The Preamble Articles of the Constitution Schedules

The task of framing the Constitution of India was given to the Constituent Assembly, formed under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946. The inaugural meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on December 9, 1946. Dr Sachidananda Sinha was dected provisional Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. On December 11, 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent chairman of the constituent Assembly.

The Constitution of India was enacted, signed and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. On January 26, 1950, the Constitution of India came into force on which date India also became a Republic. Our constitution makes detailed provisions for the following:

Fundamental Rights,
Directive Principles of State Policy,
Structure of the Government,
Parliament and State Legislatures,
Supreme Court and High Courts,
Relationship between the Union and the States,
Official Language and various other matters of
basic importance

Salient Features of Constitution

1. It is the longest written constitution in the world.

2. Consisting of 22 Chapters, over 395 Articles and 12 Schedules.

3. It proclaims India a Sovereign Democratic Republic.

4. Fundamental Rights are guaranteed to all citizens of India.

5. Directive Principles of State Policy are incorporated.

6. It established the parliamentary system of government, i.e. , the President of the Union is the constitutional head, the Council of Ministers or the Union Cabinet is the real executive and is responsible to the Lok Sabha.

7. It is federal in form (in normal times) but unitary in spirit (in mergencies).

8. It is neither too rigid (as some provisions can be amended by a simple majority) nor flexible (as some provisions require special majority for amendment).

9. It declares India a secular state.

10. It guarantees single citizenship to all citizens.

11. It introduced adult franchise, i.e. , every adult above 18 years has the right to vote and the system of joint electorates.

12. It established an independent judiciary; the Supreme Court acts as a guardian of the Constitution in place of the Privy Council.

The Preamble

The draft of the Preamble was prepared by Jawaharlal Nehru and is based on the American model. The 42nd Amendment added the words “Secular and Socialist” and now the preamble reads as follows.

We the People of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens: Justice; social, economic and political; Liberty; of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality; of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all; Fraternity; assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.

In our Constituent Assembly, November 26,1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.


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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)