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SIMPLE, COMPOUND & COMPLEX SENTENCES (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

SIMPLE, COMPOUND & COMPLEX SENTENCES (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

इस chapter को तब तक सही से नहीं समझा जा सकता जब तक कि निम्नलिखित को सही से न समझ लिया जाये:

A) Independent Clause (Main Clause)

ऐसा clause जिसको अलग से एक वाक्य के रूप में use किया भी जाये तो वह पूरा अर्थ दे; उसको Independent Clause कहते हैं. ऐसे clause को Main Clause भी कहा जाता है. Independent Clause की सबसे अधिक महत्वपूर्ण बात ये होती है कि ऐसा clause अपने आप में अलग से एक sentence के रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

Mohit left, and Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[इस वाक्य में दो clause हैं; उनमे से एक है ‘Mohit left’, और दूसरा है ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black here’. यदि आप इन दोनों clauses को अलग-अलग वाक्यों में भी use करेंगे तो आप देखेंगे कि ये दोनों पूरा-पूरा अर्थ दे रहे हैं. अतः ये दोनों ही clause Independent Clause (Main clauses) हैं.]

NOTE: हर वाक्य में कम से कम एक Independent Clause (Main Clause) अवश्य होता है.

B) Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)

ऐसा clause जिसको अलग से एक वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो वह पूरा अर्थ न दे; उसको Dependent Clause कहते हैं. ऐसे clause को Subordinate Clause भी कहा जाता है. एक Dependent Clause पूरा अर्थ देने के लिए Main Clause पर निर्भर होता है.

Independent Clause और Dependent Clause के अंतर को एक वाक्य द्वारा समझिये:

I saw a man who was crying.

[इस वाक्य में दो clause हैं; एक तो ‘I saw a man’, और दूसरा ‘who was crying’. इनमे से पहले clause ‘I saw a man’ को अगर एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो ये अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ दे रहा है; अतः ये  वाक्य का Independent Clause (Main Clause) है.

लेकिन इस वाक्य के दूसरे clause ‘who was crying’ को अगर एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो ये कोई भी अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. ये अपना अर्थ देने के लिए इस वाक्य के Main Clause अर्थात ‘I saw a man’ पर निर्भर है. अतः ये वाक्य का Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है.]

 1. Simple Sentence

ऐसा sentence जिसमें केवल एक subject और एक ही predicate होता है Simple Sentence कहलाता है. जैसे

His courage won him honour.

(इस sentence में केवल एक subject और एक ही predicate है. इस वाक्य का subject है: ‘his courage’, और predicate है: ‘won him honour’.)

Simple Sentences के कुछ और उदहारण

a) No man can serve two masters. (इस sentence का subject ‘No man’ है, और predicate ‘can serve two masters’ है.)

b) A sick room should be well aired. (इस sentence का subject ‘A sick room’ है, और predicate ‘should be well aired’ है.)

c) A barking sound the shepherd hears. (इस sentence का subject ‘The shepherd’ है, और predicate ‘hears a barking sound’ है.)

d) Up went the balloon. (इस sentence का subject ‘The balloon’ है, और predicate ‘up went’ है.)

e) The naked every day he clad. (इस sentence का subject ‘He’ है, और predicate ‘clad the naked everyday’ है.)

f) Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell was dead. (इस sentence का subject ‘Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell’ है, और predicate ‘was dead’ है.)

g) The little child, tired of play, is sleeping. (इस sentence का subject ‘The little child, tired of play’ है, और predicate ‘is sleeping’ है.)

h) Talking overmuch is a sign of vanity. (इस sentence का subject ‘Talking overmuch’ है, और predicate ‘is a sign of vanity’ है.)

i) To find fault is easy. (इस sentence का subject ‘To find fault’ है, और predicate ‘is easy’ है.)

j) The boy, anxious to learn, worked hard. (इस sentence का subject ‘The boy, anxious to learn’ है, और predicate ‘worked hard’ है.)

k) A house divided against itself cannot stand. (इस sentence का subject ‘A house divided against itself’ है, और predicate ‘cannot stand’ है.)

l) Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope. (इस sentence का subject ‘Deceived by his friends, he’ है, और predicate ‘lost all hope’ है.)

