ENGLISHMain English Grammar

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

1. Subject-verb Agreement with AND
दो या दो से अधिक singular nouns अथवा pronouns जब ‘and’ से जुड़ी होती हैं तो verb plural use होती है; और उनसे सम्बन्धित pronouns/possessive adjectives भी plural ही होते हैं; जैसे .

INCORRECT: Rahul and Rohit does his homework daily.
CORRECT: Rahul and Rohit do their homework daily.

NOTE-I: यदि ;and’ से जुड़ी हुईं nouns एक ही विचार, वस्तु या व्यक्ति का बोध कराती हैं तो verb singular use होती है; जैसे

a) Age and experience brings wisdom to man.
b) Bread and butter is his only food. (‘Bread and butter’ suggest one idea)
c) Truth and honesty is the best policy.
d) Slow and steady wins the race.
e) A horse and carriage was seen there.
f) The crown and glory of life is character.
g) The long and short of the story is well known.
h) All coming and going was forbidden.
i) Screaming and shouting was heard from the hall.

NOTE-II: यदि दो uncountable noun ‘and’ से जुड़ीं हों; और वे दोनों ही noun अपनी किस्म की पूरी जाती का बोध कराती हैं तो verb plural use होती है; जैसे

a) Bread and butter are made from wheat and milk respectively.
b) Only paper and pencil do not make a person a writer.
c) Fear and horror were all on my face.
d) Poverty and misery come together.

NOTE-III: यदि दो singular noun ‘and’ से जुड़ी हुई हों; और एक ही व्यक्ति का बोध करवा रही हों तो verb singular use की जाती है. ऐसी स्थिति में बाद वाली noun के पहले कोई article अथवा Possessive Adjective (my, our, his, her, your, their) नहीं लगा होता. परन्तु यदि उन दोनों ही nouns के पहले कोई article अथवा Possessive Adjective लगा होता है तो verb plural use की जाती है; जैसे

1. a) The Chief Minister and Finance Minister is going to Delhi today.
b) The Chief Minister and the Finance Minister are going to Delhi today.

2. a) My uncle and guardian wants me to join a gym.
b) My uncle and my guardian want me to join a gym.

3. a) My friend and colleague has advised me not to use the bike for travelling.
b) My friend and my colleague have advised me not to use the bike for travelling.

NOTE-IV: यदि दो singular noun ‘and’ से जुड़ी हुई हों; और उनमें से एक या दोनों ही के पहले Each, Every या No का use हुआ हो तो verb singular use की जाती है; और subject के लिए pronouns और possessives भी singular ही use किये जाते हैं. और यदि उन nouns के लिंग अलग-अलग हों तो लिंग पुलिंग में use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: Each boy and each girl has submitted their assignments.
CORRECT: Each boy and each girl has submitted his assignments.

INCORRECT: Every boy and every girl was given her bag back.
CORRECT: Every boy and every girl was given his bag back.

a) Each boy and each girl of this class is sincere enough.
b) Every boy and every girl was given an apple.
c) No boy and no girl is present.
d) Every Tom, Dick and Harry wants to become a cricketer.
e) Every bench and chair is occupied.

NOTE-V: यदि दो infinitive (TO + V1) अथवा दो gerund (ing form) ‘and’ से जुड़ी हुई हों तो verb plural use की जाती है; जैसे

a) To sing and to play are two contrary activities.
b) Remembering and forgetting are inevitable attributes of any personality.

2. Subject-verb Agreement with EACH & EVERY

A) ‘Each’ और ‘every’ दोनों ही singular verb लेते हैं; जैसे 

a) Every chair was occupied.
b) Each one of these apples is rotten.

NOTE-I: जब subject में दो या अधिक singular noun हों; और उन दोनों में से किसी भी एक के बाद EACH का use हुआ हो तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: My uncle and my father each takes the Employment News.
CORRECT: My uncle and my father each take the Employment News.

NOTE-II: जब किसी noun या pronoun के बाद ‘each’ का use हो तो भी verb plural use की जाती  है; और आगे use होने वाली pronouns/possessive adjectives भी plural होते हैं; जैसे

We each enjoy parties.

INCORRECT: The workers each has his set of problems to say to the owners.
CORRECT: The workers each have their set of problems to say to the owners.

INCORRECT: The ten captains each had an achievement of his own.
CORRECT: The ten captains each had an achievement of their own.

B) यदि किसी वाक्य में Relative Pronoun का use हुआ है तो Relative Pronoun के बाद वाले clause में ‘each’ के लिए pronouns को plural में use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: Each girl was awarded with a nice present which pleased her very much.
CORRECT: Each girl was awarded with a nice present which pleased them very much.

C) यदि ‘every’ के बाद दो या अधिक nouns का use हुआ हो तो verb और pronouns singular होती हैं; जैसे 

INCORRECT: Every cow, pig and horse have lost their life in the fire.
CORRECT: Every cow, pig and horse has lost its life in the fire.

D) ‘Each of’ के साथ pronoun plural form में use होती हैं; और यदि किसी noun के पहले किसी determiner का use हो तो वो noun भी plural form में होती है. लेकिन verb singular use होती है; जैसे  

a) Each of you is intelligent.
b) Each of us was ready to take part in the play.
c) Each of the students was quite when the teacher entered. (‘The’ एक determiner है  और ‘students’ plural noun है.)

NOTE: ’Each of” और ‘every one of’ एक ही बात होते हैं; लेकिन ‘every one of’ और ‘everyone of’ अलग-अलग होते हैं. ‘Everyone’ का अर्थ है हर आदमी (everybody). ‘every one’ का अर्थ है each.

3. Subject-verb Agreement with OR/NOR

A) जब दो या अधिक singular subject ‘or’ अथवा ‘nor’ से जुड़े होते हैं तो verb singular आती है और उनके Possessive Adjective  (my, our, your, his, her, their) भी singular ही होते हैं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Sonika or Rekha are going to join the club.
CORRECT: Sonika or Rekha is going to join the club.

INCORRECT: Neither Rahul nor Rohit respect their parents.
CORRECT: Neither Rahul nor Rohit respects his parents.

NOTE: लेकिन ‘or’ अथवा nor’ से जुड़े हुए subjects में से एक subject plural हो तो verb plural आती है; और plural subject को verb के निकटतम रखा जाता है. ऐसी स्थिति में Possessive Adjective  (my, our, your, his, her, their) भी plural ही होते हैं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Neither the teachers nor the Principal is present in the room.
CORRECT: Neither the Principal nor the teachers are present in the room.

INCORRECT: Neither the director nor the actors did his jobs well.
CORRECT: Neither the director nor the actors did their jobs well.

B) जब ‘or’ अथवा ‘nor’ से जुड़े हुए subjects के person अलग-अलग हों तो verb उस subject के person के अनुसार use होती है जो verb के पास में होता है; जैसे

a) Either he or I am responsible.
b) Neither you nor he is responsible.
c) Neither my friend nor you are to blame.

4. अगर As, So, Neither, Nor के बाद कोई verb होती है तो वह उस subject के अनुसार use की जाती है जो subject इन शब्दों के बाद दिया होता है; जैसे 

a) He behaves well, as does his father.
b) She always goes for a walk, as do her parents.
c) He likes singing, so do his children.

5. Subject-verb agreement with Both, A Few, Few
निम्नलिखित के साथ verb plural होती है; इनके बाद आने वाली nouns/pronouns भी plural होती हैं:

Both Both of A few A few of Few Few of

a) There are two clubs in the town. Both are described as expensive.
b) Both of my sons are very naughty.
c) Both those chairs are occupied.
d) Many were invited but a few have come.

6. निम्नलिखित के साथ अगर noun plural use की गयी होती है तो verb भी plural होती है; अगर इनके साथ अगर uncountable noun use की गयी होती है तो verb singular होती है: 

Most Most of Some Some of Half Half of
Enough Enough of Not enough of Plenty of A lot of Lots of

a) Some people dislike movies.
b) Some of the people dislike movies.
c) Half of the candidates have not taken the exam.
d) Lots of milk is available here. (‘Milk’ is uncountable noun)

7. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘Not only — but also’, ‘Either — or’, ‘Neither — nor’, ‘Not – but’

जब दो nouns/pronouns Not only — But also, Either — or, Neither — nor से जुड़ी होती हैं तो verb दूसरे वाली noun/pronoun के अनुसार use होती है; जैसे

a) Not only the officer but also six soldiers were killed.
b) Not only the team mates but also the captain was blamed for the defeat.
c) Neither you nor I am interested in it.
d) Neither you nor he is intelligent.
e) Not only proteins but also vitamin C is essential for small children.

INCORRECT: Not she but her friends is guilty.
CORRECT: Not she but her friends are guilty.

8. Aren’t I

यदि ‘I’ के साथ verb ‘be + not’ की संक्षिप्त (contracted) form का प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों में Present Simple Tense का use करना हो तो हम ‘aren’t I’ का use करते हैं; ‘amn’t I’ का नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Amn’t I clever?
CORRECT: Aren’t I clever?

NOTE: यह form केवल प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों में ही use की जा सकती है; नकारात्मक वाक्यों में नहीं. अतः हम  ‘I aren’t’ नहीं कह सकते; जैसे

INCORRECT: I aren’t clever.
CORRECT: I amn’t clever.

9. Unfulfilled desire/wish/condition

वर्तमान में पूर्ण ना होने वाली Desire/Wish/Condition को व्यक्त करने के लिए निम्नलिखित के साथ verb BE की WERE form use की जाती है:

If As if As though If only Suppose I wish We wish He wishes

INCORRECT: If I was the bird I would fly.
CORRECT: If I were a bird, I would fly.

