Practice Sets - EnglishSentence Improvement

SENTENCE IMPROVEMENT – PRACTICE SET-1 – SOLVED (ENGLISH & HINDI)

Here is a Practice Set on Sentence Improvement. All the question included in this Practice Set are supported by the answer key of the set. Each question of this Practice Set is also well supported by lucid and detailed explanation both in English and Hindi. I’m sure you won’t face a problem in understanding those explanations.

Further, I want to ensure you that this Practice Set on Sentence Improvement will be very useful for any competitive exams of the Staff Selection Commission (SSC) or Grade-II DASS Exam of the DSSSB, and other similar exams and will help you score good score. Names of some exams are given below for example:

1. Combined Graduate Level (CGL) Exam Tier-I & Tier-II
2. Combined Higher Secondary (10+2) Exam (CHSL) Tier-I
3. SI in Delhi Police and CPO Exam Paper-I & Paper-II
4. Stenographers Exam
5. Grade-II DASS Exam conducted by Delhi Staff Subordinate Services (DSSSB)

Sentence Improvement — Practice Set-1 — Solved (Both English & Hindi)

NUMBER OF QUESTIONS: 25                                                            MAXIMUM TIME: 10 minutes

1. I told him that I waited for him for an hour the previous day.
A) had waited        B) had been waiting
C) was waiting        D) No improvement

2. When you will write the book I shall help you.
A) you get to write the book    B) you write the book
C) will you write the book    D) No improvement.

3. When he fell down the ditch, he shouted with all his might, so that to catch someone’s attention.
A) such that to catch        B) so as to catch
C) so then to catch        D) No improvement.

4. Will you tell me who did accompany you to the airport?
A) When did accompany you        B) Who must be accompanied you
C) Who accompanied you        D) No improvement

5. The teacher did not ask any questions to Rinky.
A) any questions of Rinky        B) any questions from Rinky
C) Rinky any questions        D) No improvement

6. Do how I say.
A) as        B) what
C) like        D) No improvement

7. Mr. Dev will not go to the wedding reception without being called.
A) if he is not invited        B) till he is invited
C) Unless he is invited        D) No improvement

8. Why should you be despaired of your success of your undertaking?
A) you despair of the success of your undertaking        B) you despair of success of undertaking
C) you be despaired of the success of your undertaking        D) No improvement

9. The office is soon to be closed.
A) just to        B) about to
C) immediately to        D) No improvement

10. You didn’t need be lying when the judge asked you where you were when the crime was committed.
A) have told a lie        B) have told lie
C) to tell a lie        D) No improvement

11. Since your departure, nothing has been transpired here worth your notice.
A) Worthy of note has been transpired here        B) worthy of note has transpired here
C) worth your notice has transpired here        D) No improvement

12. I don’t think Harsh will beat Mohit at chess. Mohit is one too much for him.
A) too much one        B) too many one
C) one too many        D) No improvement.

13. The museum’s collection includes artefacts dated back to prehistoric times.

A) dating back         B) date back
C) date backs         D) No improvement

14. The cookbook is tailor-made for amateur vegan cooks.
A) mass produced        B) customized
C) professionally made        D) No improvement.

15. Through the ages the people of many cultures have used talismans and charms to ward off evil and invoke special powers.
A) stones        B) earrings
C) amulets        D) No improvement

16. The chicken in his farm are fatted up nicely.
A) are fattened        B) are fattying
C) are fattening        D) No improvement

17 . We must have serious reading for the mind as we need wholesome and nutritious food for the body.
A) like we need        B) like as we need
C) just as we need        D) No improvement.

18. He work hard will succeed.
A) He who will work hard        B) He who will be working hard
C) He who works hard        D) No improvement.

19. The president shook hands with all the persons on the dais.
A) shook hands with all        B) shook hands with each of the persons
C) shook hands with everyone        D) No improvement

20. What the nation needs is people of character.
A) are the people of character        B) are people of character
C) is a people of character        D) No improvement

21. Almost every decision involves takes a risk and it could backfire on the decision-maker.
A) involving takes        B) involved in taking
C) involved taking        D) No improvement.