m) With his white hair unbonneted, the stout old sheriff comes. (इस sentence का subject ‘The stout old sheriff’ है, और predicate ‘comes with his white hair unbonneted’ है.)

n) He has come to stay. (इस sentence का subject ‘He’ है, और predicate ‘has come to stay’ है.)

o) Wait a minute. (इस sentence का subject ‘You’ है, और predicate ‘wait a minute’ है. इस sentence का subject ‘you’ understood है.)

p) Help a lame dog over a stile. (इस sentence का subject ‘You’ है, और predicate ‘help a lame dog over a stile’ है. इस sentence का subject ‘you’ understood है.)

q) Him will I follow to the ends of the earth. (इस sentence का subject ‘I’ है, और predicate ‘will follow him to the ends of the earth’ है.)

r) It is a miserable thing to live in suspense. (इस sentence का subject ‘To live in suspense’ है, और predicate ‘is a miserable thing’ है. इस sentence में ‘it’ artificial subject है जबकि वास्तविक subject ‘to live in suspense’.)

s) Having conquered his enemies, Caesar, returned to Rome. (इस sentence का subject ‘Having conquered his enemies, Caesar’ है, और predicate ‘returned to Rome’ है.)

2. Compound Sentence

ऐसा sentence जिसमें दो या दो से अधिक clause होते हैं; और जिसका हर clause अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ देता हो एक Compound Sentence कहलाता है. ऐसे clause अपना अर्थ देने के लिए किसी अन्य clause पर निर्भर नहीं होते; अतः ये clause Independent Clause होते हैं, ऐसे clauses को Main Clause भी कहा जाता है; जैसे

a) The moon was bright and we could see our way.

(इस sentence के दो part हैं; एक तो ‘The moon was bright’ और दूसरा ‘we could see our way’. ये दोनों part conjunction ‘and’ से जुड़े हैं. इनमें से हर part का एक subject और एक predicate है. पहले वाले part का subject ‘the moon’ है और predicate ‘was bright’ है. दूसरे वाले part का subject ‘we’ है और predicate ‘could see our way’ है. ऐसा हर part एक clause कहलाता है; अर्थात ये दोनों ही clause हैं.

हम ये भी देख रहे हैं कि इनमें से हर clause अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ दे रहा है; अर्थात इन दोनों clauses को अगर अलग-अलग sentence बना कर भी लिखा जाये तो ये अपने आप में अर्थ पूरा ही देंगे. ऐसे clauses को Main Clause) Independent Clause कहा जाता है. और ऐसे sentence को Compound Sentence कहा जाता है.)

b) Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got very wet.

(इस sentence में तीन clause हैं: a) Night came on, b) Rain fell heavily, और c) We all got very wet. आप आसानी से ये पता लगा सकते हो कि ये सभी clauses Main clause हैं. ऐसा sentence भी जो दो से अधिक Main Clauses से बना हुआ होता है उसको भी Compound sentence ही कहा जाता है.

Compound Sentences के कुछ और उदहारण

a) The horse reared and the rider was thrown. (दो Main Clause ‘The horse reared’ और ‘the rider was thrown’ conjunction ‘and’ से जुड़े हैं.)

b) Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him. (दो Main Clause ‘Walk quickly’ और ‘you will not overtake him’ conjunction ‘else’ से जुड़े हैं.)

c) I called him, but he gave me no answer. (दो Main Clause ‘I called him’ और ‘he gave me no answer’ conjunction ‘but’ से जुड़े हैं.)

d) I agree to your proposals, for I think them reasonable. (दो Main Clause ‘I agree to your proposals’ और ‘I think them reasonable’ conjunction ‘for’ से जुड़े हैं.)

e) He blushes; therefore he is guilty. (दो Main Clause ‘He blushes’ और ‘he is guilty’ conjunction ‘therefore’ से जुड़े हैं.)

f) She must weep or she will die. (दो Main Clause ‘She must weep’ और ‘she will die’ conjunction ‘or’ से जुड़े हैं.)

g) Either he is drowned or some passing ship has saved him. (दो Main Clause ‘he is drowned’ और ‘some passing ship has saved him’ conjunction ‘either — or’ से जुड़े हैं.)