INCORRECT: Sita talks to me as if she was the P.M. of India.
CORRECT: Sita talks to me as if she were the P.M. of India.

INCORRECT: I wish that she was a queen.
CORRECT: I wish that she were a queen.

NOTE: लेकिन किसी वास्तविक स्थिति को बताने के लिए If/As if/As though के बाद verb की present tense form use होती है; जैसे

a) If you are ready, you can go.
b) If she comes here, ask her to wait for me.
c) You look as if you know each other.
d) She looks as though she has been dancing.

10. Subject-verb Agreement with WISHES
Wishes के लिए verb plural use की जाती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: May he passes his exam this time!
CORRECT: May he pass his exam this time!

INCORRECT: Long lives your mother!
CORRECT: Long live your mother!

11. निम्नलिखित के साथ verb singular आती है 

Either Neither Each Each of Every Everyone Everybody
Everything Someone Somebody Anybody No one Nobody Nothing

a) Either of my parents doesn’t know I’ve lost my job.
b) There are two proposals, and either is acceptable.
c) I have two jackets, but neither is washed.
d) Neither of them was suitable for the job.
e) Each of these pens is mine.
f) Nobody knows when she will come back.

12. निम्नलिखित के साथ verb plural आती है 

A majority of The majority of A minority of The minority of
A number of A large number of A great number of Large numbers of
A handful of Many of A great/good many

a) A number of students were late for class.
b) A great number of students volunteer each year for environmental projects.
c) Large number of books are available here.
d) Many of the terrorists have been arrested by the army.
e) A great many of you have got good marks.
f) A good many of us respect elders.

NOTE: बिना preposition ‘of’ के ‘the majority’ के साथ verb का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है; अर्थात हमारी मर्जी होती है कि हम चाहे singular verb use करें; चाहे plural; जैसे

The majority is against you.
= The majority are against you.

13. ‘The number of’ के लिए verb singular use होती है; जैसे 

a) The number of employees in the office is fifteen.
b) The number of visitors has increased suddenly.

14. निम्नलिखित के साथ nouns uncountable use होती हैं और verb singular

The amount of A large amount of A great deal of A good deal of

a) A large amount of goods is yet to be sold.
b) A great deal of courage is needed to execute this plan.
c) A good deal of money is needed to equip the entire office with CCTV cameras.
d) The amount of money collected is not well sufficient for the project.

15. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘MANY’
A) निम्नलिखित के लिए verb plural use होती है. इन सब को pronouns के रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है और adjectives के रूप में भी. जब ये adjectives के रूप में use होते हैं तो इनके साथ  nouns plural होती हैं:

Many A great many A good many

a) Many have applied for the job. (as pronoun)
b) There are one thousand students in the school a good many are fairly intelligent. (as pronoun)
c) Many workers have been sent notices. (as adjective)
d) A great many actors are coming to the party. (as adjective)
e) A good many students were given uniforms. (as adjective)
f) The following take plural verbs and are always followed by plural nouns and plural pronouns:

B) निम्नलिखित के लिए plural verbs और इनके साथ plural nouns/pronouns आती हैं; जैसे

Many of A great many of A good many of

a) Many of the terrorists have been arrested by the army.
b) A great many of you have got good marks.
c) A good many of us respect elders.

C) ‘Many A/An’ के साथ singular countable noun और singular verb आती हैं; और pronouns और possessive adjectives भी singular use होते हैं; जैसे

INCORRECT: Many a girl wish they could sing like Lata Mangeshkar.
CORRECT: Many a girl wishes she could sing like Lata Mangeshkar.

a) Many a leader has come to attend the function.
b) Many an orange is rotten.

16. Subject-verb Agreement with the following:

No All All of Not all of None None of

A) ‘No’ के साथ अगर singular या uncountable noun हो तो verb singular होती है, और अगर इसके साथ plural noun हो तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

a) No worker has submitted his papers.
b) No workers have submitted their papers.
c) No work has been completed.

B) ‘All’ को वस्तुओं के लिए भी use किया जा सकता है और व्यक्तियों के लिए भी. जब इसे वस्तुओं के लिए use किया जाता है तो verb singular आती है, और जब इसे व्यक्तियों के लिए use किया जाता है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

Compare:
a) All is well. (क्योंकि verb singular है इसलिए यहाँ ‘all’ वस्तुओं के लिए use हुआ है.)
b) All are well. (क्योंकि verb plural है इसलिए यहाँ ‘all’ व्यक्तिओं के use हुआ है.)

C) All, All of, Not all of के साथ uncountable noun होती है तो verb singular आती है, लेकिन यदि countable noun होती है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) All the furniture has been polished.
b) All of the milk was spilt by the cat.
c) Not all of the paper has been printed.
d) All the boys are playing.
e) Not all of the dogs are for sale.

D) ‘None’ अगर singular nouns के लिए use हुआ है तो verb singular आती है; और अगर ये plural noun के लिए use हुआ है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) I’m always looking for inspiration. None ever comes. (‘Inspiration’ singular है; अतः verb भी singular use हुई है.)
b) She’s always looking for ideas. None ever come. (‘Ideas’ plural है; अतः verb भी plural use हुई है.)

E) ‘None of’ के use के साथ verb का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है; अर्थात हमारी मर्जी होती है कि हम चाहे singular verb use करें; चाहे plural; जैसे

None of these suggestions is very helpful.
= None of these suggestions are very helpful.

17. Subject-verb Agreement with NUMBERS & QUANTITIES

A) निम्नलिखित के साथ यदि singular अथवा uncountable nouns होती हैं तो verb singular होती है, इनके साथ यदि plural countable nouns होती हैं तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

One third of Two thirds of Three fourths of, etc. The rest of
A quarter of Part of

a) Three fourths of the wheat has been consumed.
b) One third of the house is yet to be repaired.
c) One third of the students have passed.

B) One/two/three, आदि percent(%) का use अगर singular या uncountable noun के लिए है तो verb singular होती है; और अगर plural noun के लिए हुआ है तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

a) Around ten percent of the wheat is still available.
b) At least 50% of the houses need repairs. (यहाँ 50% noun ‘houses’ के लिए use हुआ है जो कि plural है; अतः इस वाक्य में verb ‘need’ भी plural form में use हुई है.)
c) Of those met, only 10% admit to drinking. (यहाँ 10% noun ‘people’ के लिए use हुआ है जो कि plural है; अतः इस वाक्य में verb ‘admit’ भी plural form में use हुई है.)

NOTE: लेकिन अगर singular noun ऐसी ही कि उस से किसी पूरे समूह का भी बोध होता है और समूह में शामिल अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों/वस्तुओं का भी तो हमारी इच्छा है की हम verb singular use करें या plural; जैसे

Some 60% of the electorate is expected to vote.
= Some 60% of the electorate are expected to vote.

C) अगर शब्द ‘percentage’ के साथ किसी संख्या का use नहीं है तो verb singular आती है; जैसे

a) The percentage of success is expected to be good.
b) The percentage of sincere students is not big.

D) किसी मात्रा या राशी आदि को प्रदर्षित करने वाली कोई plural noun यदि एक इकाई का बोध करा रही हो तो verb singular आती है; और यदि अलग-अलग इकाइयों का बोध करा रही है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) Five kilometers for daily is a good walk.
b) Three parts of the bread has been consumed.
c) Fifty rupees is too much for this work.
d) Fifty rupees were given to me by my father today. (separate units)
e) Two years have passed since my marriage. (separate units)

E) जब subject कोई अंकगणितीय कथन  हो तो verb singular भी use की जा सकती है और plural भी; जैसे

a) Two and two is four.
= Two and two are four.

b) Two times three is six.
= Two times three are six.

c) Five from ten is five.
= Five from ten are five.

F) ‘Amount of’ और ‘quantity of’ का use सिर्फ uncountable nouns के साथ ही किया जा सकता है; इसके use के साथ हमेशा verb singular आती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: This amount of money are well sufficient for the project.
CORRECT: This amount of money is well sufficient for the project.

18. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘More than one’

A) ‘More than one’ के साथ यदि singular noun है तो verb singular आती है, इसके साथ यदि plural noun है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) More than one person is present.
b) More than one persons are present.

B) ‘More + plural noun + than one’ के use के साथ verb plural आती है; जैसे

More pencils than one are mine.

19. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘ONE OF’

‘One of’ के साथ हमेशा कोई plural noun अथवा plural pronoun ही use की जा सकती है; और इसके use के साथ verb singular होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: One of the candidates have not appeared to take the exam.
CORRECT: One of the candidates has not appeared to take the exam.

INCORRECT: One of them have not finished their work yet.
CORRECT: One of them has not finished his work yet.

NOTE-I: लेकिन ‘one of + noun’ के बाद अगर कोई Relative Pronoun use हुई है तो उस Relative Pronoun के साथ की verb plural होती है. और अगर उस Relative Pronoun के बाद में किसी और verb का use भी हुआ है तो वो verb singular होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: One of the candidates who has appeared to take the exam has not come.
CORRECT: One of the candidates who have appeared to take the exam has not come.

INCORRECT: One of the boys who always gives the correct answer are Samuel.
CORRECT: One of the boys who always give the correct answer is Samuel.

NOTE-II: और यदि ‘one of’ के पहले शब्द ‘only’ का use हुआ है तो Relative Pronoun के साथ की verb singular होती है; जैसे

This is only one of his poems that is worth reading.

NOTE-III: लेकिन यदि ‘one of’ के पहले कोई noun दी गयी है तो Relative Pronoun के साथ की verb ‘one of’ के बाद use हुई noun के अनुसार आती है; और वाक्य के शुरू में अगर किसी collective noun का use है तो verb singular आती है; जैसे

इन वाक्यों की तुलना कीजिये: 

a) Rahul is one of those players who are going to England.