22. In an attempt to grow economically strong India plans to march towards an open economy by opening its doors to global markets.
A) open doors towards its        B) opened its doors to
C) open its doors in        D) No improvement.

23. Managers frequently encounter situations where they need to help others solved problems.
A) to helping others solved        B) help others solved
C) to help others solve        D) No improvement.

24. The teacher saw my conversing with her.
A) My conversation        B) Me to converse
C) Me conversing        D) No improvement

25. Ruchi stopped and said that she had forgotten taking the key from the keyhole.
A) forgot taking the key from        B) forgot to take the key off from
C) had forgotten to take the key from        D) No improvement

Answer Key

1. A 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. C
11. B 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. D 16. C 17. C 18. C 19. C 20. D
21. C 22. D 23. C 24. C 25. C

Solution with explanation (in Hindi)

1. Option ‘A’ (had waited). इस sentence में देखिये THE PREVIOUS DAY दिया गया है, ये सिर्फ Past Perfect Tense में ही use किया जा सकता है. .

2. Option ‘B’ (you write the book). दिया गया sentence अशुद्ध है. Clause I SHALL HELP YOU हमें बता रहा है कि इस sentence में future time में कुछ घटित होने की बात हो रही है. WHEN के साथ जब future में कुछ घटित होने की बात हो तो Present Simple Tense use किया जाता है कोई future tense नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: When the new park will open, I’ll go there every day.
CORRECT: When the new park opens, I’ll go there every day.

Option ‘A’ अशुद्ध है क्योंकि इस अर्थ में GET के साथ TO-INFINITIVE का use नहीं किया जाता. ऐसा हम तभी करते हैं जब GET का अर्थ ‘कुछ करने के अवसर को प्राप्त करने का संयोग हो. जैसे

Did you get to visit your uncle when you were in Mumbai?

3. Option ‘B’ (so as to catch). किसी infinitive (TO+V1) के पहले SO AS use किया जाता है, SO THAT नहीं. TO CATCH एक infinitive है.

4. Option ‘C’ (who accompanied you). इस sentence में दो clause दिए गये हैं, वे हैं WILL YOU TELL ME और WHO DID ACCOMPANY YOU. दूसरे clause का subject WHO दिया हुआ है, जब भी WHO, WHAT, WHICH अथवा WHOSE में से कोई एक किसी clause/sentence का subject होता है तो present simple and past simple tenses में किसी helping verb का use नहीं किया जाता. क्योंकि इस clause का tense Past Simple Tense है और helping verb DID का use किया हुआ है; अतः यहाँ से DID को हटाना पड़ेगा.

5. Option ‘C’ (Rinky any questions). Verb ASK के साथ कभी कोई preposition use जैसे  TO/FROM अदि का use नहीं होता; जैसे

INCORRECT: The speaker asked to the men how many children they had.
CORRECT:
The speaker asked the men how many children they had.

INCORRECT: It is an interesting question that every person should ask to himself.
CORRECT:
It is an interesting question that every person should ask himself.

6. Option ‘A’ (as). DO AS I SAY एक proverb होती है जिसका अर्थ है ‘वैसे ही करो जैसा कि मैं कहूँ’.

7. Option ‘C’ (unless he is invited). दिया गया वाक्य अशुद्ध है क्योंकि verb CALL का use किसी को invite करने के लिए नहीं किया जाता. Option ‘A’ इसलिए गलत है क्योंकि इसका use करने से वाक्य का अर्थ हो जायेगा कि वह reception में जायेगा ही नहीं, अर्थ होना चाहिए की अगर उसको invite कर लिया जाता है तो वह अवश्य जायेगा, इस अर्थ के लिए UNLESS शब्द का प्रयोग ही उचित है.

8. Option ‘A’ (you despair of the success of your undertaking). दिया गया वाक्य passive voice में है. अगर सही से देखा जाए तो इसे active voice में होना चाहिए था. DESPAIR (verb) = उम्मीद छोड़ देना. SHOULD का use हम किसी बात की सार्थकता (reasonableness) बताने के लिए भी करते हैं. UNDERTAKING का अर्थ है काम/कार्य

Hindi translation: क्या ये सही बात है कि तुम अपने काम की सफलता के बारे में संदेह करो/उसकी उम्मीद छोड़ो?

