Practice Sets - EnglishSentence Improvement

SENTENCE IMPROVEMENT – PRACTICE SET-3 – SOLVED (Hindi & English)

Sentence Improvement — Practice Set-3 — Solved (Both Hindi & English)

NUMBER OF QUESTIONS: 25                                                            MAXIMUM TIME: 10 minutes

1. For all his wealth, he has no joy in life.
A) With        B) Beside
C) Despite of         D) No improvement

2. There was little he could do to save his battered reputation.
A) salvage        B) wreck
C) destroy        D) No improvement

3. The commoners joined the king’s army at crushing the rebels.
A) into        B) in
C) without        D) No improvement

4. Although the goal-keeper was responsible for the defeat in the important football match, nobody blamed him.
A) still nobody blamed him        B) nevertheless nobody blamed him
C) yet nobody blamed him        D) No improvement

5. As well as he breaking his leg, he hurt his arm.
A) As well as breaking        B) As well as he broke
C) As well as broke        D) No improvement

6. Before I met Radha I had had a bad opinion of her.
A) have had         B) had
C) No improvement

7. He told his friend that he drank tea every morning.
A) drinks        B) had drunk
C) was drunk        D) No improvement

8. They watched the sea lions being fed with fish.
A) had been fed         B) are being fed
C) have been fed        D) No improvement.

9. A majority of the shareholders want the merger.
A) wants the merger        B) have wanted the merger
C) are wanting the merger        D) No improvement

10. Old habits hardly die.
A) die hard       B) die too hard
C) die much hard        D) No improvement

11. The woman left her husband immediately after he lost his job and he took to drink alcohol excessively.
A) took for drink        B) started to drink
C) took to drinking        D) No improvement

12. Knowing that the area was prone to earthquakes, all the buildings were reinforced with additional concrete.
A) On being prone to earthquakes        B) Having been knowing that the area was prone to earthquakes
C) Since the area was known to be prone to earthquakes        D) No improvement

13. The equipment is adapted to cotton industries.
A) adapted from         B) adapted for
C) adapted of        D) No improvement

14. People ask me why I decide to start a new magazine.
A) will decide        B) am deciding
C) have decided        D) No improvement

15. I bought four dozen of mangoes.
A) dozens of mango        B) dozens of mangoes
C) dozen mangoes        D) No improvement

16. I will now deal with him in a manner different from the one I have adopted so far.
A) I have been adopting        B) I was adopting
C) I adopted        D) No improvement

17. I am hoping she will clear her entrance test.
A) hope she clears        B) am hoping she clears
C) am hopeful she will clear         D) No improvement

18. Young men and women should get habituated to reading and writing.
A) used        B) trained
C) No improvement

19. He was rich by sheer accident of birth.
A) chance        B) coincidence
C) incidence        D) No improvement

20. This is the least expensive of the two cars.
A) least expensive        B) the less expensive
C) the lesser expensive        D) No improvement

21. There will be a trend of unseasonal rainfall in April, in recent years.
A) There has been        B) It has been
C) It may have been        D) No improvement

22. They were angry because they realised that they had cheated.
A) had been cheated        B) were cheated
C) are cheated        D) no improvement

23. Sujata is the prettiest of all other contestants.
A) all the contestants         B) all other contestants
C) other contestants        D) No improvement

24. The CEO made it very clear in the annual meeting that the only criteria to promote an employee would be his performance and nothing else.
A) sole criteria        B) sole criterion
C) only criterion        D) No improvement

25. The Kadampuzha Devi is worth seeing temple in Kerala.
A) one of the worth seeing temples        B) a temple worth seeing
C) a temple of worth being seen        D) No improvement

Answer Key

1. D 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. D 8. D 9. D 10. A
11. B 12. C 13. B 14. C 15. C 16.D 17. A 18. D 19. D 20. B
21. A 22. A 23. A 24. B 25. B

Solution with explanation (in Hindi)

1. No improvement. FOR ALL एक idiom होता है जिसका अर्थ होता है किसी वस्तु/बात के होते हुए भी (in spite of something)

Hindi translation: धन-सम्पति होते हुए भी उसके जीवन में कोई आनंद नहीं है.