[इस वाक्य में रचना ‘one of + noun’ का use हुआ है; अतः Relative Pronoun के साथ की verb ‘players’ के अनुसार use हुई है.]

b)  The team of those players which is going to England leaves on Sunday.

[इस वाक्य की रचना ‘collective noun of + noun’ है; अतः Relative Pronoun के साथ verb singular use हुई है, ‘players’ के अनुसार नहीं.]

20. Subject-verb Agreement with THERE & IT

A) ‘There’ जब अवास्तविक (artificial) subject होता है और इसके बाद singular अथवा uncountable noun होती है तो verb singular होती है; और जब plural noun होती है तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

a) There is a book on the table.
b) There are two books on the table.
c) There is a lot of sugar in the pot.

NOTE-I: लेकिन ‘there’ के बाद जब ऐसी plural noun अथवा pronoun होती है जो किसी राशी, दूरी आदि की एक इकाई का बोध करवा रही हो तो verb singular use होती है; जैसे

a) There is fifty rupees to pay to the plumber.
b) There is only another twenty kilometers to go.

NOTE-II: यदि ‘there’ के बाद दो या दो से अधिक ऐसी nouns होती हैं जो एक इकाई का बोध करवा रही हों तो भी verb singular होती है; जैसे

There is enough bread and butter in the refrigerator.

B) It’ जब अवास्तविक (artificial) subject होता है तो इसके साथ हमेशा verb singular ही आती है चाहे इसके आगे noun plural हो;

a) It is I at the door.
b) It was they who were at fault.
c) It is these boys that came late today.

21. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘The + Adjective’

अगर article ‘the’ को किसी ऐसे adjective जो किसी मानव जाती के लिए प्रयुक्त होने वाले किसी गुण या स्थिति को बताता हो तो वह adjective एक plural noun बन जाती है जिसमें उस adjective वाली सभी बातें होती हैं. ऐसे कुछ adjective ये हैं:

Blind Deaf Disabled Healthy Sick Living Dead
Rich Poor Unemployed Old Young

NOTE-I: adjectives जब इस तरह से use किये जाते हैं तो उनका अर्थ plural हो जाता है; इसलिए उनके साथ verb plural use होती हैं. और इनकी pronoun ‘they’ use की जाती है; जैसे

a) The poor get poorer, the rich get richer.
b) The rich have a lot of wealth, but it doesn’t mean they are always happy.

NOTE-II: The accused, The unexpected को singular अर्थ में भी use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

The accused of the murder case has fled.

22. Subject-verb Agreement with CLAUSES

यदि किसी verb का subject पूरा clause हो तो वह verb singular form में use की जाती है; जैसे

a) That those are my friends is true. (यहाँ verb ‘is’ का subject clause ‘That those are my friends’ है.)
b) What they say is unknown to me. (यहाँ verb ‘is’ का subject clause ‘What they say’ है )
c) To keep these young people in prison is inhuman.
d) Having overall responsibility for the course means that I have a lot of meetings.
e) Whoever took them remains a mystery.
f) That India won both the matches was a great achievement.

NOTE: लेकिन यदि दो clause ‘and’ से जुड़े हों तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

What he says and what he does are always different.

23. Subject-verb Agreement with WHAT

A) जब किसी clause का subject ‘what’ हो तो verb singular होती है; जैसे

a) What I want is your books.
b) What she wants to buy is a car.

B)) जब ‘what’ का use किसी singular noun के लिए हुआ हो तो verb singular होती है; जब इसका use किसी plural noun के लिए हुआ हो तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

a) I don’t need any more bread; what I have is quite sufficient.
b) You need not buy notebooks; what we have are in good number.

24. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘With’, ‘Along with’, ‘As well as’, etc.

जब दो noun अथवा pronoun निम्नलिखित से जुडी हों तो verb इनमें से पहले वाली noun/pronoun के अनुसार use होती है; और verb के बाद में प्रयुक्त होने वाली pronouns भी पहले वाली noun/pronoun के अनुसार ही use होती हैं:

With Together with As well as Accompanied by Headed by
Guided by Governed by Controlled by Led by Dominated by
Run by In addition to Like Unlike And not
Rather than But Besides Except No less than
Along with

INCORRECT: He, and not his friends, are guilty.
CORRECT: He, and not his friends, is guilty.

INCORRECT: He together with his friends are coming today.
CORRECT: He together with his friends is coming today.

INCORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal has decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.
CORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal have decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.

INCORRECT: Nothing but cars are sold here.
CORRECT: Nothing but cars is sold here.

INCORRECT: Everyone but you do work regularly.
CORRECT: Everyone but you does work regularly.

INCORRECT: She and not her friends are guilty.
CORRECT: She and not her friends is guilty.

25. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘Repetition of same nouns’

यदि किसी ‘Singular noun + Preposition’ के बाद वही noun फिर से use होती है जो पहले हुई है तो verb singular होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: Day after day have passed.
CORRECT: Day after day has passed.

INCORRECT: Man after man are going to see him in the hospital.
CORRECT: Man after man is going to see him in the hospital.

26. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘Nouns having two parts’ 

यदि किसी वस्तु के दो अंग हों जैसे कि scissors, trousers, binoculars, spectacles, glasses, scales, tongs, pincers, pants, pajamas, etc. तो verb plural होती है; जैसे

a) Your scissors are not working well at all.
b) The binoculars you have are very beautiful.
c) The spectacles that you bear are not sold here.

27. Subject-verb Agreement with words ending in ‘ics’

ऐसे शब्द जिनके अंत में ‘ics’ आता है तो उनके लिए verb singular use होती है; जैसे

a) Mathematics is not an easy subject.
b) Mathematics is his favourite study.
c) Economics is one of the oldest of the social sciences.
d) Politics plays a big role in village life.

NOTE: लेकिन जब ऐसी nouns के पहले article ‘the’ अथवा कोई possessive adjective (my, our, your, his, her, आदि) का use हो तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) Her mathematics are weak.
b) Your mathematics are not very good.
c) What are his politics? (means his political views)
d) The economics of the situation have yet to be explored. (अर्थात economic facts)

28. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘main word of the subject’ 

कोई subject एक से अधिक शब्दों से भी बना हो सकता है. ऐसी स्थिति में देखा गया है की लोग verb के साथ वाले शब्द के अनुसार verb का use कर देते हैं; लेकिन ये सही बात नहीं है. ऐसे में हम verb की गलत form का use कर सकते हैं. verb की सही form को जानने के लिए यह आवश्यक है कि है कि हम उस subject के main word को पहचानें, अर्थात वास्तविक subject को पहचानें और उसी के अनुसार ही verb का use करें; जैसे .

INCORRECT: Workers of our factory is hard working.
CORRECT: Workers of our factory are hard working.

[Verb की सही form को जानने के लिए आवश्यक है कि हम ये जानें कि वाक्य subject के बारे में हमें क्या बता रहा है; जैसे दिया गया वाक्य हमें subject किसी का hard working होना बता रहा है. यहाँ हमारा पूरा subject ‘Workers of our factory’ है. हमें  पता है कि कोई factory तो hard working हो नहीं सकती; अर्थात इस subject का main word/वास्तविक subject ‘factory’ नहीं है. Hard working तो ‘workers’ ही होंगे ना यहाँ; अतः यहाँ ‘workers’ ही हमारा main word/वास्तविक subject है. इसलिए यहाँ verb ‘are’ का use होगा, ‘is’ का नहीं.]

INCORRECT: The quality of these mangoes are not good.
CORRECT: The quality of these mangoes is not good.

INCORRECT: The students of the class has been quiet all day long.
CORRECT: The students of this class have been quiet all day long.

INCORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal has decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.
CORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal have decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.

29. अगर दो भिन्न-भिन्न subjects के बारे में एक ही phrase द्वारा कुछ बताया जा रहा हो तो verb singular use होती है; जैसे 

INCORRECT: A rise in prices and salaries are seen to go together.
CORRECT: A rise in prices and salaries is seen to go together.

(इस वाक्य में दो subjects ‘prices’ और ‘salaries’ के बारे एक ही phrase ‘a rise in’ द्वारा कुछ बताया जा रहा है; अतः verb singular आएगी.)

NOTE: यदि phrase ‘a rise in’ अथवा कोई अन्य phrase हर subject के साथ use किया जाता है तो verb plural use होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: A rise in prices and a rise in salaries is seen to go together.
CORRECT: A rise in prices and a rise in salaries are seen to go together.

30. Subject-verb Agreement with COLLECTIVE NOUNS
कुछ collective noun ये हैं:

Army Audience Crew Committee Class Crowd
Congregation Administration Government Herd Jury Mob
Team Personnel Public Staff Team Poultry

एक collective noun के साथ singular verb भी use की जा सकती है और plural भी; परन्तु ये ध्यान रखना पड़ता है की उस वाक्य में आगे use होने वाली nouns, pronouns और possessive adjectives फिर उसी हिसाब से use करने होते हैं. जैसे

1. a) The crew has not come yet.
b) The crew were occupied in repairing the ship.

2. a) A committee has been set up to look into the demands of the striking employees.
b) The committee are considering your proposal.

3. a) The government has cleared the bill.
b) The government are thinking about the issue.

4. a) The public consists of you and me.
b) The public were fighting among themselves.

INCORRECT: The Management Committee were divided in its opinion.
CORRECT: The Management Committee were divided in their opinion.