9. Option ‘B’ (about to). तत्काल भविष्य को जताने के लिए phrase BE ABOUT का use किया जाता ही. बात पर जोर देने के लिए इससे पहले शब्द JUST को लगाया जा सकता है, या फिर इसके स्थान पर be on the point of + gerund का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) I’m about to leave. (means I’ll leave just now)
b) I’m just about to leave.
c) I’m on the point of leaving.
d) He was just about to dive when he saw the crocodile.

10. Option ‘C’ (to tell a lie). दिए गये वाक्य में NEED main verb है. NEED जब main verb होती है तो इसके साथ full infinitive (to+V1) का use किया जाता है; अतः यहाँ TO TELL A LIE सही होगा.

11. Option ‘B’ (worthy of note has transpired here). सही phrase WORTHY OF NOTE होता है. इसका अर्थ है IMPORTANT (ख़ास). दूसरे sentence की रचना यहाँ active voice में ही शुद्ध बनेगी, अतः option ‘A’ गलत है क्योंकि यह HAS BEEN ने इसे passive voice में बना दिया है. TRANSPIRE= घटित होना

Hindi translation: तुम्हारे चले जाने के बाद से यहाँ कुछ भी ख़ास घटित नहीं हुआ है.

12. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). ONE TOO MUCH = किसी के लिए बहुत भारी

13. Option ‘A’ (dating back to). वाक्य के सन्दर्भ से यह बिल्कुल सपष्ट है कि हमें यहाँ museum की collection की वर्तमान समय तक की स्थिति को दिखाना है. DATED BACK एक past participle होता है;  अर्थात past time के adjective का काम करता है, उसका वर्तमान समय से कोई लेना-देना नहीं होता. जबकि present participle किसी स्थिति का वर्तमान में चल रहे समय तक का प्रभाव बताता है, अतः यहाँ present participle अर्थात DATING BACK का use होगा.

Translation in Hindi: संग्राहलय की संग्रहित वस्तुओं में प्रागैतिहासिक (लिखित इतिहास से पहले युग का) काल की कलाकृतियों (artefacts) का समावेश है. 

14. Option ‘B’ (customized)

CUSTOMIZED और TAILER-MADE दोनों ही का अर्थ होता है ‘किसी के लिए खासतौर पर बनाया हुआ कुछ‘, लेकिन इन दोनों के प्रयोग में कुछ अंतर होता है. जब हम केवल वस्तुओं की बात करते हैं तो TAILOR-MADE का use सिर्फ पहनने के कपड़ों तक ही सीमित होता है, लेकिन word CUSTOMIZED का use कपड़ों के लिए तो होता ही है बल्कि शेष सभी तरह की वस्तुओं के लिए भी होता है. दिए गये वाक्य में COOKS की बात हो रही है; कपड़ों की नहीं, अतः यहाँ CUSTOMIZED शब्द का प्रयोग ही उचित होगा.

NOTE: जब वस्तुओं के बारे में बात नहीं हो रही हो और केवल situations अथवा ideas की बात हो रही हो तो सिर्फ शब्द TAILOR-MADE का use ही किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) The role was tailor-made for the young actress.
b) That job is tailor-made [=perfect] for him.
c) Our brokers develop tailor-made strategies for managing risk.

15. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). TALISMAN एक ऐसी वस्तु होती है जो किन्ही खास दैवीय शक्तियों को जागृत करने के लिए लोगों द्वारा पहनी जाती, इसमें आमतौर पर एक और चीज जुडी होती जिसे गर्दन या फिर हाथों पर पहना जाता है; इसको AMULET कहते हैं. इस बात से पता लगता है की वाक्य पहले से ही शुद्ध है, अर्थात शब्द TALISMANS का use सही है.