2. Option ‘A’ (salvage). SALVAGE = पहले से हुई किसी बुरी स्थिति को बेहतर बनाना. BATTERED REPUTATION = बुरी स्थिति. यहाँ LITTLE का use बिल्कुल सही हुआ है; इस शब्द का use कुछ नकारात्मक (negative) रूप में होता है. कुछ सकारात्मक (positive) कहने के लिए A LITTLE का use किया जाता है. .

Translation in Hindi: अपनी खराब साख को सही करने के लिए उसके पास करने को कुछ ख़ास नहीं था.

3 Option ‘B’ (in). किसी को कुचलना (crushing) एक गतिविधि है; किसी गतिविधि में भाग लेने के लिए preposition IN का use किया जाता है.

4. No improvement. यदि कोई वाक्य ALTHOUGH से आरंभ हो तो अगले clause के पहले BUT, YET, आदि conjunctions का use नहीं होता.

5. Option ‘A’ (as well as breaking). AS WELL AS के साथ अगर कोई action हो तो इसके तुरंत बाद gerund (ing form) use की जाती है.

6. No improvement. जब हम AFTER, BEFORE, WHEN, AS SOON AS आदि के बाद कोई समय सम्बन्धी अभिव्यक्ति का use ये कहने के लिए करते हैं कि दो घटनाएँ एक दूसरे के बाद घटित हुई हैं तो उन दोनों में से जो घटना पहले घटित हुई उसके लिए Past Perfect Tense का और जो घटना बाद में घटित हुई उसके लिए Past Simple Tense का use करते हैं; जैसे

a) The patient had died before the doctor came.
b) After Mohan had finished reading, he went to meet one of his friends.
c) When Ritu had taken her meal, she started to read.

NOTE: यहाँ Option ‘B’ (had) भी सही है क्योंकि main clause में बताई गयी घटना अगर BEFORE-clause में बताई घटना के समय तक जारी रहती है तो दोनों clauses में Past Simple Tense का use भी किया जा सकता है. दिए गये वाक्य में राधा के बारे में उसका bad opinion तब तक जारी रहता है जब तक वह राधा से मिल नहीं लेता; जैसे

a) It was two days before my brother returned from Agra.
b) I didn’t think I would like playing football before I tried it.
c) He used to live with us before he shifted to Kolkata.

7. No improvement. Past Simple Tense का use past habits को बताने के लिए भी किया जाता है.  Past Simple Tense के साथ Past habits को बताने के लिए आमतौर पर Always, Usually, Daily, Everyday, Never, Often, Rarely, Seldom, Scarcely, आदि शब्दों का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) He studied many hours every day.
b) He always carried an umbrella.
c) She always came late.
d) She never missed good plays

8. No improvement. Verb WATCH के बाद दिए गये object के साथ या तो Bare Infinitive (V1 without TO) use कर लो या फिर Present Participle (ing form) कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता. Present Participle एक adjective का काम करता है. Verb FEED की Present Participle form FEEDING होती है; परन्तु हमें  ये यहाँ passive form में चाहिए; अतः BEING FED ही शुद्ध होगा.

Translation in Hindi: उन्होंने SEA LIONS को fish खिलाते हुए देखा.

9. No improvement. A MAJORITY OF और THE MAJORITY OF दोनों के साथ verb plural use होती है; लेकिन THE MAJORITY (without OF) के साथ verb singular भी आ सकती है और plural भी, ये हमारी मर्जी है कौन से वाली use करें; जैसे

The majority is against you.
= The majority are against you.

10. Option ‘A’ (die hard). HARD एक adjective के रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है और एक adverb के रूप में भी. जबकि HARDLY एक adverb ही होती है. लेकिन HARDLY शब्द HARD की adverb form नहीं है. adjective HARD की adverb खुद HARD ही है.