NOTE-I: इनमें से दी गयी कुछ collective nouns plural form में भी use होती हैं जैसे कि committees, audiences, congregations, armies, आदि; ऐसी nouns के लिए सिर्फ verbs plural ही use की जा सकती हैं, और आगे use होने वाली nouns, pronouns और possessive adjective plural ही होते हैं.

NOTE-II: जब ‘people’ = आदमियों की संख्या ; तो verb plural ही use होती है. लेकिन जब ‘people’ = राष्ट्र/प्रजाति/जनजाति; तो फिर ये countable noun बन जाती है और इसकी  plural form ‘peoples’ होती है, और verb भी countable noun की तरह ही use होती है; जैसे

a) The old people in the village still observe the local traditions. (यहाँ ‘people’ = persons)
b) The Japanese are a hard-working people. (यहाँ ‘people’ = राष्ट्र/nation)
c) There are many different peoples in Asia. (यहाँ ‘peoples’ = प्रजातियाँ)

NOTE-III: जब ‘poultry’ = भोजन; तो verb singular use होती है; जैसे

a) Poultry is very expensive here in this town. (यहाँ ‘poultry’ = poultry से बना भोजन )
b) These poultry are not hers. (स्पष्ट है कि यहाँ ‘poultry’ का अर्थ भोजन नहीं है; इसलिए ही verb plural use हुई है.)

NOTE-IV: कुछ collective nouns जैसे कि cattle, vermin, people, gentry, peasantry, clergy, cavalry, police, आदि हमेशा plural ही होती हैं; जैसे

a) The peasantry of India are very hard working.
b) The clergy are opposed to the plan.
c) Are these cattle yours?
d) Vermin are badly destroying the garden.
e) Who are those people always quarrelling?
f) The local gentry own all of the land here.
g) The police have arrested the murderer.

31. Subject-verb Agreement with UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
कुछ uncountable noun ये हैं:

Advice Dust Grass Machinery Stationery
Baggage Drapery Hair Mischief Scenery
Breakage Electricity Information Percentage Stone
Bread Equipment Iron Poetry Traffic
Chalk Evidence Imagery Postage Wood
Confectionery Food Jewellery Pottery Work
Crockery Furniture Knowledge Paper Wastage
Dirt Glass Luggage Rubbish News

A) Uncountable nouns हमेशा singular  रूप में use की जाती हैं और इसलिए इनके साथ verb singular use होती हैं. इनके पहले A/AN, Few, Many, Number of का use नहीं होता; जैसे

INCORRECT: She doesn’t want an advice or help.
CORRECT: She doesn’t want advice or help.

INORRECT: She has had an experience in this type of work.
CORRECT: She has had experience in this type of work.

INCORRECT: What is a poetry?
CORRECT: What is poetry?

INCORRECT: The sceneries of Kashmir are beautiful.
CORRECT: The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.

INCORRECT: The wall is made of a stone.
CORRECT: The wall is made of stone.

INCORRECT: These breads are fresh.
CORRECT: This bread is fresh.

INCORRECT: They smashed windows, tables, chairs, and crockeries.
CORRECT: They smashed windows, tables, chairs, and crockery.

INCORRECT: The police have found no evidences of a terrorist link with the murder.
CORRECT: The police have found no evidence of a terrorist link with the murder.

B) ‘Fish’ मूलत: एक uncountable noun होती है; हालाँकि कभी-कभी ये countable noun भी होती है. जब हमारा तात्पर्य fish की विभिन्न प्रजातियों से होता है तो हम ‘fishes’ कहते हैं; fish नहीं; जैसे

a) There are so many fish in this pond. (यहाँ fish से तात्पर्य fish की विभिन्न प्रजातियों से नहीं है.)
b) There are so many fishes in this pond. (अर्थात इस तालाब में विभिन्न प्रकार की fish हैं)

C) जब  money से हमारा तात्पर्य वस्तुओं और सेवाओं  के लेन-देन से होता है तो ये एक uncountable noun होती है; जब हमारा तात्पर्य किसी विशिष्ट प्रकार की धनराशी से होता है तो ये एक countable noun होती है. जब ये एक countable noun होती है तो इसकी plural form ‘moneys’ अथवा ‘monies’ होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: He made moneys/monies on the sale of his properties.
CORRECT: He made money on the sale of his properties.

INCORRECT: The money for the purpose is mainly derived from general taxation.
CORRECT: The moneys/monies for the purpose are mainly derived from general taxation.

D) Singular use में uncountable noun के साथ Some, any, no, a little, bit of , piece of , slice of आदि शब्दों का use किया जाता है; जैसे

A bit of news A pot of jam A pane of glass A drop of oil
A grain of sand A cake of soap A sheet of paper A piece of advice

INCORRECT: They gave an information.
CORRECT: They gave some information.

INCORRECT: She doesn’t want an advice or help.
CORRECT: She doesn’t want any advice or help.

INCORRECT: She gave me important information in the morning.
CORRECT: She gave me an important piece of information in the morning.

E) इन nouns को plural इनके साथ bits of, items of, articles of, pieces of, kinds of, fits of, आदि को use करके बनाया जाता है; जैसे

Pieces/items of furniture Pieces/kinds of information Pieces/bits of advice Pieces/blocks of ice
Blades of grass Pieces of music Piles of rubbish Specs of dust
Flashes of lightening Fits of anger Bars of chocolate Pieces of luggage
Articles of dress

F) कुछ uncountable nouns को किसी विशष्ट रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है; ऐसे में ये noun countable बन जाती हैं और फिर इनके साथ article A/AN का use भी किया जा सकता है और इसकी form plural भी बनाई जा सकती है; जैसे

Hair से हमारा तात्पर्य जब किसी के सिर अथवा उसके शरीर के किसी भी अंग के सारे बालों से होता है तो ये एक uncountable noun होती है. परन्तु जब हम ये कहना चाहते हैं कि एक बाल, दो बाल, तीन बाल, आदि तो ये एक countable noun होती है; जैसे

a) Her hair is not black. (अर्थात किसी के सारे बाल)
b) Some of her hair is black. (अर्थात सारे बालों में से कुछ)
c) She is brushing her hair right now. (अर्थात सारे बाल)
d) Whenever she finds a white hair she pulls it out. (countable)
e) There is a hair in the tea. (countable)

INCORRECT: Several of her hairs is white.
CORRECT: Several of her hairs are white. (क्योंकि यहाँ ‘hair’ एक countable noun है.)

G) Experience से जब हमारा तात्पर्य किसी की साथ कोई घटना विशिष्ट होना होता है तो ये noun countable होती है; जैसे

a) I had an exciting experience yesterday. (Experience = एक घटना)
b) I had some exciting experiences yesterday. (Experience = अधिक घटनाएँ)

H) Noun ‘work’ का अर्थ जब कोई व्यवसाय/जॉब/कार्य होता है तो यह एक uncountable noun होती है; और इसलिए फिर सिर्फ singular में use की जाती है. परन्तु noun ‘work’ का अर्थ जब को ‘factory’, अथवा किसी मशीन के काम करते हुए पुर्जे अथवा संगीतात्मक/साहित्यिक रचना होता है तो इसकी plural form ‘works’ use की जाती है; जैसे

a) He is looking for work these days. (Work = रोजगार/व्यवसाय)
b) She has urgent work today. (Work = कार्य)
c) What type of work do you do? (Work = व्यवसाय)
d) I am fond of hard work. (Work = कार्य/श्रम)
e) The museum’s collection includes works of art from all around the world. (countable)
f) The museum has many works by Picasso as well as other modern painters. (countable)

I) कुछ uncountable nouns ऐसी होती हैं जो देखने में तो plural लगती हैं; लेकिन वास्तव में वे होती singular ही हैं. इसलिए उनके साथ verb singular ही use होती हैं. ऐसी nouns के लिए pronouns और adjectives भी singular ही use होते हैं: ऐसी कुछ noun ये हैं:

1. NEWS
NEWS एक singular uncountable noun होती है. अतः इसके साथ A/AN का use नहीं किया जा सकता और न ही इसके साथ ‘s’ लगाकर इसका plural बनाया जा सकता है. इसके साथ verb हमेशा singular use होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: These news are really good
CORRECT: The news is really good.

INCORRECT: All the news were false.
CORRECT: All the news was false.

2. कुछ रोगों के नाम

Diabetes Measles Mumps Rabies Rickets Shingles

INCORRECT: Diabetes are not as serious as cancer.
CORRECT: Diabetes is not as serious as cancer.

3. कुछ खेलों के नाम

Billiards Bowls Darts Dominoes Draughts

INCORRECT: Billiards are played by women also.
CORRECT: Billiards is played by women also.

32. Subject-verb Agreement with NAMES OF COUNTRIES
जब किसी देश का नाम किसी खेल की team के लिए use होता है तो उसके साथ verb plural use की जाती है; जैसे

a) India have won the trophy.
b) The West Indies have not won any match this year.

33. Arms (अस्त्रशस्त्र), damages, greens (सागसब्जी), vegetables (सागसब्जी), riches (धनवैभव), savings, surroundings, valuables, आदि के साथ verb plural आती है; जैसे 

a) The arms are not sold here.
b) Their riches are growing very fast.
c) Vegetables are not grown much here.
d) The greens that you have brought are not fresh.

34. Subject-verb Agreement with RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Relative Pronoun जैसे कि Who, Which, That के साथ verb उन nouns अथवा pronouns के अनुसार आती है जिनके लिए कोई Relative Pronoun use होती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: I, who is a doctor, will examine you.
CORRECT: I, who am a doctor, will examine him.

INCORRECT: The boys who lives here are always disturbing.
CORRECT: The boys who live here are always disturbing.