16. Option ‘C’ (fattening up). FATTEN UP एक idiom होता है जिसका अर्थ है किसी animal या दुबले-पतले व्यक्ति को इतना खिलाना-पिलाना ताकि वह मोटा-तगड़ा हो जाये

Translation in Hindi: उसके मुर्गी बाड़े में मुर्गियों के बच्चे बढ़िया तरीके से तगड़े हो रहे हैं.

17. Option ‘C’ (just as we need). दिया गये वाक्य में comparison है. Comparisons करते हुए LIKE का use केवल nouns, pronouns अथवा gerunds के साथ ही किया जा सकता है, लेकिन WE NEED एक clause है कोई  noun, pronoun अथवा gerund नहीं. ऐसे comparisons में हम AS का use करते है. अतः यहाँ LIKE का use अशुद्ध होगा, अर्थात  दोनों options ‘A’ and ‘B’ अशुद्ध हैं.

परन्तु यहाँ word AS से पहले JUST का use आवश्यक है. JUST AS = ठीक उतना ही बराबर जितना कि (to an equal degree as); जैसे

a) Our house is just as nice as theirs.
b) This one is just as good as that one.
c) She performs just as well as he does.

18. Option ‘C’ (who works hard) वाक्य में दिया गया कथन एक सर्वमान्य तथ्य है. किसी भी सर्वमान्य तथ्य के लिए हम Present Simple Tense use करते हैं. अतः WORKS का use ही यहाँ शुद्ध होगा.

19. Option ‘C’ (shook hands with everyone). दिया गया अशुद्ध है क्योंकि noun PERSONS को केवल legal सन्दर्भों (contexts) में use किया जा सकता है; दुसरी तरहों की बातों के लिए noun PEOPLE का use किया जाता है. किसी से हाथ मिलाना कोई legal matter हो ही नहीं सकता; अतः यह अशुद्ध है. इसी कारण से Option ‘B’ भी अशुद्ध हो जाता है.

Option ‘A’ इसलिए गलत है क्योंकि ALL को इस option में एक pronoun के रूप में use किया गया है; ALL का use जब भी एक pronoun के रूप में किया जाता है तो इसको उस sentence में पहले या बाद में परिभाषित किया जाना आवश्यक होता है, अर्थात हमें यह पता होना आवश्यक होता है कि ALL किस noun की जगह आया है; जैसे

a) More than 100 people came to the refugee centre. Almost all had lost family members or property or both. (यहाँ यह स्पष्ट है की pronoun ALL का use 100 people की जगह हुआ है.)
b) All that we had been told turned out to be untrue. (Here ALL = all the people who turned out to be untrue.)

20. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). यदि किसी verb का subject एक clause हो तो वह verb singular form में use की जाती है. इस sentence में verb IS का subject clause WHAT THE NATION NEEDS है; जैसे

That those are my friends is true. (THAT THOSE ARE MY FRIENDS एक clause है जो verb इस का subject है.)

21. Option ‘C’ involved taking) क्योंकि verb INVOLVE के साथ में यदि कोई action word दिया हुआ हो तो हमेशा gerund (ing form) use होती है. इसके अतिरिक्त COULD के use के कारण यहाँ हमें verb INVOLVED की past tense form ही चाहिए.

22. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). दिए गये answer options से यह सपष्ट है की BY के बाद यहाँ हमें एक action word चाहिए. BY एक preposition होता है, और किसी भी preposition (BUT और EXCEPT को छोड़ कर) के बाद यदि कोई action word चाहिए तो वह हमेशा gerund (ing form) होता है.

23. Option ‘C’ (to help others solve) क्योंकि verb HELP के साथ हमेशा या तो V1 या फिर TO+V1 का use ही किया जा सकता है. अतः यहाँ हमें SOLVED को या तो SOLVE के साथ या फिर TO SOLVE से बदले की आवश्यकता है. .