h) He neither obtains success nor deserves it. (दो Main Clause ‘he obtains success’ और ‘deserves it’ conjunction ‘neither — nor’ से जुड़े हैं. इस sentence में दूसरे clause ‘deserves it’ का subject ‘he’ understood है.)

i) I both thanked him and rewarded him. (दो Main Clause ‘I thanked him’ और ‘rewarded him’ conjunction ‘both — and’ से जुड़े हैं. इस sentence में दूसरे clause ‘rewarded him’ का subject ‘I’ understood है.)

j) He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell. (दो Main Clause ‘He rushed into the field’ और ‘foremost fighting fell’ conjunction ‘and’ से जुड़े हैं. इस sentence में दूसरे clause ‘foremost fighting fell’ का subject ‘he’ understood है.)

k) Listen carefully and take notes. (दो Main Clause ‘Listen carefully’ और ‘take notes’ conjunction ‘and’ से जुड़े हैं. इस sentence में दोनों clauses का subject ‘you’ है; जो यहाँ understood है.)

l) Man is guided by reason, and beast by instinct. (दो Main Clause ‘Man is guided by reason’ और ‘beast by instinct ‘and’ से जुड़े हैं. इस sentence में दूसरे clause की verb ‘is guided’ है; जो यहाँ understood है.)

3. Complex Sentence

जिस sentence में एक Main Clause और एक या एक से अधिक Subordinate/Dependent Clause हों उस sentence को Complex Sentence कहते है; जैसे

a) They rested when evening came.

(इस sentence के दो clause हैं: a) They rested, and b) When evening came. इन दोनों clauses में से clause ‘they rested’ अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ दे रहा है; अतः इस clause को अगर एक अलग sentence के रूप में लिखा जाये तो ये अकेला भी पूरा अर्थ देगा; अर्थात ये इस sentence में Main Clause है. 

परन्तु clause ‘when evening came’ अगर एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में लिखा जाये तो ये पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा; यह अपने अर्थ के लिए clause ‘they rested’ पर निर्भर है; अर्थात ये clause एक Subordinate/Dependent Clause है. तो ऐसा sentence एक Complex Sentence होता है.)

b) As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said they would not allow them to fight.

(इस sentence में तीन clause हैं: a) The people said. (Main Clause), b) As the boxers advanced into the ring. (Subordinate/Dependent Clause.), and c) They would not allow them to fight. (Subordinate/Dependent Clause; अर्थात ये एक Complex sentence है.)

Complex Sentences के कुछ और उदहारण

a) The town in which I live is very large. (Clause ‘the town is very large’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘in which I live’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

b) I went because I was invited. (Clause ‘I went’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘because I was invited’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

c) He came oftener than we expected. (Clause ‘He came oftener’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘than we expected’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

d) Whatever you do, do well. (Clause ‘do well’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘Whatever you do’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

e) Where ignorance is bliss, ’tis folly to be wise. (Clause ‘‘its folly to be wise’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘where ignorance is bliss’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है. “its’ ‘it is’ की short form है; इसकी एक और short form होती है: ‘it’s’.)

f) Quarrels would not last long if the fault were only on one side. (Clause ‘quarrels would not last long’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘if the fault were only on one side’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

g) He trudged on, though he was very tired. (Clause ‘he trudged on’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘though he was very tired’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

h) Tell me the news as you have heard. (Clause ‘tell me the news’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘as you have heard’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है. इस sentence में Main Clause का subject ‘you’ understood है.)

i) He that has most time has none to lose. (Clause ‘he has none to lose’ Main Clause है, और clause ‘that has most time’ Subordinate/Dependent Clause है.)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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SIMPLE, COMPOUND & COMPLEX SENTENCES (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

You cannot understand this chapter well unless you know the following:

A) Independent Clause (Main Clause)

Independent Clause is that clause which expresses a complete meaning. it’s also called Main Clause. The most important thing to remember is that an independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence; e.g.

Mohit left, and Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[In this example, there are two clauses namely ‘Mohit left’, and ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black here’. We see that both these clause can stand alone, and make a complete sense. Hence both are Independent Clauses (Main clauses).