35. Subject-verb Agreement with the following words

Mankind Summons Wages Youth

A) MANKIND
Noun ‘mankind’ हमेशा singular में use की जाती है और इसके साथ verb singular आती है. इसके लिए use  होने वालीं pronouns और possessives singular ही होते हैं; जैसे

a) Mankind has always been obsessed by power.
b) He worked for the benefit of all mankind.
c) Mankind has not changed.

​B) SUMMONS
‘Summons’ एक singular countable noun होती है; इसकी plural form ‘summonses’ होती है; जैसे

a) The court issued him a summons yesterday.
b) A summons has been issued to you.
c) The summons made her tense. (specific use)
d) The court has issued five summonses today. (plural use)

C) WAGES
जब ‘wages’ का अर्थ धनराशी होता है तो इसके साथ verb plural आती है; और जब इसका अर्थ किसी कार्य का परिणाम (outcome/result) होता है तो इसके साथ verb चाहे singular use की जा सकती है चाहे plural; जैसे

INCORRECT: Wages is paid weekly here. (यहाँ ‘wages’ = धनराशी)
CORRECT: Wages are paid weekly here.

D) YOUTH
Noun ‘youth’ countable भी हो सकती है और uncountable भी. जब इसका अर्थ ‘किसी के युवा होने की अवस्था’ होता है तो ये uncountable noun होती है. जब ये uncountable noun हो तो इसके साथ verb singular आती है; जैसे

My youth was a mixture of both happiness and sadness.

NOTE: जब noun ‘youth’ का अर्थ ‘युवा व्यक्ति’ होता  है तो ये countable noun होती है; फिर इसकी plural form ‘youths’ होती है. इस अर्थ में जब ये singular होती है तो इसके साथ verb singular आती है; जब ये plural होती है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) A youth is wants to meet you.
b) Two youths want to meet you.

36. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘A Pair Of’ & ‘A Variety Of’

A) A PAIR OF things एक ही माप और आकार की दो अलग-अलग ऐसी वस्तुएं होती हैं जो इकठ्ठे use होती हैं जैसे कि जूते. जब वे दोनों वस्तुएं एक दूसरे से अलग-अलग अस्तित्व रखती हैं तो verb singular भी use की जा सकती और plural भी; जैसे

a) A pair of shoes were stolen.
= A pair of shoes was stolen.

b) He wore a pair of shoes that were given to him by his father.
= He wore a pair of shoes that was given to him by his father.

NOTE: लेकिन जब ऐसे किसी pair की दोनों वस्तुओं को अलग-अलग use नहीं किया जा सकता जैसे trousers, glasses, scissors तो verb singular ही use की जा सकती है; जैसे

INCORRECT: A good pair of binoculars are essential for watching birds.
CORRECT: A good pair of binoculars is essential for watching birds.

INCORRECT: Who do this pair of jeans belong to?
CORRECT: Who does this pair of jeans belong to?

B) Noun VARIETY, when preceded by the article ‘A’ is treated as plural and when preceded by the article ‘THE’ is treated as singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: A variety of mobile phones is available with us.
CORRECT: A variety of mobile phones are available with us.

INCORRECT: The variety of shirts here are not small.
CORRECT: The variety of shirts here is not small.

37. subject-verb agreement with PAINS and MEANS
‘Pains’ और ‘means’ दोनों के साथ singular अथवा plural कोई भी verb आ सकती है; देखना पड़ता है कि इनको singular संदर्भ में use किया है या plural संदर्भ में; जैसे

a) Great pains have been taken. (यहाँ शब्द ‘great’ का तात्पर्य संख्या से है; तो स्पष्ट है की verb plural ही आएगी.)
b) Much pains has been taken. (यहाँ शब्द ‘much’ का तात्पर्य मात्रा से है; स्पष्ट है verb singular आएगी.)
c) This means of transport is not very common these days. (‘This’ singular होता है.)
d) Several means of transport are available here. (‘Several’ plural होता है.)

NOTE: अगर शब्द ‘means’ का तात्पर्य आमदनी/मौद्रिक साधन है तो verb plural आती है; जैसे

a) My means are small, I cannot afford this luxury.
b) My means are not enough to support my family.

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SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

1. Subject-verb Agreement with AND
Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by ‘and’ require a plural verb, and pronouns/possessive adjectives are in the plural also; e.g.

INCORRECT: Rahul and Rohit does his homework daily.
CORRECT: Rahul and Rohit do their homework daily.

NOTE-I: If the nouns joined by ‘and’ suggest one idea to the mind or refer to the same person or thing, we use the verb in the singular; e.g.

a) Age and experience brings wisdom to man.
b) Bread and butter is his only food. (‘Bread and butter’ suggest one idea)
c) Truth and honesty is the best policy.
d) Slow and steady wins the race.
e) A horse and carriage was seen there.
f) The crown and glory of life is character.
g) The long and short of the story is well known.
h) All coming and going was forbidden.
i) Screaming and shouting was heard from the hall.

NOTE-II: If two uncountable nouns are joined by ‘and’, and referring to the whole class, they take plural verbs even if they are not preceded by an article or a possessive adjective; e.g.

a) Bread and butter are made from wheat and milk respectively.
b) Only paper and pencil do not make a person a writer.
c) Fear and horror were all on my face.
d) Poverty and misery come together.

NOTE-III: If two singular nouns are joined by ‘and’, and they are referring to one single person, they take a singular verb. In such a case the second noun is without an article or Possessive Adjective. But if each of them is preceded by an article or Possessive Adjective, we use the verb in the plural; e.g.

1. a) The Chief Minister and Finance Minister is going to Delhi today.
b) The Chief Minister and the Finance Minister are going to Delhi today.

2. a) My uncle and guardian wants me to join a gym.
b) My uncle and my guardian want me to join a gym.

3. a) My friend and colleague has advised me not to use the bike for travelling.
b) My friend and my colleague have advised me not to use the bike for travelling.

NOTE-IV: If two singular nouns are joined by ‘and’, and one or both of them are preceded by ‘each’ or ‘every’ or ‘no’, they take a singular verb and pronouns and possessives for the subjects are also singular. If the genders of the nouns are different we use the gender in the masculine (not ‘feminine’); e.g.

INCORRECT: Each boy and each girl has submitted their assignments.
CORRECT: Each boy and each girl has submitted his assignments.

INCORRECT: Every boy and every girl was given her bag back.
CORRECT: Every boy and every girl was given his bag back.

a) Each boy and each girl of this class is sincere enough.
b) Every boy and every girl was given an apple.
c) No boy and no girl is present.
d) Every Tom, Dick and Harry wants to become a cricketer.
e) Every bench and chair is occupied.

NOTE-V: If two infinitives (TO + V1) or gerunds (ing form) are joined by ‘and’ they take plural verb; e.g.

a) To sing and to play are two contrary activities.
b) Remembering and forgetting are inevitable attributes of any personality.

2. Subject-verb Agreement with EACH & EVERY

A) Both ‘each’ and ‘every’ are used with singular verbs, and convey singular meaning; e.g.

a) Every chair was occupied.
b) Each one of these apples is rotten.

NOTE-I: When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns, and any of them is followed by ‘each’ we use the verb in the plural; e.g.

INCORRECT: My uncle and my father each takes the Employment News.
CORRECT: My uncle and my father each take the Employment News.

NOTE-II: When a noun or pronoun is followed by ‘each’ then also the verb is in the plural, also pronouns or possessive adjectives that come later in the sentence are in the plural; e.g.

We each enjoy parties.

INCORRECT: The workers each has his set of problems to say to the owners.
CORRECT: The workers each have their set of problems to say to the owners.

INCORRECT: The ten captains each had an achievement of his own.
CORRECT: The ten captains each had an achievement of their own.

B) If a sentence has a relative pronoun, in the relative clause we use pronouns in the plural for ‘each’. Also we use plural pronouns for ‘each’ if it is used just after a noun/pronoun; e.g.

INCORRECT: Each girl was awarded with a nice present which pleased her very much.
CORRECT: Each girl was awarded with a nice present which pleased them very much.

C) If ‘every’ is followed by two or more nouns, the verbs and pronouns are in the singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: Every cow, pig and horse have lost their life in the fire.
CORRECT: Every cow, pig and horse has lost its life in the fire.

D) ‘Each of’ takes ‘plural pronoun’ or ‘determiner + plural noun’; and the verb is singular; e.g. 

a) Each of you is intelligent.
b) Each of us was ready to take part in the play.
c) Each of the students was quite when the teacher entered. (‘The’ is determiner and ‘students’ is a plural noun)

NOTE: ’Each of’ and ‘Every one of’ are the same thing. ‘Every one of’ and ‘Everyone of’ are different as ‘everyone’ (one word) is a pronoun equivalent to everybody. ‘Every one one’ (two words) = each.

3. Subject-verb Agreement with OR/NOR

A) When we join two or more singular subjects by ‘or’ or ‘nor’, we use a singular verb, and the possessive adjectives (my, our, your, his, her, their) are also in the singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: Sonika or Rekha are going to join the club.
CORRECT: Sonika or Rekha is going to join the club.

INCORRECT: Neither Rahul nor Rohit respect their parents.
CORRECT: Neither Rahul nor Rohit respects his parents.

NOTE: However, when one of the subjects joined by ‘or’ or ‘nor’ is plural the verb must be plural and the plural subject is placed nearest the verb. In such a case the possessive adjectives (my, our, your, his, her, their) are also in the plural; e.g.

INCORRECT: Neither the teachers nor the Principal is present in the room.
CORRECT: Neither the Principal nor the teachers are present in the room.

INCORRECT: Neither the director nor the actors did his jobs well.
CORRECT: Neither the director nor the actors did their jobs well.