जब HARD एक adverb होती है तो इसका अर्थ है काफी प्रयास अथवा मेहनत के साथ किया हुआ. इसको main verb के बाद में use किया जाता है. HARDLY नकारात्मक (negative) अर्थ में use होती है और इसको main verb के पहले use किया जाता है. इसका अर्थ है ‘almost not’ या ‘only just’.

a) I studied hard for my exams but could not pass.
b) The government is coming down hard on rape crime.
c) There is so much noise in the other room. I can hardly hear what you are saying.
d) The instructions are printed so small I can hardly read them.

INCORRECT: I tried hardly to find the key.
CORRECT: I tried hard to find the key.

INCORRECT: It was raining hardly and we all got wet.
CORRECT: It was raining hard and we all got wet.

INCORRECT: You must not have beaten him too hardly.
CORRECT: You must not have beaten him too hard/severely.

NOTE: HARDLY नकारात्मक (negative) अर्थ में use होती है; अतः इसको यहाँ अगर use करेंगे तो तो वाक्य का अर्थ हो जायेगा कि पुरानी आदतें समाप्त नहीं होतीं. लेकिन ये बात सत्य नहीं है, पुरानीआदतें तो समाप्त हो जाती हैं उदाहरण के तौर पर सिगरेट पीने की आदत; लेकिन हाँ उनसे पीछा छुड़ाने के लिए काफी प्रयास करना पड़ता है. इसलिए यहाँ DIE HARD ही शुद्ध होगा.

11. Option ‘B’ (started to drink). TAKE TO DRINK एक idiom होता है जिसका अर्थ है: नियमत रूप से काफी मात्रा में alcohol पीना. जैसा की आप देख रहे हैं इस idiom के अर्थ में ही word ALCOHOL. आता है. वाक्य में word ALCOHOL इस idiom के तुरंत साथ ही दिया हुआ है; अर्थात दिया गया वाक्य अशुद्ध है.

12. Option ‘C’. दिए गये वाक्य में KNOWING एक participle है. एक participle क्योंकि adjective का काम करता है; अर्थात वाक्य में KNOWING एक adjective हुआ. कोई adjective हमेशा किसी न किसी noun अथवा pronoun को qualify करता है, लेकिन वाक्य में तो कोई ऐसी noun अथवा pronoun नहीं दी हुई है जिसको ये qualify कर सके; और वाक्य के format के अनुसार ऐसा संभव भी नहीं है क्योंकि clause ‘all the buildings were reinforced with additional concrete’ को तो छेड़ा जा नहीं सकता. हाँ option ‘C’ सही है क्योंकि SINCE इसमें एक conjunction है और वाक्य में यहाँ ये अपना काम बखूबी कर रहा है.

13. Option ‘B’ (adopted for). Adapted to और Adapted for का अर्थ एक ही नहीं है, ये दोनों अलग-अलग हैं. ADAPTED TO को तब use किया जाता है जब किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु ने अपने ही वातावरण में अपने आपको ढालने के लिए अपने अंदर कुछ बदलाव कर लिए होते है; जैसे

a) People have adapted to the difficult living conditions in the Arctic.
b) The organisms were forced to adapt in order to survive.

ADAPTED FOR को तब use किया जाता है जब बदलाव किसी और के द्वारा हुए हों; जैसे

Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people.

दिए गये वाक्य से  स्पष्ट है की equipment main बदलाव किसी और के द्वारा हुए हैं.

14. Option ‘C’ (have decided). दिए गये वाक्य से ये स्पष्ट होता है कि नई पत्रिका को शुरू करने का निर्णय पहले से ही लिया जा चुका है; अतः यहाँ Present Perfect Tense का use होगा.

15. Option ‘C’ (dozen mangoes). यदि dozen, gross, score, hundred जैसे शब्दों के पहले article ‘A’ अथवा किसी संख्यावाचक विशेषण (numerical adjective) one, two, three, आदि का use हुआ हो तो इन शब्दों के साथ OF का use नहीं होता; जैसे

INCORRECT: While coming back from the office, bring home a dozen of bananas.
CORRECT: While coming back home from the office, bring home a dozen bananas.