NOTE: All sentences must include at least one Independent Clause (Main Clause).

B) Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)

Dependent Clause is that clause which as alone cannot express a complete meaning. It’s also called Subordinate Clause. It alone cannot stand as a sentence because it depends on the other clause (Independent Clause/Main Clause) to give a complete meaning.

To understand the difference between both these types of clauses well read this example:

I saw a man who was crying.

[The above sentence has two clauses: ‘I saw a man’; and ‘who was crying’. The first clause ‘I saw a man’ gives a complete meaning and can alone stand as a complete sentence. Such a clause is called Independent Clause (Main Clause).

On the other hand, the second clause ‘who was crying’ does not give a complete meaning and cannot stand as a complete sentence. It depends on the main clause to give a complete meaning. Such a clause is called Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause).]

 1. Simple Sentence

Such a sentence which has only one subject and one predicate is called a Simple Sentence. In the Predicate of a Simple Sentence there is only one verb; e.g.

His courage won him honour.

(In this sentence we have one Subject and one Predicate. The subject is ‘his courage’, and the predicate is ‘won him honour’.)

Some more examples of Simple Sentences

a) No man can serve two masters. (‘No man’ is the subject and ‘can serve two masters’ is the predicate.)

b) A sick room should be well aired. (‘A sick room’ is the subject and ‘should be well aired’ is the predicate.)

c) A barking sound the shepherd hears. (‘The shepherd’ is the subject and ‘hears a barking sound’ is the predicate.)

d) Up went the balloon. (‘The balloon’ is the subject and ‘up went’ is the predicate.)

e) The naked every day he clad. (‘He’ is the subject and ‘clad the naked everyday’ is the predicate.)

f) Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell was dead. (‘Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell’ is the subject and ‘was dead’ is the predicate.)

g) The little child, tired of play, is sleeping. (‘The little child, tired of play’ is the subject and ‘is sleeping’ is the predicate.)

h) Talking overmuch is a sign of vanity. (‘Talking overmuch’ is the subject and ‘is a sign of vanity’ is the predicate.)

i) To find fault is easy. (‘To find fault’ is the subject and ‘is easy’ is the predicate.)

j) The boy, anxious to learn, worked hard. (‘The boy, anxious to learn’ is the subject and ‘worked hard’ is the predicate.)

k) A house divided against itself cannot stand. (‘A house divided against itself’ is the subject and ‘cannot stand’ is the predicate.)

l) Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope. (‘Deceived by his friends, he’ is the subject and ‘lost all hope’ is the predicate.)

m) With his white hair unbonneted, the stout old sheriff comes. (The stout old sheriff’ is the subject and ‘comes with his white hair unbonneted’ is the predicate.)

n) He has come to stay. (‘He’ is the subject and ‘has come to stay’ is the predicate.)

o) Wait a minute. (‘You’ is the subject and ‘wait a minute’ is the predicate. Subject ‘you’ is understood.)

p) Help a lame dog over a stile. (‘You’ is the subject and ‘help a lame dog over a stile’ is the predicate. Subject ‘you’ is understood.)

q) Him will I follow to the ends of the earth. (‘I’ is the subject and ‘will follow him to the ends of the earth’ is the predicate.)

r) It is a miserable thing to live in suspense. (‘To live in suspense’ is the subject and ‘is a miserable thing’ is the predicate. Here ‘It’ is the artificial subject and ‘to live in suspense’ is the real subject.)

s) Having conquered his enemies, Caesar, returned to Rome. (‘Having conquered his enemies, Caesar’ is the subject and ‘returned to Rome’ is the predicate.)

2. Compound Sentence

A sentence which has two or more clauses, and each clause is making a good sense by itself i.e. each clause of which could stand by itself as a separate sentence, is called a Compound Sentence. Such clauses are Independent Clauses. Each such clause is called a Main Clause; e.g.

a) The moon was bright and we could see our way.

(This sentence consists of two parts: a) ‘The moon was bright’, and b) ‘We could see our way’. These two parts are joined by the Co-ordinating Conjunction AND. Each part contains a Subject and a Predicate. Subject of the first part is ‘the moon’ and the predicate is ‘was bright’; subject of the second part is ‘we’ and the predicate is ‘could see our way’. Each part is called a Clause.