24. Option ‘C’ (my conversing) क्योंकि verb SAW एक अनुभूति (perception) होने वाली verb है. Rule:

आमतौर पर किसी ING-FORM से पहले हम Possessive Adjective (my, your, their) use करते हैं; जैसे

a) We enjoyed their singing. (not ‘them singing’)
b) Mohan insisted on my reading it. (not ‘me reading’)
c) Forgive my ringing you up so early. (not ‘me ringing’)

NOTE: परन्तु ing-form से  पहले  यदि कोई अनुभूति होने वाली verbs (verbs of perception) जैसे कि SEE, WATCH, HEAR, आदि, और  verbs CATCH और FIND दी गयी हों तो फिर हम इसके साथ कोई Objective Pronoun (me, you, them) use करते हैं; जैसे

INCORRECT: We saw his swimming across the pond.
CORRECT: We saw him swimming across the pond.

INCORRECT: I watched his painting Reena’s portrait.
CORRECT: I watched him painting Reena’s portrait.

INCORRECT: I couldn’t hear your singing because of the noise.
CORRECT: I couldn’t hear you singing because of the noise.

INCORRECT: If I catch your stealing my apples again, there’ll be trouble!
CORRECT: If I catch you stealing my apples again, there’ll be trouble!

INCORRECT: We found some money’s lying on the ground.
CORRECT: We found some money lying on the ground.

INCORRECT: They found their sitting in the garden.
CORRECT: They found them sitting in the garden.

25. Option ‘C’. (had forgotten to take the key from). जब कोई कार्य कुछ भूल जाने (FORGET) के साथ ही होता है या फिर बाद में होता है तो हम verb FORGET के साथ to- infinitive (TO+V1) का use करते हैं. दिए गये वाक्य में रूचि चाबी लेना भूल जाती है और चाबी नही ले पाती है, अर्थात दोनों ही कार्य साथ-साथ हुए हैं. अतः यहाँ TO TAKE का use होगा न की TAKING का.

दिया गया वाक्य Indirect Speech में है, यह हमे पता ही है कि जब reporting verb (यहाँ SAID) का tense past tense हो तो Past Simple Tense changes, Past Perfect Tense में बदल जाता है, अतः! option ‘B’ भी अशुद्ध ही है.

Verb FORGET के साथ infinitive के use के और उदहारण:

I forgot to bring my books to school. (= पहले मैं books लाना भूल गया, भूलने के साथ-साथ ही मैं books नहीं लाया.)

NOTE: जब कोई कार्य कुछ भूल जाने (FORGET) के पहले ही हो चुका होता है तो हम verb FORGET के साथ gerund (ing form) का use करते हैं.  उस gerund के स्थान पर present perfect participle (having + V3) का use भी किया जा सकता है.

I forgot meeting Sunita last year. (अर्थात सुनीता से मिलने का कार्य FORGET से पहले ही हो चुका होता है.)
= I forgot having met Sunita last year.

Solution with explanation (in English)

1.  Option ‘A’ (had waited). The adverb The previous day is only used  for the Past Perfect Tense.

2. Option ‘B’ (you write the book). The given sentence is incorrect. It’s clear from the clause I SHALL HELP YOU that we are talking about something happening at sometime in future. To represent future we use the Present Simple Tense in the clause beginning with WHEN, not a future tense; e.g.

INCORRECT: When the new park will open, I’ll go there every day.
CORRECT: When the new park opens, I’ll go there every day.

Option ‘A’ is incorrect as we do not use TO-INFINITIVE after GET in this meaning. We do this when GET means ‘to have the chance to do something’; e.g.

Did you get to visit your uncle when you were in Mumbai?

3. Option ‘B’ (so as to catch). Before an infinitive (TO+V1) we use SO AS, not SO THAT. TO CATCH is the infinitive.

4. Option ‘C’ (who accompanied you). This sentence has two clauses, they are WILL YOU TELL ME and WHO DID ACCOMPANY YOU. The subject of the 2nd clause is WHO, when WHO, WHAT, WHICH or WHOSE itself is the subject of a clause we do not use a helping verb in present simple and past simple tenses with it. You see DID is the helping verb there. As it’s the simple past tense here we will say WHO ACCOMPANIED YOU.

5. Option ‘C’ (Rinky any questions). The verb ASK is never used with  the preposition TO/FROM. It takes a direct personal object; e.g.

INCORRECT: The speaker asked to the men how many children they had.
CORRECT:
The speaker asked the men how many children they had.