INCORRECT: Two hundred of people attended the meeting.
CORRECT: Two hundred people attended the meeting.

NOTE: लेकिन यदि dozen, gross, score, hundred जैसे शब्दों के पहले article ‘A’ अथवा किसी संख्यावाचक विशेषण (numerical adjective) one, two, three, आदि का use हुआ हो और इन शब्दों के साथ दी गयी nouns के पहले शब्दों THE, THESE, THOSE, MY, OUR, आदि का use हो तो फिर OF का भी use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) Three dozens of the oranges are rotten.
b) Please keep aside ten thousand of these rupees for me.

16. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). यहाँ phrase SO FAR का use समय प्रसंग (time reference) के लिए किया गया है. इस use में phrase SO FAR का अर्थ होता है ‘वर्तमान में चल रहे समय तक’. इस अर्थ में इसका use सिर्फ Present Perfect Tense में किया जाता है; जैसे

a) So far, they have met with no success.
b) Which one have you enjoyed most so far?
c) So far we have restricted our attention to the local area.
d) There have been 11 deaths from TB so far.

17. Option ‘A’ (hope she clears). Verb HOPE का use हमारी future की उन सामान्य इच्छाओं (general future wishes) को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जिनके पूरा होने का कोई न कोई कारण होता है. Verb HOPING का use की किसी व्यक्ति के व्यक्तिगत हितों से सम्बन्धित इच्छाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है; इन इच्छाओं में कोई तार्किक दृष्टिकोण नहीं होता. जब हम HOPING का use करते हैं तो इच्छा का भाव इच्छा व्यक्त करने वाले व्यक्ति के मन में इच्छा व्यक्त करते समय पनप रहा होता है; इसलिए ही इसको continuous form में use किया जाता है; जैसे

Compare:
a) I hope it snows this January. (यह future के समय की सामान्य इच्छा है; इस इच्छा के लिए इच्छा करने वाले व्यक्ति का कोई व्यक्तिगत हित नहीं है.)
b) I’m hoping this pain is going to disappear soon. (कि pain जल्द ही समाप्त हो जाए ये इच्छा करने वाले व्यक्ति की चाहत है; अर्थात इस इच्छा में उसका वक्तिगत हित निहित है.)

Option ‘C’ इसलिए अशुद्ध है क्योंकि HOPEFUL तब use किया जाता है जब हमारे पास इस बात का कोई कारण होता है कि परिस्थितियां हमारे अनुसार हो जाएँ; जैसे

a) We really wanted tickets for tomorrow night but it’s not looking very hopeful.
b) His quick recovery from the treatment was a hopeful development.
c) I’m hopeful that we can reach a compromise.
d) I’m not very hopeful about their future.

18. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). हालाँकि यहाँ option ‘A’ (used) भी सही है; लेकिन दिया हुआ वाक्य पहले से ही शुद्ध है. इसलिए वाक्य को किसी improvement की आवश्यकता नहीं है. .

19. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). Accident of birth एक phrase होता है जिसका प्रयोग तब किया जब किसी को कोई गुण या सम्पति विरासत में मिली हो; अर्थात उसको उसके जन्म से ही मिली हो; जैसे

His wealth is a mere accident of birth because he came from a wealthy family.

20. Option ‘B’ (the less expensive). इस वाक्य में दो कारों की कीमतों में तुलना की गयी है. दो वस्तुओं की तुलना करने के लिए comparative degree का use किया जाता है. LEAST की degree तो superlative है; अर्थात दिया गया वाक्य अशुद्ध है. LESS एक comparative degree होती है; अतः इसका use यहाँ शुद्ध है. LITTLE की तीनों degree ये होती हैं: little, less, least.

Option ‘B’ (the lesser expensive) इसलिए अशुद्ध है क्योंकि LESSER को सिर्फ nouns के पहले use किया जाता है जबकि EXPENSIVE एक adjective होता है.

