOTE: When these words refer to persons we can use either of WHO and THAT.

v) Use of THAT /AS after THE SAME

A) If there is a subject of the second clause is given we use THAT (not AS) as Relative Pronoun; e.g.

He told me the same story that he told you.

(Here HE is the subject of the second clause HE TOLD YOU.)

B) If a verb is there directly after the relative pronoun we also use THAT after THE SAME + NOUN; e.g.

a) This is the same girl that deceived him. (verb DECEIVED is there, so you can’t use WHO)
b) This is the same dog that bit me. (verb BIT is there, so you can’t use WHICH)

NOTE: When we have to show similarity we use AS (not THAT) after THE SAME; e.g.

a) This is the same dog as mine.
b) I like the same dress as my brother.
c) She has the same fair hair and blue eyes as her mother had.
d) This coffee is the same as we had at Mr Sharma’s. (not THAT)

vi) Use of THAT /AS after SUCH 

Normally we use AS after SUCH, but we use THAT after SUCH if there is a cause of something in the SUCH-CLAUSE and result in the other clause; e.g.

There was such a noise that I was not able to hear anything.

NOTE: And also we use THAT after SUCH if a verb is used directly after SUCH; e.g.

Such was his behaviour that everybody disliked him.

vii) After Interrogative Pronouns such as Who, Whom, Whose, Which, What we use THAT; e.g.

a) Who that I know has beaten you?
b) Who am I that I should prevent you from going to the mall?
c) What is that that is shining so brightly?
d) Whose is this house that looks exceptionally beautiful?

viii) After ‘It + be + Nouns other than Proper Nouns’ use THAT; in other cases we can use WHO/WHOM; e.g.

a) It is the boss that has finalized the report. (BOSS is not proper noun)
b) It is careless driving that causes accidents. (DRIVING is not a proper noun)
c) It is Rakesh Gupta who teaches English here. (RAKESH GUPTA is a proper noun)

ix) If two nouns are joined by AND, and one of them is a human being and the other an animal or a thing, we use THAT (not WHO/WHOM/WHICH); e.g.

a) The man and his dog that I saw yesterday have been murdered.
b) I like everybody and everything that are simple.

x) THAT has no Possessive Case, neither can we make it possessive by putting OF before it; e.g.

INCORRECT: The girl of that mother works in my office is very fashionable.
CORRECT: The girl whose mother works in my office is very fashionable.

INCORRECT: The pen of that colour is red is mine.
CORRECT: The pen of which colour is red is mine. OR The pen whose colour is red is mine.

xi) If a Relative Pronoun is needed after a preposition we cannot use THAT; use WHOM/WHICH rather; e.g.

INCORRECT: This is the house in that I live.
CORRECT: This is the house in which I live.

NOTE: We can use THAT in such a case only when you’ve transferred the preposition after the verb. In such a case we can also omit the relative pronoun altogether; e.g.

a) This is the man to whom I have talked on this point already.
= This is the man that I have talked to on this point already.
= This is the man I have talked to on this point already.

b) This is the house in which I live.
= This is the house that I live in.
= This is the house I live in.

xii) After ‘As + Quantitative Adjective + Noun’ use AS (not Who, Whom, Which or That); e.g.

a) You can take as many books as you like.
b) She asked as many questions as she could.

xiii) We do not use THAT when it is not referring to an antecedent; e.g.

INCORRECT: The more that you earn, the more you spend.
CORRECT: The more you earn, the more you spend.

INCORRECT: The sooner that we start, the sooner we shall arrive.
CORRECT: The sooner we start, the sooner we shall arrive.

INCORRECT: The further that we went, the worse the weather became.
CORRECT: The further we went, the worse the weather became.

8. WHAT as a relative pronoun

WHAT as a Relative Pronoun can only be used for things expressing the following meaning:

That which Those which The thing which The things which

a) What he says is incorrect. (here WHAT = that which)
b) What cannot be cured must be endured. (here WHAT = that which)
c) You can take what you like. (here WHAT = the thing/things which)

NOTE: WHAT as a relative pronoun does not have an antecedent. The noun for WHAT is understood. Those nouns are THAT THING, THOSE THINGS, THE THING/THINGS WHICH; e.g.

