Practice Sets - EnglishSentence Improvement

SENTENCE IMPROVEMENT PRACTICE SET 9 SOLVED in Hindi & English

Sentence Improvement — Practice Set-9 — Solved in Hindi & English)

1. The woman left her husband immediately after he lost his job and he took to drink alcohol excessively.
A) took for drink        B) started to drink
C) took to drinking        D) No improvement

2. Knowing that the area was prone to earthquakes, all the buildings were reinforced with additional concrete.
A) On being prone to earthquakes        B) Having been knowing that the area was prone to earthquakes
C) Since the area was known to be prone to earthquakes        D) No improvement

3. The equipment is adapted to cotton industries.
A) adapted from         B) adapted for
C) adapted of        D) No improvement

4. People ask me why I decide to start a new magazine.
A) will decide        B) am deciding
C) have decided        D) No improvement

5. I bought four dozen of mangoes.
A) dozens of mango        B) dozens of mangoes
C) dozen mangoes        D) No improvement

6. I will now deal with him in a manner different from the one I have adopted so far.
A) I have been adopting        B) I was adopting
C) I adopted        D) No improvement

7. I am hoping she will clear her entrance test.
A) hope she clears        B) am hoping she clears
C) am hopeful she will clear         D) No improvement

8. Young men and women should get habituated to reading and writing.
A) used        B) trained
C) adapted        D) No improvement

9. He was rich by sheer accident of birth.
A) chance        B) coincidence
C) incidence        D) No improvement

10. This is the least expensive of the two cars.
A) least expensive        B) the less expensive
C) the lesser expensive        D) No improvement

Answer Key

1. B 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. C 6.D 7. A 8. D 9. D 10. B

Solution with explanation (in Hindi)

1. Option ‘B’ (started to drink). ‘Take to drink’ एक idiom होता है जिसका अर्थ है: नियमत रूप से काफी मात्रा में alcohol पीना. जैसा की आप देख रहे हैं इस idiom के अर्थ में ही word ‘alcohol आता है. वाक्य में word ‘alcohol इस idiom के तुरंत साथ ही दिया हुआ है; अर्थात दिया गया वाक्य अशुद्ध है.

2. Option ‘C’ (since). दिए गये वाक्य में ‘knowing’ एक participle है. एक participle क्योंकि adjective का काम करता है; अर्थात वाक्य में ‘knowing’ एक adjective हुआ. कोई adjective हमेशा किसी न किसी noun अथवा pronoun को qualify करता है, लेकिन वाक्य में तो कोई ऐसी noun अथवा pronoun नहीं दी हुई है जिसको ये qualify कर सके; और वाक्य के format के अनुसार ऐसा संभव भी नहीं है क्योंकि clause ‘all the buildings were reinforced with additional concrete’ को तो छेड़ा जा नहीं सकता. हाँ option ‘C’ सही है क्योंकि ‘since’ इसमें एक conjunction है और वाक्य में यहाँ ये अपना काम बखूबी कर रहा है.

3. Option ‘B’ (adopted for). Adapted to और Adapted for का अर्थ एक ही नहीं है, ये दोनों अलग-अलग हैं. ‘Adapted to’ को तब use किया जाता है जब किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु ने अपने ही वातावरण में अपने आपको ढालने के लिए अपने अंदर कुछ बदलाव कर लिए होते है; जैसे

a) People have adapted to the difficult living conditions in the Arctic.
b) The organisms were forced to adapt in order to survive.

‘Adapted for’ को तब use किया जाता है जब बदलाव किसी और के द्वारा हुए हों; जैसे

Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people.

दिए गये वाक्य से  स्पष्ट है की equipment main बदलाव किसी और के द्वारा हुए हैं.

4. Option ‘C’ (have decided). दिए गये वाक्य से ये स्पष्ट होता है कि नई पत्रिका को शुरू करने का निर्णय पहले से ही लिया जा चुका है; अतः यहाँ Present Perfect Tense का use होगा.

5. Option ‘C’ (dozen mangoes). यदि dozen, gross, score, hundred जैसे शब्दों के पहले article ‘A’ अथवा किसी संख्यावाचक विशेषण (numerical adjective) one, two, three, आदि का use हुआ हो तो इन शब्दों के साथ OF का use नहीं होता; जैसे

INCORRECT: While coming back from the office, bring home a dozen of bananas.
CORRECT: While coming back home from the office, bring home a dozen bananas.

INCORRECT: Two hundred of people attended the meeting.
CORRECT: Two hundred people attended the meeting.