NOTE: Article THE का use comparative degrees से पहले भी संभव है, लेकिन ये तभी संभव है जब इसके पहले या बाद में phrase OF THE TWO का use हुआ हो.  जब किसी comparative degree के पहले article THE का use हुआ हो तो THAN का use नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

a) Ankur is the more intelligent of the two. (not THAN THE TWO)
b) She is the more beautiful of the two girls. (not THAN THE TWO GIRLS)
c) Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

INCORRECT: She is the best of the two sisters.
CORRECT: She is the better of the two sisters.

INCORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the best.
CORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

21. Option ‘A’ (there has been). यहाँ adjective RECENT का use समय प्रसंग (time reference) के लिए किया गया है. समय प्रसंगों के लिए RECENT का use Present Perfect Tense के साथ किया जाता है.

Option ‘B’ अशुद्ध है क्योंकि IT इसमें artificial subject है और artificial subject के रूप में इसको adjectives के लिए use किया जाता है; और TREND कोई adjective नहीं है. ये सही से समझने के लिए ये पढो:

प्रत्येक वाक्य का कोई न कोई subject होना चाहिए. कभी-कभी हम artificial subject का use करते हैं; वास्तविक subject तो वाक्य में verb के बाद use किया हुआ होता है. IT और  THERE दो ऐसे शब्द हैं जिनका use artificial subject के रूप में भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

It’s always good to keep all important documents safe in a file.
[यहाँ वास्तविक subject all important documents. देखिये इस वाक्य को ऐसे भी लिखा ज सकता है: ‘To keep all important documents safe in a file is always good.]

There are two temples in our colony.
[यहाँ वास्तविक subject two temples. देखिये इस वाक्य को ऐसे भी लिखा ज सकता है: ‘Two temples are in our colony.]

NOTE-I: IT का artificial subject के रूप में use adjectives के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

a) It’s important to wear a helmet whenever you ride a bike.
b) It’s useful to write down your driving license number somewhere, in case you lose it.

[इन वाक्यों में IMPORTANT और USEFUL दोनों ही adjective हैं.]

NOTE-II: ये बताने के लिए कि कोई व्यक्ति या वस्तु कही पर विद्यमान है की नहीं हम artificial subject THERE का use करते हैं; IT का नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: It’s a lot of noise in the room today.
CORRECT: There’s a lot of noise in the room today.

INCORRECT: It’s a woman waiting outside who wants to talk to you.
CORRECT: There’s a woman waiting outside who wants to talk to you.

INCORRECT: It were no children playing in the park.
CORRECT: There were no children playing in the park.

22. Option ‘A’. (had been cheated). यहाँ हमें verb CHEAT की passive form की आवश्यकता है. इस वाक्य में दो ऐसी घटनाएँ दी गयी हैं जो एक दूसरे के बाद हुई हैं. ऐसी स्थिति में पहले घटने वाली घटना के लिए Past Perfect Tense का use किया जाता है और बाद में घटने वाली घटना के लिए Past Simple Tense का use किया जाता है. वाक्य में दी गयी दोनों घटनाओं में से CHEAT करने वाली घटना पहले घटित हुई है; अतः इस घटना के लिए passive में Past Perfect Tense का use होगा.

23. Option A (all the contestants). जब दो एक जैसी वस्तुओं की तुलना की जाती है तो शब्द OTHER का use आवश्यक होता है; लेकिन superlative degree का use हो तो शब्द OTHER का use नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

a) No other railway station in Delhi is as good as New Delhi Station.
b) New Delhi Station is better than any other railway station in Delhi.
c) New Delhi Station is better than all other railway stations in Delhi.

a) She is as clever as any other student in the class.
b) She is cleverer than any other student in the class.

INCORRECT: Gold is most precious of all other metals.
CORRECT: Gold is most precious of all metals.

INCORRECT: Pawan is the laziest of all his other brothers.
CORRECT: Pawan is the laziest of all his brothers.