INCORRECT: You can take the dress what you like.
CORRECT: You can take the dress which/that you like.

(Here THE DRESS is the antecedent, so you can’t use WHAT. Use WHICH or THAT in place of WHAT here.)

9. Omission of Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns can only be omitted from defining clauses, we cannot remove the relative pronoun of a non-defining clause at all.

A) Removal of a Relative Pronoun in Subjective Case

i) Generally the relative pronoun in subjective case cannot be removed, but if the Relative Pronoun has BE as verb, and it has a noun as its complement we can remove that Relative Pronoun provided it’s in a Non-Defining Clause; e.g.

He is Dr Ghosh, who is our Principal.
= He is Dr Ghosh, our Principal.

She is Miss Monica, who is our class teacher.
= She is Miss Monica, our class teacher.

Ram, who is my friend, is a good teacher.
= Ram, my friend, is a good teacher.

ii) A Relative Pronoun in subjective case of a Defining Clause can also be removed, in that case the verb of that Relative Pronoun is used as a participle of the noun of that Relative Pronoun; e.g.

I know the girl who is dancing with your brother.
= I know the girl dancing with your brother.

The man who led the procession was killed by the police.
= The man leading the procession was killed by the police.

All the persons who were injured in the accident were sent to hospital.
= All the persons injured in the accident were sent to hospital.

iii) Relative Pronoun in subjective case of a Defining Clause can also be removed if that pronoun has BE + AVAILABLE/POSSIBLE. But in that case the verb BE is also removed; e.g.

I am going to send you all the books that are available with me.
= I am going to send you all the books available with me.

Monday is the only day that is possible to spare.
= Monday is the only day possible to spare.

iv) If an antecedent has two relative pronouns in subjective case, the second relative pronoun can be removed; e.g.

I have invited Dr Ratan, who lives in Agra and who comes here once a month.
= I have invited Dr Ratan, who lives in Agra and comes here once a month.

B) Removal of a Relative Pronoun in Objective Case

The Relative Pronoun can be removed if it’s in the Objective Case of a Defining Clause; e.g.

She is the girl whom I love.
= She is the girl I love.

He is the actor that I like most.
= He is the actor I like most.

This is the flat which Mohan bought.
= This is the flat Mohan bought.

NOTE-I: Never use any other kind of pronoun like me, us, you, him, her, it, them, once the Relative Pronoun has been removed; e.g.

INCORRECT: She is the girl I love her.
CORRECT: She is the girl I love.

INCORRECT: He is the actor I like him most.
CORRECT: He is the actor I like most.

INCORRECT: This is the flat Mohan bought it.
CORRECT: This is the flat Mohan bought.

NOTE-II: We cannot remove such a Relative Pronoun if it has a preposition in front; e.g.

INCORRECT: He is the man about I was talking.
CORRECT: He is the man about whom I was talking.

(In this sentence you can remove that relative pronoun only if the preposition has been shifted after the verb; therefore the following sentence is correct. HE IS THE MAN I WAS TALKING ABOUT.

10. Position of Relative Pronouns

To make the meaning of a sentence clear, the relative pronoun should be kept extreme close to its antecedent. To understand this, see it:

a) The girl who died here was the daughter of Dr Verma.
b) The girl was the daughter of Dr Verma who died here.

[The place of relative pronoun has changed the meanings of these two sentences completely. In the first sentence THE GIRL dies; whereas in the second her father dies.]

NOTE-I: Wrong place of use of relative pronouns has made the following sentences incorrect as they are not put adjacent to their antecedents.

INCORRECT: The issue is very sensitive which she has raised.
CORRECT: The issue which she has raised is very sensitive.

INCORRECT: I have read Shakespeare’s plays, who is the greatest dramatist of English.
CORRECT: I have read the plays of Shakespeare, who is the greatest dramatist of English.

INCORRECT: I have read the plays of Shakespeare, which are very interesting.
CORRECT: I have read Shakespeare’s plays, which are very interesting.

NOTE-II: But if a noun is described by any descriptive phrase, the relative pronoun is used after that phrase, not with the noun itself; e.g.

a) I met Dr Rajan, the Director, who gave me this information.
b) I have to meet Mrs Pushpa, the Manager’s Secretary, who did our accounts.