NOTE: लेकिन यदि dozen, gross, score, hundred जैसे शब्दों के पहले article ‘A’ अथवा किसी संख्यावाचक विशेषण (numerical adjective) one, two, three, आदि का use हुआ हो और इन शब्दों के साथ दी गयी nouns के पहले शब्दों The, These, Those, My, Our आदि का use हो तो फिर ‘of’ का भी use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) Three dozens of the oranges are rotten.
b) Please keep aside ten thousand of these rupees for me.

6. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). यहाँ phrase ‘so far’ का use समय प्रसंग (time reference) के लिए किया गया है. इस use में phrase ‘so far’ का अर्थ होता है ‘वर्तमान में चल रहे समय तक’. इस अर्थ में इसका use सिर्फ Present Perfect Tense में किया जाता है; जैसे

a) So far, they have met with no success.
b) Which one have you enjoyed most so far?
c) So far we have restricted our attention to the local area.
d) There have been 11 deaths from TB so far.

7. Option ‘A’ (hope she clears). Verb ‘hope’ का use हमारी future की उन सामान्य इच्छाओं (general future wishes) को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जिनके पूरा होने का कोई न कोई कारण होता है. Verb ‘hoping’ का use की किसी व्यक्ति के व्यक्तिगत हितों से सम्बन्धित इच्छाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है; इन इच्छाओं में कोई तार्किक दृष्टिकोण नहीं होता. जब हम ‘hoping’ का use करते हैं तो इच्छा का भाव इच्छा व्यक्त करने वाले व्यक्ति के मन में इच्छा व्यक्त करते समय पनप रहा होता है; इसलिए ही इसको continuous form में use किया जाता है; जैसे

Compare:
a) I hope it snows this January. (यह future के समय की सामान्य इच्छा है; इस इच्छा के लिए इच्छा करने वाले व्यक्ति का कोई व्यक्तिगत हित नहीं है.)
b) I’m hoping this pain is going to disappear soon. (कि pain जल्द ही समाप्त हो जाए ये इच्छा करने वाले व्यक्ति की चाहत है; अर्थात इस इच्छा में उसका वक्तिगत हित निहित है.)

Option ‘C’ इसलिए अशुद्ध है क्योंकि ‘hopeful’ तब use किया जाता है जब हमारे पास इस बात का कोई कारण होता है कि परिस्थितियां हमारे अनुसार हो जाएँ; जैसे

a) We really wanted tickets for tomorrow night but it’s not looking very hopeful.
b) His quick recovery from the treatment was a hopeful development.
c) I’m hopeful that we can reach a compromise.
d) I’m not very hopeful about their future.

8. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). हालाँकि यहाँ option ‘A’ (used) भी सही है; लेकिन दिया हुआ वाक्य पहले से ही शुद्ध है. इसलिए वाक्य को किसी improvement की आवश्यकता नहीं है. .

9. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). ‘Accident of birth’ एक phrase होता है जिसका प्रयोग तब किया जब किसी को कोई गुण या सम्पति विरासत में मिली हो; अर्थात उसको उसके जन्म से ही मिली हो; जैसे

His wealth is a mere accident of birth because he came from a wealthy family.

10. Option ‘B’ (the less expensive). इस वाक्य में दो कारों की कीमतों में तुलना की गयी है. दो वस्तुओं की तुलना करने के लिए comparative degree का use किया जाता है. ‘Least’ की degree तो superlative है; अर्थात दिया गया वाक्य अशुद्ध है. ‘Less’ एक comparative degree होती है; अतः इसका use यहाँ शुद्ध है. ‘Little’ की तीनों degree ये होती हैं: little, less, least.

Option ‘C’ (the lesser expensive) इसलिए अशुद्ध है क्योंकि LESSER को सिर्फ nouns के पहले use किया जाता है जबकि EXPENSIVE एक adjective होता है.

NOTE: Article ‘the’ का use comparative degrees से पहले भी संभव है, लेकिन ये तभी संभव है जब इसके पहले या बाद में phrase ‘of the two’ का use हुआ हो.  जब किसी comparative degree के पहले article ‘the’ का use हुआ हो तो ‘than’ का use नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

a) Ankur is the more intelligent of the two. (not ‘than the two’)
b) She is the more beautiful of the two girls. (not ‘than the two girls’)
c) Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

INCORRECT: She is the best of the two sisters.
CORRECT: She is the better of the two sisters.

INCORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the best.
CORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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Solution with explanation (in English)

1. Option ‘B’ (started to drink). ‘Take to drink’ is an idiom which means to drink a lot of alcohol regularly; means that meaning of this idiom includes the word ‘alcohol’. It means the given sentence is incorrect.

2. Option ‘C’ (since). In the given sentence the word ‘knowing’ is a participle; means it’s an adjective. An adjective always qualifies a noun or a pronoun. But it’s not given in the sentence; nor is it possible in the given format as ‘all the buildings were reinforced with additional concrete’ is not be touched. Therefore it must be a conjunction to begin the sentence; so option ‘C’ is correct here.

3. Option ‘B’ (adopted for). Adapted to and Adapted for do not mean the same thing. We use ‘Adapted to’ when something has changed to fit its own environment; a change in circumstances; e.g.

a) People have adapted to the difficult living conditions in the Arctic.
b) The organisms were forced to adapt in order to survive.

We use ‘Adapted for’ to say that changes are made to something by someone else; e.g.

Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people.

In the given sentence, it’s quite clear that equipment is made by someone.

4. Option ‘C’ (have decided). According to the context the decision to start a new magazine has already been taken, hence the Present Perfect Tense.

5. Option ‘C’ (dozen mangoes). If words like dozen, gross, score, hundred are preceded by the article ‘A’ or any numerical adjective (one, two, three, etc.), we do not use OF after them; e.g.

INCORRECT: While coming back from the office, bring home a dozen of bananas.
CORRECT: While coming back home from the office, bring home a dozen bananas.

INCORRECT: Two hundred of people attended the meeting.
CORRECT: Two hundred people attended the meeting.

NOTE: But if the article ‘A’ or any numerical adjective (one, two, three, etc.) precedes words like dozen, gross, score, hundred, and the noun after them precedes words like The, These, Those, My, Our, etc., we use ‘of’ after that numeral noun; e.g.

a) Three dozens of the oranges are rotten.
b) Please keep aside ten thousand of these rupees for me.

6. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). Here ‘so far’ is used for time reference. In this use ‘so far’ = up to the present time. In this use it’s used only with the Present Perfect Tense; e.g.

a) So far, they have met with no success.
b) Which one have you enjoyed most so far?
c) So far we have restricted our attention to the local area.
d) There have been 11 deaths from TB so far.

7. Option ‘A’ (hope she clears). ‘Hope’ is used for general future wishes based on some reason. We use ‘hope’ for general statements. ‘Hoping’ is used for personal interests and concerns; there is no logical view of the speaker when he says ‘hoping’. When we say ‘hoping’, the idea is currently in progress; that’s why we use it in the continuous form.

Compare:
a) I hope it snows this January. (It’s a general wish for the future; there is no personal interest of the speaker involved.)
b) I’m hoping this pain is going to disappear soon. (It’s personal interest of the speaker that the pain goes soon.)

Option ‘C’ is incorrect as ‘hopeful’ is used when we have a reason or possibility to believe  that something will happen the way we want it to; eg.

a) We really wanted tickets for tomorrow night but it’s not looking very hopeful.
b) His quick recovery from the treatment was a hopeful development.
c) I’m hopeful that we can reach a compromise.
d) I’m not very hopeful about their future.

8. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). Though option ‘A’ (used) is also correct; but the given sentence is already correct. Therefore the sentence does not require an improvement.

9. Option ‘D’ (no improvement). ‘Accident of birth’ is a phrase which means a quality or property due to the circumstances of one’s birth; e.g.

His wealth is a mere accident of birth because he came from a wealthy family.

10. Option ‘B’ (the less expensive). Here it’s comparison of the prices of two cars, for comparison between two things we use the comparative degree. ‘Least’ is in the superlative degree, means the given sentence is incorrect. ‘Less’ is the comparative degree, hence correct. Here are the degrees of comparison of the adjective ‘Little’: little, less, least.

Option ‘C’ is incorrect as ‘lesser’ is only used before nouns whereas ‘expensive’ is an adjective.

NOTE: We can use ‘the’ before a comparative degree also, but we must also use ‘of the two’ after or before it in this case. We do not use THAN after the + comparative degree; e.g.

a) Ankur is the more intelligent of the two. (not ‘than the two’)
b) She is the more beautiful of the two girls. (not ‘than the two girls’)
c) Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

INCORRECT: She is the best of the two sisters.
CORRECT: She is the better of the two sisters.

INCORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the best.
CORRECT: Of the two bags, this is definitely the better.

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

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