24. Option ‘B’ (sole criterion). SOLE और ONLY का अर्थ एक ही होता है लेकिन फर्क ये है कि SOLE का use तब किया जाता जब और कोई सम्भावनायें उपलब्ध नहीं होतीं जबकि ONLY का use तब किया जाता जब और कोई सम्भावनायें भी उपलब्ध होती हैं; जैसे

This is the only coat I have. (अर्थात मेरे पास और कोट भी हो सकते थे यदि main और कोट खरीदता. यहाँ शब्द SOLE का use अशुद्ध होगा.)

NOTE: CRITERIA शब्द criterion की plural form होती है, लेकिन हमें यहाँ singular form की आवश्यकता है.

25. Option ‘B’ (a worth seeing temple). WORTH SEEING का use nouns या pronouns के बाद किया जाता है.

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Solution with explanation (in English)

1. No improvement. FOR ALL is an idiom which means in spite of something

Hindi translation: धन-सम्पति होते हुए भी उसके जीवन में कोई आनंद नहीं है.

2. Option ‘A’ (salvage). SALVAGE = to try to make a bad situation better. BATTERED REPUTATION = poor reputation. Use of LITTLE is quite correct, we use this word in negative references. For positive references we use A LITTLE.

Translation in Hindi: अपनी खराब साख को सही करने के लिए उसके पास करने को कुछ ख़ास नहीं था.

3 Option ‘B’ (in). When one take part in an activity we use the preposition IN.

4. No improvement. When a sentence begins with ALTHOUGH we do not any other conjunctions like BUT, YET, etc. before the next clause.

5. Option ‘A’ (as well as breaking). If an action is there after AS WELL AS we use gerund (ing form) directly after this.

6. No improvement. When we use a time expression e.g. AFTER, BEFORE, WHEN, AS SOON AS to say that one event happened after another, we normally use Past Perfect for the event that happened first and the Past Simple for the event that happened second; e.g.

a) The patient had died before the doctor came.
b) After Mohan had finished reading, he went to meet one of his friends.
c) When Ritu had taken her meal, she started to read.

NOTE: Here Option ‘B’ (had) is also correct as when a situation described in the main clause lasts until a time indicated in the BEFORE-clause we can also use Past Simple in both the clauses. In the given sentence his opinion was still bad about Radha when he met him; e.g.

a) It was two days before my brother returned from Agra.
b) I didn’t think I would like playing football before I tried it.
c) He used to live with us before he shifted to Kolkata.

7. No improvement. We also use the Simple Past Tense for past habits. We generally use these words to express a past habit: Always, Usually, Daily, Everyday, Never, Often, Rarely, Seldom, Scarcely, etc.; e.g.

a) He studied many hours every day.
b) He always carried an umbrella.
c) She always came late.
d) She never missed good plays

8. No improvement. Verb WATCH takes either the Bare Infinitive (V1 without TO) 0r the Present Participle (ing form) after its object. Present Participle does the work of an adjective. Present Participle form of the verb FEED is FEEDING; but here as we need it in the passive voice it will be BEING FED.

Translation in Hindi: उन्होंने SEA LIONS को fish खिलाते हुए देखा.

9. No improvement. A MAJORITY OF and THE MAJORITY OF take plural verbs, but THE MAJORITY (without OF) can be used with either a singular verb or a plural verb; means it’s optional; e.g.

The majority is against you.
= The majority are against you.

10. Option ‘A’ (die hard). HARD is both an adjective and an adverb, whereas HARDLY can only be an adverb. HARDLY is not the adverb form of the adjective HARD. The adverb form of HARD is HARD itself.

When HARD is an adverb, it means ‘with a lot of effort’ or ‘heavily or severely’. We use it after the main verb. HARDLY has a negative meaning; it normally means ‘almost not’ or ‘only just’.

a) I studied hard for my exams but could not pass.
b) The government is coming down hard on rape crime.
c) There is so much noise in the other room. I can hardly hear what you are saying.
d) The instructions are printed so small I can hardly read them.