B) When the subjects joined by ‘or’ or ‘nor’ are of different persons, the verb agrees with the subject which is near the verb: e.g.

a) Either he or I am responsible.
b) Neither you nor he is responsible.
c) Neither my friend nor you are to blame.

4. When a verb is there after As, So, Neither, Nor the verb is according to the subject that appears after these words; e.g.

a) He behaves well, as does his father.
b) She always goes for a walk, as do her parents.
c) He likes singing, so do his children.

5. Subject-verb agreement with Both, A Few, Few
The following take plural verbs. Nouns/pronouns after them are plural:

Both Both of A few A few of Few Few of

a) There are two clubs in the town. Both are described as expensive.
b)Both of my sons are very naughty.
c) Both those chairs are occupied.
d) Many were invited but a few have come.

6. If the following expressions are followed by a plural noun, the verb is plural. If they are followed by an uncountable noun, the verb is singular:

Most Most of Some Some of Half Half of
Enough Enough of Not enough of Plenty of A lot of Lots of

a) Some people dislike movies.
b) Some of the people dislike movies.
c) Half of the candidates have not taken the exam.
d) Lots of milk is available here. (‘Milk’ is uncountable noun)

7. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘Not only — but also’, ‘Either — or’, ‘Neither — nor’, ‘Not – but’

When two nouns/pronouns are joined by Not only — but Also, Either — or, Neither — nor, the verb agrees with the second noun/pronoun: e.g.

a) Not only the officer but also six soldiers were killed.
b) Not only the team mates but also the captain was blamed for the defeat.
c) Neither you nor I am interested in it.
d) Neither you nor he is intelligent.
e) Not only proteins but also vitamin C is essential for small children.

INCORRECT: Not she but her friends is guilty.
CORRECT: Not she but her friends are guilty.

8. Aren’t I

If contracted form of ‘be  ‘be + not’ is used with I in the Present Simple Tense, we use ‘aren’t I’ in interrogative sentences. You cannot say ‘amn’t I’; e.g.

Aren’t I clever?

NOTE: This form is used only in questions; therefore you can’t say I AREN’T.

INCORRECT: I aren’t clever.
CORRECT: I amn’t clever.

9. Unfulfilled desire/wish/condition

To express unfulfilled Desire/Wish/Condition in present tense we use ‘were’ form of ‘be’ if the subject of ‘be’ is used after the following:

If As if As though If only Suppose I wish We wish He wishes

INCORRECT: If I was the bird I would fly.
CORRECT: If I were a bird, I would fly.

INCORRECT: Sita talks to me as if she was the P.M. of India.
CORRECT: Sita talks to me as if she were the P.M. of India.

INCORRECT: I wish that she was a queen.
CORRECT: I wish that she were a queen.

NOTE: But to express a real situation in the present we use present tense form of the verb even after If/As if/As though; e.g.

a) If you are ready, you can go.
b) If she comes here, ask her to wait for me.
c) You look as if you know each other.
d) She looks as though she has been dancing.

10. Subject-verb Agreement with WISHES
In wishes we use the verb in the plural

INCORRECT: May he passes his exam this time!
CORRECT: May he pass his exam this time!

INCORRECT: Long lives your mother!
CORRECT: Long live your mother!

11. Following take a singular verb

Either Neither Each Each of Every Everyone Everybody
Everything Someone Somebody Anybody No one Nobody Nothing

a) Either of my parents doesn’t know I’ve lost my job.
b) There are two proposals, and either is acceptable.
c) I have two jackets, but neither is washed.
d) Neither of them was suitable for the job.
e) Each of these pens is mine.
f) Nobody knows when she will come back.

12. The following expressions take plural verbs:

A majority of The majority of A minority of The minority of
A number of A large number of A great number of Large numbers of
A handful of Many of A great/good many

a) A number of students were late for class.
b) A great number of students volunteer each year for environmental projects.
c) Large number of books are available here.
d) Many of the terrorists have been arrested by the army.
e) A great many of you have got good marks.
f) A good many of us respect elders.

NOTE: ‘The majority’ (without ‘of’) can be used either with a singular verb or with a plural verb; means it’s optional; e.g.

The majority is against you.
= The majority are against you.

13. With ‘The number of’ we use a singular verb; e.g.

a) The number of employees in the office is fifteen.
b) The number of visitors has increased suddenly.

14. The following expressions take uncountable nouns and singular verbs:

The amount of A large amount of A great deal of A good deal of

a) A large amount of goods is yet to be sold.
b) A great deal of courage is needed to execute this plan.
c) A good deal of money is needed to equip the entire office with CCTV cameras.
d) The amount of money collected is not well sufficient for the project.

15. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘MANY’
A) The following take plural verbs. All can be used as pronouns as well as adjectives. When used as adjectives they take plural nouns:

Many A great many A good many

a) Many have applied for the job. (as pronoun)
b) There are one thousand students in the school a good many are fairly intelligent. (as pronoun)
c) Many workers have been sent notices. (as adjective)
d) A great many actors are coming to the party. (as adjective)
e) A good many students were given uniforms. (as adjective)
f) The following take plural verbs and are always followed by plural nouns and plural pronouns:

B) The following take plural verbs and are always followed by plural nouns and plural pronouns; e.g.

Many of A great many of A good many of

a) Many of the terrorists have been arrested by the army.
b) A great many of you have got good marks.
c) A good many of us respect elders.

C) ‘Many A/An’ is followed by a singular countable noun and takes a singular verb, and the pronouns and possessive adjectives also are in the singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: Many a girl wish they could sing like Lata Mangeshkar.
CORRECT: Many a girl wishes she could sing like Lata Mangeshkar.

a) Many a leader has come to attend the function.
b) Many an orange is rotten.

16. Subject-verb Agreement with:

No All All of Not all of None None of

A) ‘No’ can follow a singular/plural/uncountable noun. The verb after ‘no’ is according to the number of that noun; e.g.

a) No worker has submitted his papers.
b) No workers have submitted their papers.
c) No work has been completed.

B) We can use ‘all’ for both things and persons; when for things it takes a singular verb, when for persons it takes a plural verb; e.g.

Compare:
a) All is well. (As the verb is singular, here ‘all’ means things)
b) All are well. (As the verb is plural, here ‘all’ means persons)

C) All, All of, Not all of when followed by uncountable nouns take singular verbs but when followed by countable nouns take plural verbs; e.g.

a) All the furniture has been polished.
b) All of the milk was spilt by the cat.
c) Not all of the paper has been printed.
d) All the boys are playing.
e) Not all of the dogs are for sale.

D) Verb after ‘none’ is either singular or plural depending on what it is referring to; e.g.

a) I’m always looking for inspiration. None ever comes. (‘Inspiration’ is singular, so the verb is also singular)
b) She’s always looking for ideas. None ever come. (‘Ideas’ is plural, so the verb is also plural)

E) Verb after ‘none of’ is optional, means it’s our wish whether we use it singular or plural; e.g.

None of these suggestions is very helpful.
= None of these suggestions are very helpful.

17. Subject-verb Agreement with NUMBERS & QUANTITIES

A) If the following expressions are followed by singular countable, or uncountable nouns we use singular verbs. If they are followed by plural countable nouns we use plural verbs:

One third of Two thirds of Three fourths of, etc. The rest of
A quarter of Part of

a) Three fourths of the wheat has been consumed.
b) One third of the house is yet to be repaired.
c) One third of the students have passed.

B) One/two/three, etc. percent (%) if referring to uncountable nouns/singular nouns take singular verbs; and if referring to plural nouns they take plural verbs; e.g.

a) Around ten percent of the wheat is still available.
b) At least 50% of the houses need repairs. (Here 50% is referring to ‘houses’ that is plural)
c) Of those met, only 10% admit to drinking. (Here the verb is plural because 10% is referring to ‘people’ that is plural.)

NOTE: But if the singular noun is such that it can be thought of either as a whole unit or individuals separately, it’s optional whether we use a singular verb or a plural verb; e.g.

Some 60% of the electorate is expected to vote.
= Some 60% of the electorate are expected to vote.

C) The word ‘percentage’ always take a singular verb; e.g.

a) The percentage of success is expected to be good.
b) The percentage of sincere students is not big.

D) A Plural noun in the form of some specific quantity/amount that is considered as a whole takes a singular verb. However if it refers to separate units it takes a plural verb; e.g.

a) Five kilometers for daily is a good walk.
b) Three parts of the bread has been consumed.
c) Fifty rupees is too much for this work.
d) Fifty rupees were given to me by my father today. (separate units)
e) Two years have passed since my marriage. (separate units)

E) When the subject is a proposition in arithmetic, we can use either a singular verb or a plural verb; means it’s optional; e.g.

a) Two and two is four.
= Two and two are four.

b) Two times three is six.
= Two times three are six.

c) Five from ten is five.
= Five from ten are five.

F) ‘Amount of’ and quantity of’ are used with only uncountable nouns and we use a singular verb after them; e.g.

INCORRECT: This amount of money are well sufficient for the project.
CORRECT: This amount of money is well sufficient for the project.

18. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘MORE THAN ONE’

A) /More than one’ if followed by a singular noun takes singular verb, if followed by a plural noun takes plural verb; e.g.

a) More than one person is present.
b) More than one persons are present.

B) ‘More + plural noun + than one’ takes a plural verb; e.g.

More pencils than one are mine.

19. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘ONE OF’

‘One of’ is followed by a plural noun/pronoun and takes verb in the singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: One of the candidates have not appeared to take the exam.
CORRECT: One of the candidates has not appeared to take the exam.

INCORRECT: One of them have not finished their work yet.
CORRECT: One of them has not finished his work yet.