INCORRECT: It is an interesting question that every person should ask to himself.
CORRECT:
It is an interesting question that every person should ask himself.

6. Option ‘A’ (as). DO AS I SAY is a proverb. It means — obey my instructions.

7. Option ‘C’ (unless he is invited). The given sentence is wrong as verb CALL does not mean INVITE. Option ‘A’ is incorrect as when the main clause is negative the conditional clause can’t begin with IF.

8. Option ‘A’ (you despair of the success of your undertaking). The given sentence is in the passive voice. If you understand it well you’ll see that it should be in the active voice. DESPAIR (verb) = to loose hope. In one of the uses of SHOULD it’s also used for reasonableness of something. UNDERTAKING here means JOB/TASK.

Hindi translation: क्या ये सही बात है कि तुम अपने काम की सफलता के बारे में संदेह करो/उसकी उम्मीद छोड़ो?

9. Option ‘B’ (about to). We use BE ABOUT to express the immediate future. We can also add JUST to it, or can use be on the point of + gerund to emphasize; e.g.

a) I’m about to leave. (means I’ll leave just now)
b) I’m just about to leave.
c) I’m on the point of leaving.
d) He was just about to dive when he saw the crocodile.

10. Option ‘C’ (to tell a lie). Here NEED is the main verb. As a main verb takes full infinitive (to+V1); therefore TO TELL A LIE is correct.

11. Option ‘B’ (worthy of note has transpired here). Correct phrase is WORTHY OF NOTE. It means IMPORTANT (ख़ास). Secondly the sentence should be in the active voice, hence option ‘A’ is incorrect. TRANSPIRE= घटित होना

Hindi translation: तुम्हारे चले जाने के बाद से यहाँ कुछ भी ख़ास घटित नहीं हुआ है.

12. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). ONE TOO MUCH = difficult for someone

13. Option ‘A’ (dating back to). The context of the sentence is clear that here we have to show the present status of museum’s collection, not the past. DATED BACK is the past participle, the past participle shows the effect of something that existed in the past, not up to now. The present participle shows the present effect of something, means which still exists. Therefore here we need to use the present participle, means DATING BACK.

Translation in Hindi: संग्राहलय की संग्रहित वस्तुओं में प्रागैतिहासिक (लिखित इतिहास से पहले युग का) काल की कलाकृतियों (artefacts) का समावेश है. 

14. Option ‘B’ (customized)

CUSTOMIZED and TAILER-MADE both mean ‘made specifically for someone’. But there are some differences in usage. When we talk about articles/things the term TAILOR-MADE is only used for clothes. But the word CUSTOMIZED is used for all types of things including clothes. Here in this sentence we are talking about cooks, not clothes; therefore here the right word will be CUSTOMIZED.

NOTE: When referring to situations or ideas (not articles/things), we only use the term TAILOR-MADE; e.g.

a) The role was tailor-made for the young actress.
b) That job is tailor-made [=perfect] for him.
c) Our brokers develop tailor-made strategies for managing risk.

15. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). TALISMAN is a thing worn by people to invoke special powers. It usually consists of an AMULET to be worn around the neck or arm. It suggests that the word TALISMANS is already correct.

16. Option ‘C’ (fattening up). FATTEN UP is an idiom which means = to give an animal or a thin person a lot of food so that they become fatter.

Translation in Hindi: उसके मुर्गी बाड़े में मुर्गियों के बच्चे बढ़िया तरीके से तगड़े हो रहे हैं.

17. Option ‘C’ (just as we need). This is a case of comparison. LIKE is used only with nouns, pronouns or gerunds, means when they are not followed by a verb. And AS is used when there is a verb. Therefore options ‘A’ and ‘B’ both are incorrect.

But the word AS should be preceded by the word JUST. JUST AS = to an equal degree as; e.g.

a) Our house is just as nice as theirs.
b) This one is just as good as that one.
c) She performs just as well as he does.

18. Option ‘C’ (who works hard) The statement of he given sentence is a universally accepted fact. For universally accepted facts we use the Present Simple Tense. Therefore WORKS is good here.