INCORRECT: I tried hardly to find the key.
CORRECT: I tried hard to find the key.

INCORRECT: It was raining hardly and we all got wet.
CORRECT: It was raining hard and we all got wet.

INCORRECT: You must not have beaten him too hardly.
CORRECT: You must not have beaten him too hard/severely.

NOTE: HARDLY is a negative word; therefore HARDLY DIE will mean that old habits do not end, but it’s in fact not true. Old habits do end; but it’s difficult to get rid of them. For example SMOKING; it can end, but it will end only when with a lot of difficulties.

11. Option ‘B’ (started to drink). TAKE TO DRINK is an idiom which means to drink a lot of alcohol regularly; means that meaning of this idiom includes the word ALCOHOL. It means the given sentence is incorrect.

12. Option ‘C’. In the given sentence the word KNOWING is a participle; means it’s an adjective. An adjective always qualifies a noun or a pronoun. But it’s not given in the sentence; nor is it possible in the given format as ‘all the buildings were reinforced with additional concrete’ is not be touched. Therefore it must be a conjunction to begin the sentence; so option ‘C’ is correct here.

13. Option ‘B’ (adopted for). Adapted to and Adapted for do not mean the same thing. We use ADAPTED TO when something has changed to fit its own environment; a change in circumstances; e.g.

a) People have adapted to the difficult living conditions in the Arctic.
b) The organisms were forced to adapt in order to survive.

We use ADAPTED FOR to say that changes are made to something by someone else; e.g.

Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people.

In the given sentence, it’s quite clear that equipment is made by someone.

14. Option ‘C’ (have decided). According to the context the decision to start a new magazine has already been taken, hence the Present Perfect Tense.

15. Option ‘C’ (dozen mangoes). If words like dozen, gross, score, hundred are preceded by the article ‘A’ or any numerical adjective (one, two, three, etc.), we do not use OF after them; e.g.

INCORRECT: While coming back from the office, bring home a dozen of bananas.
CORRECT: While coming back home from the office, bring home a dozen bananas.

INCORRECT: Two hundred of people attended the meeting.
CORRECT: Two hundred people attended the meeting.

NOTE: But if the article ‘A’ or any numerical adjective (one, two, three, etc.) precedes words like dozen, gross, score, hundred, and the noun after them precedes words like THE, THESE, THOSE, MY, OUR, etc., we use OF after that numeral noun; e.g.

a) Three dozens of the oranges are rotten.
b) Please keep aside ten thousand of these rupees for me.

16. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). Here SO FAR is used for time reference. In this use SO FAR = up to the present time. In this use it’s used only with the Present Perfect Tense; e.g.

a) So far, they have met with no success.
b) Which one have you enjoyed most so far?
c) So far we have restricted our attention to the local area.
d) There have been 11 deaths from TB so far.

17. Option ‘A’ (hope she clears). HOPE is used for general future wishes based on some reason. We use HOPE for general statements. HOPING is used for personal interests and concerns; there is no logical view of the speaker when he says HOPING. When we say HOPING the idea is currently in progress; that’s why we use it in the continuous form.

Compare:
a) I hope it snows this January. (It’s a general wish for the future; there is no personal interest of the speaker involved.)
b) I’m hoping this pain is going to disappear soon. (It’s personal interest of the speaker that the pain goes soon.)

Option ‘C’ is incorrect HOPEFUL is used when we have a reason or possibility to believe  that something will happen the way we want it to; eg.

a) We really wanted tickets for tomorrow night but it’s not looking very hopeful.
b) His quick recovery from the treatment was a hopeful development.
c) I’m hopeful that we can reach a compromise.
d) I’m not very hopeful about their future.

18. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). Though option ‘A’ (used) is also correct; but the given sentence is already correct. Therefore the sentence does not require an improvement.

19. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). Accident of birth is a phrase which means a quality or property due to the circumstances of one’s birth; e.g.

His wealth is a mere accident of birth because he came from a wealthy family.