NOTE-I: However, if ‘one of + noun’ is followed by a relative pronoun, the verb after the relative pronoun is plural. But if there is another verb after the relative-clause it’s in the singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: One of the candidates who has appeared to take the exam has not come.
CORRECT: One of the candidates who have appeared to take the exam has not come.

INCORRECT: One of the boys who always gives the correct answer are Samuel.
CORRECT: One of the boys who always give the correct answer is Samuel.

NOTE-II: And if the word ‘only’ is in front of  ‘one of’, the antecedent of the relative pronoun becomes ‘one’, not the ‘noun’ itself, hence the verb here is singular; e.g.

This is only one of his poems that is worth reading.

NOTE-III: But if  noun is there before ‘one of’, the relative pronoun is according to the noun that appears after the phrase ‘one of’, but if a collective noun is before ‘of’ the relative pronoun is according to that collective noun.

Compare these sentences:

1. Rahul is one of those players who are going to England.
[In this sentence you see the structure is ‘one of + noun’, so the relative pronoun will be according to ‘players’ (not ‘one’.]

2. The team of those players which is going to England leaves on Sunday.
[Here the structure is ‘collective noun of + noun’ so the relative pronoun will be according to ‘team’ (not ‘players’.]

20. Subject-verb Agreement with THERE & IT

A) ‘There’ as introductory subject takes a singular verb if it’s following a singular or uncountable noun, but if that noun is plural the verb is also plural; e.g.

a) There is a book on the table.
b) There are two books on the table.
c) There is a lot of sugar in the pot.

NOTE-I: However, if there is a plural noun/pronoun referring to a fix amount or unit after ‘there’, we use the verb in the singular; e.g.

a) There is fifty rupees to pay to the plumber.
b) There is only another twenty kilometers to go.

NOTE-II: If it’s combination of two or more nouns giving one single idea/thought after ‘there’, we use the verb in the singular; e.g.

There is enough bread and butter in the refrigerator.

B) ‘It’ as introductory subject always takes a singular verb; e.g.

a) It is I at the door.
b) It was they who were at fault.
c) It is these boys that came late today.

21. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘THE + ADJECTIVE’

If the article ‘the is placed in front of an adjective describing the human character or condition, it represents the class of persons. Some of these adjectives are:

Blind Deaf Disabled Healthy Sick Living Dead
Rich Poor Unemployed Old Young

NOTE-I: When used like this the expressions have a plural meaning; they take a plural verb and the pronoun for them is ‘they’; e.g.

The poor get poorer, the rich get richer.

NOTE-II: ‘The + adjective’ such as The accused, The unexpected can sometimes have a singular meaning; e.g.

The accused of the murder case has fled.

22. Subject-verb Agreement with CLAUSES

If a clause is the subject it takes a singular verb; e.g.

a) That those are my friends is true. (‘That those are my friends’ is a clause.)
b) What they say is unknown to me. (‘What they say’ is a clause.)
c) To keep these young people in prison is inhuman.
d) Having overall responsibility for the course means that I have a lot of meetings.
e) Whoever took them remains a mystery.
f) That India won both the matches was a great achievement.

NOTE: But two clauses if joined by ‘and’ take plural verb; e.g.

What he says and what he does are always different.

23. Subject-verb Agreement with WHAT

A) When ‘what’ is the subject of a clause we use a singular verb after that clause; e.g.

a) What I want is your books.
b) What she wants to buy is a car.

B)) When ‘what’ refers to a singular noun, it takes a singular verb. When ‘what’ refers to a plural noun, it takes a plural verb; e.g.

a) I don’t need any more bread; what I have is quite sufficient.
b) You need not buy notebooks; what we have are in good number.

24. Subject-verb Agreement with ‘With’, ‘Along with’, ‘As well as’, etc.

When two nouns/pronouns in the subjects are joined by the following, the verb agrees with the first noun/pronoun. Also pronouns after the verb are used according to the first noun/pronoun. Though such a group of words appears to be the part of the subject, but it’s not like that:

With Together with As well as Accompanied by Headed by
Guided by Governed by Controlled by Led by Dominated by
Run by In addition to Like Unlike And not
Rather than But Besides Except No less than
Along with

INCORRECT: He, and not his friends, are guilty.
CORRECT: He, and not his friends, is guilty.

INCORRECT: He together with his friends are coming today.
CORRECT: He together with his friends is coming today.

INCORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal has decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.
CORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal have decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.

INCORRECT: Nothing but cars are sold here.
CORRECT: Nothing but cars is sold here.

INCORRECT: Everyone but you do work regularly.
CORRECT: Everyone but you does work regularly.

INCORRECT: She and not her friends are guilty.
CORRECT: She and not her friends is guilty.

25. Subject-verb Agreement with REPETITION OF SAME NOUNS

If the same noun repeats after ‘singular noun + preposition’ we use singular verb; e.g.

INCORRECT: Day after day have passed.
CORRECT: Day after day has passed.

INCORRECT: Man after man are going to see him in the hospital.
CORRECT: Man after man is going to see him in the hospital.

26. Subject-verb Agreement with NOUNS HAVING TWO PARTS

A thing having two parts (scissors, trousers, binoculars, spectacles, glasses, scales, tongs, pincers, pants, pajamas, etc.) takes a plural verb; e.g.

a) Your scissors are not working well at all.
b) The binoculars you have are very beautiful.
c) The spectacles that you bear are not sold here.

27. Subject-verb Agreement with words ending in ‘ics’

Such words take singular verbs; e.g.

a) Mathematics is not an easy subject.
b) Mathematics is his favourite study.
c) Economics is one of the oldest of the social sciences.
d) Politics plays a big role in village life.

NOTE: But when these nouns are preceded by ‘the’ or any Possessive Adjective (my, our, your, his, her, etc.) they take plural verbs; e.g.

a) Her mathematics are weak.
b) Your mathematics are not very good.
c) What are his politics? (means his political views)
d) The economics of the situation have yet to be explored. (means the economic facts)

28. Subject-verb Agreement with main ‘word of the subject’ 

A subject many a time has several words, and in such a case it’s generally seen that the verb is made agreed to its nearest part of the subject, that may not always be correct. Therefore, we must see what the real subject/main word of the subject is, and the verb should only be used according to that; e.g.

INCORRECT: Workers of our factory is hard working.
CORRECT: Workers of our factory are hard working.

[Before deciding the correct form of verb, one must see what the sentence is telling about the subject of the sentence. Of course it’s being ‘hard working’ of someone. Our subject is ‘workers of our factory’ a factory can’t be hard working. So the real subject/main word is not ‘factory’. If you see the real subject/main word of this subject is ‘workers’. Therefore the verb should be ‘are’, not ‘is’.]

INCORRECT: The quality of these mangoes are not good.
CORRECT: The quality of these mangoes is not good.

INCORRECT: The students of the class has been quiet all day long.
CORRECT: The students of this class have been quiet all day long.

INCORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal has decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.
CORRECT: All the teachers as well the principal have decided to meet the M.L.A. of the area today.

29. If two different subjects are qualified by the same expression, verb is singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: A rise in prices and salaries are seen to go together.
CORRECT: A rise in prices and salaries is seen to go together. (Here the phrase ‘a rise in’ is qualifying two subjects ‘prices’ and ‘salaries’, so the verb must be in the singular)

NOTE: When the phrase ‘a rise in’ or some other similar word/phrase is repeated before each subject, verb is plural; e.g.

INCORRECT: A rise in prices and a rise in salaries is seen to go together.
CORRECT: A rise in prices and a rise in salaries are seen to go together.

30. Subject-verb Agreement with COLLECTIVE NOUNS
Some of the collective nouns are:

Army Audience Crew Committee Class Crowd
Congregation Administration Government Herd Jury Mob
Team Personnel Public Staff Team Poultry

A collective noun takes singular verb when the group is thought of a single unit. But when individual members of the group are thought of, the verb is plural. When the verb is plural, the pronouns are also in the plural; e.g.

1. a) The crew has not come yet.
b) The crew were occupied in repairing the ship.

2. a) A committee has been set up to look into the demands of the striking employees.
b) The committee are considering your proposal.

3. a) The government has cleared the bill.
b) The government are thinking about the issue.

4. a) The public consists of you and me.
b) The public were fighting among themselves.

INCORRECT: The Management Committee were divided in its opinion.
CORRECT: The Management Committee were divided in their opinion.

NOTE-I: Many of the above nouns have plural forms also (Committees, audiences, congregations, armies, etc.), these plural forms take plural verbs and plural pronouns of course.

NOTE-II: When ‘people’ means ‘a number of persons’ it’s plural and takes a plural verb, but when ‘people’ means ‘nation/race/tribe’ it’s then singular countable noun and we form its plural by adding ‘s’; e.g.

a) The old people in the village still observe the local traditions. (Here ‘people’ = persons)
b) The Japanese are a hard-working people. (Here ‘people’ = nation)
c) There are many different peoples in Asia. (Here ‘peoples’ = races)

NOTE-III: When noun ‘poultry’ refers to food, we use singular verb with this; e.g.

a) Poultry is very expensive here in this town. (referring to food)
b) These poultry are not hers. (Here you see ‘poultry’ is not referring to food, so the verb is plural.)

NOTE-IV: Certain collective nouns (cattle, vermin, people, gentry, peasantry, clergy, cavalry, police etc.) are always used as plurals; e.g.

a) The peasantry of India are very hard working.
b) The clergy are opposed to the plan.
c) Are these cattle yours?
d) Vermin are badly destroying the garden.
e) Who are those people always quarrelling?
f) The local gentry own all of the land here.
g) The police have arrested the murderer.