NOTE-III: If a noun/antecedent is followed by ALSO, we use the relative pronoun after the ALSO PHRASE; e.g.

They also serve who stand and wait.

11. Position of prepositions in Relative Clauses

In relative clauses, a preposition placed before WHOM /WHICH cannot be moved to the end of the clause; e.g.

INCORRECT: He is the boy whom I was playing with.
CORRECT: He is the boy with whom I was playing.

INCORRECT: This is the shop which she purchased her dress from.
CORRECT: This is the shop from which she purchased her dress.

NOTE-I: But if the relative pronoun is removed from the sentence, the preposition moves at the end of the clause; e.g.

i) They are the persons I was running with.
ii) This is the shop I bought my computer from.

NOTE-II: When the object of the preposition is the relative pronoun THAT, the preposition is always placed at the end of the clause; e.g.

INCORRECT: Here is the book for that you were looking.
CORRECT: Here is the book that you were looking for.

INCORRECT: This is the man with that I stay.
CORRECT: This is the man that I stay with.

In such a case the Relative Pronoun THAT can also be removed from the sentence altogether. On removing the relative pronoun THAT the above sentences will be; e.g.

a) Here is the book you were looking for.
b) This is the man I stay with.

12. Compound Relative Pronouns

Some relative pronouns are such that have  ever, so soever in their end like Whoever, Whosoever, Whoso, Whatsoever, Whichever; they are called compound relative pronouns; e.g.

a) Whoever comes late will be fined. (WHOEVER = anyone who)
b) You can do whatever you like. (WHATEVER = anything that)
c) I have asked him to buy whichever he likes. (WHICHEVER = any that)

13. Important facts about Relative Pronouns

A) In defining clauses we do not use a possessive adjective (my, our, your, his, her, their, its) or a demonstrative adjective (this, that, these, those) before the noun/antecedent of the relative pronoun, rather we use THE; e.g.

i) The car that you have needs servicing. (not YOUR CAR)
ii) The dress which she bought is beautiful. (not HER DRESS)

B) We do not use a relative pronoun immediately after Chiefly, Especially, Including, Mainly, Namely, Notably and Particularly. We first use the word THOSE and then the relative pronoun after them; e.g.

INCORRECT: All the workers, including whom you have appointed, have gone against you.
CORRECT: All the workers, including those whom you have appointed, have gone against you.

INCORRECT: Most of the members, especially who have not paid their dues, have not come to attend the meeting.
CORRECT: Most of the members, especially those who have not paid their dues, have not come to attend the meeting.

C) If a relative pronoun is preceded with a preposition, that preposition is not repeated in the sentence; e.g. 

INCORRECT: You are the man with whom we can live with safety.
CORRECT: You are the man with whom we can live safely.

INCORRECT: This is the room in which they live in.
CORRECT: This is the room in which they live.

NOTE: But if you want the second preposition, remove the first one along with the relative pronoun; e.g.

i) You are the man we can live with safety.
ii) This is the room they live in.

D) If a noun/antecedent has two relative pronouns, we use AND before the second one; e.g.

INCORRECT: He is a famous writer, who lives in this hostel who wants to open a hospital for the poor
CORRECT: He is a famous writer, who lives in this hostel and who wants to open a hospital for the poor.

E) When there is use of only one Relative Pronoun in a sentence we do not use the conjunction AND before that Relative Pronoun; e.g.

INCORRECT: He is Amit, and who is my brother.
CORRECT: He is Amit, who is my brother.

F) We do not use pronouns It, Him, Them, She, They, for the antecedents of the Relative Pronouns who, which, that; e.g. 

INCORRECT: This is the pen which I bought it for you.
CORRECT: This is the pen which I bought for you.

G) Verb of a relative pronoun like WHO, WHICH, THAT is according to its antecedent; e.g.

INCORRECT: I, who is a doctor, will examine you.
CORRECT: I, who am a doctor, will examine him.

INCORRECT: The boys who lives here are always disturbing.
CORRECT: The boys who live here are always disturbing.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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