We further notice that each clause makes good sense by itself, and hence could stand by itself as a separate sentence. Each Clause is therefore independent of the other. Each such clause is called a Main Clause. Such a sentence is called a Compound Sentence.)

b) Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got very wet.

(This sentence consists of the following three clauses: a) Night came on, b) Rain fell heavily, and c) We all got very wet. As said above all these clauses are also Main clauses. Such a sentence is also called a Compound sentence. So, a Compound sentence is one made up of two or more Main Clauses. 

Some more examples of Compound Sentences

a) The horse reared and the rider was thrown. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘and’)

b) Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘else’)

c) I called him, but he gave me no answer. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘but’)

d) I agree to your proposals, for I think them reasonable. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘for’)

e) He blushes; therefore he is guilty. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘therefore’)

f) She must weep or she will die. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘or’)

g) Either he is drowned or some passing ship has saved him. (Two Independent Clauses joined by ‘either — or’)

h) He neither obtains success nor deserves it. (Two Independent Clauses ‘he obtains success’, and ‘deserves it’ joined by ‘neither — nor’. The subject of the second clause is HE which is understood)

i) I both thanked him and rewarded him. (Two Independent Clauses ‘I thanked him’, and ‘rewarded him’ joined by ‘both — and’. The subject of the second clause is ‘I’ which is understood)

j) He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell. (Two Independent Clauses ‘he rushed into the field’ and ‘foremost fighting fell’ joined by ‘and’. The subject of the second clause is ‘he’ which is understood)

k) Listen carefully and take notes. (Two Independent Clauses ‘listen carefully’ and ‘take notes’ joined by ‘and’. The subject of both the clauses is ‘you’ which is understood)

l) Man is guided by reason, and beast by instinct. (Two Independent Clauses ‘man is guided by reason’ and ‘beast by instinct’ joined by ‘and’. Verb of the second clause is ‘is guided’ which is understood)

3. Complex Sentence

A Complex sentence consists of one Main Clause and one or more Subordinate/Dependent Clauses; e.g.

a) They rested when evening came.

(This sentence consists of two parts: a) They rested, and b) When evening came. We see each part contains a Subject and a Predicate, and forms part of a larger sentence. Each part is therefore a Clause. We further notice that the Clause ‘they rested’ makes good sense by itself, and hence could stand by itself as a complete sentence. It is therefore called the Main Clause. 

The Clause ‘when evening came’ cannot stand by itself and make good sense. It is dependent on the clause ‘they rested’. It is therefore called a Dependent or Subordinate Clause (not Main Clause). Such a sentence is called a Complex Sentence.)

b) As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said they would not allow them to fight.

(This sentence consists of three Clauses: a) The people said. (Main Clause), b) As the boxers advanced into the ring. (Subordinate/Dependent Clause.), and c) They would not allow them to fight. (Subordinate/Dependent Clause. Such a sentence is also called a Complex sentence.)

Some more examples of Complex Sentences

a) The town in which I live is very large. (Clause ‘the town is very large’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘in which I live’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

b) I went because I was invited. (Clause ‘I went’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘because I was invited’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

c) He came oftener than we expected. (Clause ‘he came oftener’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘than we expected’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

d) Whatever you do, do well. (Clause ‘do well’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘whatever you do’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

e) Where ignorance is bliss, ’tis folly to be wise. (Clause ‘‘its folly to be wise’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘where ignorance is bliss’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause. “its’ is the short form of ‘it is’, another short form of ‘it is’ is ‘it’s’.)

f) Quarrels would not last long if the fault were only on one side. (Clause ‘quarrels would not last long’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘if the fault were only on one side’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

g) He trudged on, though he was very tired. (Clause ‘he trudged on’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘though he was very tired’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

h) Tell me the news as you have heard. (Clause ‘tell me the news’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘as you have heard’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause. Subject of the Main Clause is ‘you’ which is understood.)

i) He that has most time has none to lose. (Clause ‘he has none to lose’ is the Main Clause, and clause ‘that has most time’ is the Dependent Clause of the Main Clause)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

 

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

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