20. Option ‘B’ (the less expensive). Here it’s comparison of the prices of two cars, for comparison between two things we use the comparative degree. LEAST is in the superlative degree, means the given sentence is incorrect. LESS is the comparative degree, hence correct. Here are the degrees of comparison of the adjective LITTLE: little, less, least.

Option ‘B’ is incorrect as LESSER is only used before nouns whereas EXPENSIVE is an adjective.

NOTE: We can use THE before a comparative degree also, but we must also use OF THE TWO after or before it in this case. We do not use THAN after the + comparative degree; e.g.

a) Ankur is the more intelligent of the two. (not THAN THE TWO)
b) She is the more beautiful of the two girls. (not THAN THE TWO GIRLS)
c) Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

INCORRECT: She is the best of the two sisters.
CORRECT: She is the better of the two sisters.

INCORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the best.
CORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

21. Option ‘A’ (there has been). Here the adjective RECENT is referring to time. For times we mainly use RECENT with the Present Perfect Tense. We can also use RECENT with the Past Simple Tense when we mean to say  A SHORT TIME AGO; e.g.

He left recently. = He left a short time ago.

Option ‘B’ is incorrect as IT as an artificial is used with adjectives. To understand read this:

Every sentence/clause must have a subject. Sometimes we need to use an artificial subject when there is no subject attached to the verb, and where the real subject is somewhere else in the sentence/clause.  IT and THERE are the two words that we use as artificial subjects in English; e.g.

It’s always good to keep all important documents safe in a file.
[The real subject here is all important documents. So this sentence can be re-written as ‘To keep all important documents safe in a file is always good.]

There are two temples in our colony.
[The real subject here is two temples. So this sentence can be re-written as ‘Two temples are in our colony.]

NOTE-I: We use IT as an artificial subject with adjectives; e.g.

a) It’s important to wear a helmet whenever you ride a bike.
b) It’s useful to write down your driving license number somewhere, in case you lose it.

[IMPORTANT and USEFUL are adjectives in these sentences.]

NOTE-II: When something/someone exists or is present in a particular place or situation, we don’t use IT, we use THERE instead; e.g.

INCORRECT: It’s a lot of noise in the room today.
CORRECT: There’s a lot of noise in the room today.

INCORRECT: It’s a woman waiting outside who wants to talk to you.
CORRECT: There’s a woman waiting outside who wants to talk to you.

INCORRECT: It were no children playing in the park.
CORRECT: There were no children playing in the park.

22. Option ‘A’. (had been cheated). Here we need the passive form of the verb. Here we are given two past actions which happened one after another. In such a case we use the Past Perfect Tense for the first one and the Past Simple Tense for the second one. Action CHEATING happened first therefore here we need it in the Past Perfect Tense.

23. Option A (all the contestants). When two similar type of things are compared, use of OTHER is essential in the positive or the comparative degree. But we don’t use OTHER when we compare the things using the superlative degree; e.g.

a) No other railway station in Delhi is as good as New Delhi Station.
b) New Delhi Station is better than any other railway station in Delhi.
c) New Delhi Station is better than all other railway stations in Delhi.

a) She is as clever as any other student in the class.
b) She is cleverer than any other student in the class.

INCORRECT: Gold is most precious of all other metals.
CORRECT: Gold is most precious of all metals.

INCORRECT: Pawan is the laziest of all his other brothers.
CORRECT: Pawan is the laziest of all his brothers.

24. Option ‘B’ (sole criterion). SOLE and ONLY have the same meaning. The difference is that SOLE is used when there can be no other options/possibilities available; ONLY is used when other options/possibilities can be available;

a) This is the only coat I have. (Means there could be more coats with him if he had bought. You can’t use the word SOLE here.)

b) I have only one sister. (Again he could have more sisters if circumstances allowed, means you can’t also use the word SOLE here.)

NOTE: CRITERIA is plural whereas CRITERION is singular, but here we need it in the singular.

25. Option ‘B’ (a worth seeing temple). WORTH SEEING is used after nouns or pronouns.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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