31. Subject-verb Agreement with UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
Some of the uncountable nouns are:

Advice Dust Grass Machinery Stationery
Baggage Drapery Hair Mischief Scenery
Breakage Electricity Information Percentage Stone
Bread Equipment Iron Poetry Traffic
Chalk Evidence Imagery Postage Wood
Confectionery Food Jewellery Pottery Work
Crockery Furniture Knowledge Paper Wastage
Dirt Glass Luggage Rubbish News

A) Uncountable nouns are always singular and therefore take singular verbs. They are not used with A/AN, Few, Many, Number of; e.g.

INCORRECT: She doesn’t want an advice or help.
CORRECT: She doesn’t want advice or help.

INORRECT: She has had an experience in this type of work.
CORRECT: She has had experience in this type of work.

INCORRECT: What is a poetry?
CORRECT: What is poetry?

INCORRECT: The sceneries of Kashmir are beautiful.
CORRECT: The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.

INCORRECT: The wall is made of a stone.
CORRECT: The wall is made of stone.

INCORRECT: These breads are fresh.
CORRECT: This bread is fresh.

INCORRECT: They smashed windows, tables, chairs, and crockeries.
CORRECT: They smashed windows, tables, chairs, and crockery.

INCORRECT: The police have found no evidences of a terrorist link with the murder.
CORRECT: The police have found no evidence of a terrorist link with the murder.

B) ‘Fish’ is normally an uncountable noun, though it sometimes is countable also. When we mean ‘Different species of fish’ we say ‘fishes’ (not ‘fish’); e.g.

a) There are so many fish in this pond. (here ‘fish’ does not mean ‘species of fish’)
b) There are so many fishes in this pond. (means ‘many types/species of fish’)

C) ‘Money’ is an uncountable noun when it’s used as a medium for exchange of goods and services. However, it’s a countable noun when it means ‘sum of money’, especially of a specified nature. When countable its plural is ‘moneys’ or ‘monies’; e.g.

INCORRECT: He made moneys/monies on the sale of his properties.
CORRECT: He made money on the sale of his properties.

INCORRECT: The money for the purpose is mainly derived from general taxation.
CORRECT: The moneys/monies for the purpose are mainly derived from general taxation.

D) These nouns in singular use take Some, Any, No, A little, etc. or by nouns such as ‘bit of, piece of, slice of’; e.g.

A bit of news A pot of jam A pane of glass A drop of oil
A grain of sand A cake of soap A sheet of paper A piece of advice

INCORRECT: They gave an information.
CORRECT: They gave some information.

INCORRECT: She doesn’t want an advice or help.
CORRECT: She doesn’t want any advice or help.

INCORRECT: She gave me an information in the morning.
CORRECT: She gave me an important piece of information in the morning.

E) Plurals of such nouns are made by adding ‘bits of, items of, articles of, pieces of, kinds of, fits of, etc.’; e.g.

Pieces/items of furniture Pieces/kinds of information Pieces/bits of advice Pieces/blocks of ice
Blades of grass Pieces of music Piles of rubbish Specs of dust
Flashes of lightening Fits of anger Bars of chocolate Pieces of luggage
Articles of dress

F) Some of the uncountable nouns can be used in a particular sense and are then countable and can take A/AN in the singular; e.g.

hair (all the hair on one’s head or any other part of the body, etc.) is considered uncountable, but if we consider each hair separately we say one hair, two hairs, ten hairs, etc.; e.g.

a) Her hair is not black. (means all the hair)
b) Some of her hair is black. (means all the hair)
c) She is brushing her hair right now. (means all the hair)
d) Whenever she finds a white hair she pulls it out. (countable)
e) There is a hair in the tea. (countable)

INCORRECT: Several of her hairs is white.
CORRECT: Several of her hairs are white. (Because ‘hairs’ is countable here)

G) ‘Experience’ meaning ‘something which happened to someone’ is countable; e.g.

a) I had an exciting experience yesterday. (Experience = adventure)
b) I had some exciting experiences yesterday. (Experience = adventures)

H) The noun ‘work’ meaning ‘occupation/job/engagement’ is an uncountable noun and is only used in the singular. In this sense it’s uncountable it’s not preceded by A/AN. But the noun ‘work’ when refers to a factory, or moving parts of a machine, or musical/literary compositions, we use it in plural and add ‘s’ to make its form plural.

a) He is looking for work these days. (Here ‘work’ = employment)
b) She has urgent work today. (Here ‘work’ = engagement)
c) What type of work do you do? (Here ‘work’ = occupation)
d) I am fond of hard work. (Here ‘work’ = labour)
e) The museum’s collection includes works of art from all around the world. (countable)
f) The museum has many works by Picasso as well as other modern painters. (countable)

I) Some of the uncountable nouns look plural but in fact are singular and therefore we use singular verbs for them, also pronouns and adjectives for them are in the singular. Some of such nouns are:

1. NEWS
NEWS is a singular uncountable noun. Therefore we do not put A/AN before it, nor do we add ‘s’ to form its plural. We use singular verb with it; e.g.

INCORRECT: These news are really good
CORRECT: The news is really good.

INCORRECT: All the news were false.
CORRECT: All the news was false.

2. CERTAIN DISEASES

Diabetes Measles Mumps Rabies Rickets Shingles

INCORRECT: Diabetes are not as serious as cancer.
CORRECT: Diabetes is not as serious as cancer.

3. CERTAIN GAMES

Billiards Bowls Darts Dominoes Draughts

INCORRECT: Billiards are played by women also.
CORRECT: Billiards is played by women also.

32. Subject-verb Agreement with NAMES OF COUNTRIES
When name of a country refers to a team of any sport, it takes a plural verb; e.g.

a) India have won the trophy.
b) The West Indies have not won any match this year.

33. Arms (अस्त्रशस्त्र), damages, greens (सागसब्जी), vegetables (सागसब्जी), riches (धनवैभव), savings, surroundings, valuables, etc. are treated to be plural and therefore take plural verbs; e.g.

a) The arms are not sold here.
b) Their riches are growing very fast.
c) Vegetables are not grown much here.
d) The greens that you have brought are not fresh.

34. Subject-verb Agreement with RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Verb of a relative pronoun like Who, Which, That is according to its antecedent; e.g.

INCORRECT: I, who is a doctor, will examine you.
CORRECT: I, who am a doctor, will examine him.

INCORRECT: The boys who lives here are always disturbing.
CORRECT: The boys who live here are always disturbing.

35. Subject-verb Agreement with the following words

Mankind Summons Wages Youth

A) MANKIND
The noun /mankind’ is always used as a singular noun and takes a singular verb, singular pronoun and singular possessive; e.g.

a) Mankind has always been obsessed by power.
b) He worked for the benefit of all mankind.
c) Mankind has not changed.

​B) SUMMONS
‘Summons’ is singular countable noun. Therefore we put A/AN before it in its singular use; if ‘summons’ is not in its specific use, and form its plural by adding ‘es’; e.g.

a) The court issued him a summons yesterday.
b) A summons has been issued to you.
c) The summons made her tense. (specific use)
d) The court has issued five summonses today. (plural use)

C) WAGES
‘Wages’ when means ‘money earned’ takes plural verb only, but when means ‘outcome/result’ can take either of a singular verb and a plural verb; e.g.

INCORRECT: Wages is paid weekly here. (earning)
CORRECT: Wages are paid weekly here.

D) YOUTH
‘Youth’ can be used as an uncountable noun also. When an uncountable noun ‘youth’ means ‘the state or time of being young’. As an uncountable noun it takes a singular verb; e.g.

My youth was a mixture of both happiness and sadness.

NOTE: ‘Youth’ can also be used as a countable noun. When a countable noun ‘youth’ means ‘young man’. Its plural, then, is ‘youths’. The verb therefore depends on whether the use is in the singular or plural; e.g.

a) A youth is wants to meet you.
b) Two youths want to meet you.

36. ‘A Pair Of’ & ‘A Variety Of’

A) ‘A pair of’ things are two separate things of the same size and shape that are used together, such as shoes. When you use a pair of like this, you can use either a singular or a plural form of a verb; e.g.

a) A pair of shoes were stolen.
= A pair of shoes was stolen.

b) He wore a pair of shoes that were given to him by his father.
= He wore a pair of shoes that was given to him by his father.

NOTE: You also use ‘a pair of’ to refer to something that has two main parts of the same size and shape, such as trousers, glasses, or scissors. When we use ‘a pair of’ like this, we use the verb in the singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: A good pair of binoculars are essential for watching birds.
CORRECT: A good pair of binoculars is essential for watching birds.

INCORRECT: Who do this pair of jeans belong to?
CORRECT: Who does this pair of jeans belong to?

B) Noun ‘variety’, when preceded by the article ‘A’ is treated as plural and when preceded by the article ‘the’ is treated as singular; e.g.

INCORRECT: A variety of mobile phones is available with us.
CORRECT: A variety of mobile phones are available with us.

INCORRECT: The variety of shirts here are not small.
CORRECT: The variety of shirts here is not small.

37. PAINS & MEANS
‘Pains’ and ‘means’ take either the singular or plural verb, it depends on the context whether it’s singular or plural: e.g.

a) Great ‘pains’ have been taken. (Here the word ‘great’ is telling the number or quantity, hence plural verb is used.)
b) Much ‘pains’ has been taken. (Here the word ‘much’ is showing an amount. Even if ‘pains’ is much or less, amount is always single, hence singular verb.)
c) This means of transport is not very common these days. (‘This’ is singular)
d) Several means of transport are available here. (‘Several’ is plural)

NOTE: If the word ‘means’ is used in the sense of income/monetary resources. We use a plural verb; e.g.

a) My means are small, I cannot afford this luxury.
b) My means are not enough to support my family.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)