19. Option ‘C’ (shook hands with everyone). The given sentence in incorrect as the noun PERSONS can only be used in legal contexts; for all other contexts we use PEOPLE. Shaking of hands cannot be a legal matter; therefore use of the noun PERSONS is incorrect. And for this reason Option ‘B’ is also incorrect.

Option ‘A’ is incorrect because the word ALL in this option is used as a pronoun. As a pronoun ALL must be defined in terms of about whom it has been used; e.g.

a) More than 100 people came to the refugee centre. Almost all had lost family members or property or both.
(Here ALL has been used as a pronoun, and correctly so because here the pronoun ALL is well defined, here ALL means 100 people.)

b) All that we had been told turned out to be untrue.
(Here ALL = all the people who turned out to be untrue.)

20. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). If a clause is the subject of a verb we use that verb in the singular. Here in this sentence WHAT THE NATION NEEDS is a clause, and it’s the subject of the verb IS; e.g.

That those are my friends is true. (THAT THOSE ARE MY FRIENDS is a clause.)

21. Option ‘C’ involved taking) as the verb INVOLVE if is followed by an action word takes the gerund (ing form). We require the past simple tense tense because of COULD, so it will be INVOLVED TAKING.

22. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). It’s clear from the given options that after BY we need an action word. BY is a preposition, and a preposition (except BUT and EXCEPT) needing an action word is followed by the gerund (ing form).

23. Option ‘C’ (to help others solve) as the verb HELP is always followed by V1 or TO+V1 . Therefore here we need to replace SOLVED by either SOLVE or TO SOLVE.

24. Option ‘C’ (my conversing) because verb SAW is a verb of perception. Rule:

Normally we use a Possessive Adjective (my, your, their) before an ING-FORM; e.g.

a) We enjoyed their singing. (not ‘them singing’)
b) Mohan insisted on my reading it. (not ‘me reading’)
c) Forgive my ringing you up so early. (not ‘me ringing’)

NOTE: But after the verbs of perception (SEE, WATCH, HEAR, etc.), and after CATCH and FIND we use a Objective Pronoun (me, you, them) before an ING-FORM; e.g.

INCORRECT: We saw his swimming across the pond.
CORRECT: We saw him swimming across the pond.

INCORRECT: I watched his painting Reena’s portrait.
CORRECT: I watched him painting Reena’s portrait.

INCORRECT: I couldn’t hear your singing because of the noise.
CORRECT: I couldn’t hear you singing because of the noise.

INCORRECT: If I catch your stealing my apples again, there’ll be trouble!
CORRECT: If I catch you stealing my apples again, there’ll be trouble!

INCORRECT: We found some money’s lying on the ground.
CORRECT: We found some money lying on the ground.

INCORRECT: They found their sitting in the garden.
CORRECT: They found them sitting in the garden.

25. Option ‘C’. (had forgotten to take the key from). When an action that happens at the same time or later of the action expressed by the verb FORGET we use to- infinitive after FORGET. In the given sentence first Ruchi forgets and then didn’t take the key from the keyhole happen at the same time; so here we need to use infinitive TO TAKE instead of TAKING.

Option ‘B’ is incorrect as the given sentence is in the Indirect Speech; we know well that when the reporting verb (here SAID) is in the past the Past Simple Tense changes into the Past Perfect Tense.

More example sentences of the use of infinitive after FORGET:

a) I forgot to bring my books to school. (= first I forgot, then I didn’t bring my books, means same time.)
a) Do not forget to buy some eggs. (= the not forgetting comes first, then the buying eggs, means the same time if the actions happen.)

NOTE: When an action that happened earlier than the main verb FORGET we use gerund (ing form). The gerund could be replaced by the present perfect participle (having + V3) in these sentences to make the sequence of events more clear and exact. FORGET is frequently used with NEVER in the simple future form; e.g.

I forgot meeting Sunita last year. (Means the action MEETING SUNITA happened earlier.)
= I forgot having met Sunita last year.

I’ll never forget meeting her for the first time. (I’ll never forget when I met her for the first time.)
= I’ll never forget having met her for the first time.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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