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Subjunctive (Explained in Hindi & English)

Subjunctive (Explained in Hindi)

1. Subjunctive क्या है?

जब किसी वाक्य में Subjunctive Mood use करना होता है तो verb ‘was’ की जगह ‘were’ use होती है और verb ‘is/are’ की जगह ‘be’ use की जाती है. और दूसरी सब verb ‘s’ अथवा ‘es’ के बिना use की जाती हैं चाहे subject third person singular (he/she/it) हो चाहे कोई subject plural हो; अर्थात verb की base form ही use की जाती है; जैसे

I wish I were thin.

(सामान्य तौर पर subject ‘I’ के साथ verb ‘was’ use होती है; परन्तु इस वाक्य में verb ‘were’ use की गयी है क्योंकि यह एक wish होने के कारण यहाँ हमें verb के Subjunctive Mood की आवश्यकता है.)

verb के Subjunctive Mood को निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में use किया जाता है:

suggestions recommendations advice demands
wishes doubts hypothetical (काल्पनिक स्थिति) a thing contrary to fact

Some examples:

a) I only wish that what you say were false. (a wish)
b) I wish my sister were faster at preparing food in the morning. (a wish)
c) Don’t wish it were easier; wish you were better. (a wish)
d) I suggest a chip be put in future robots’ brains to shut them off if they have murderous thoughts. (a suggestion)
e) My mother demanded he prepare the luggage. (a demand)
f) If I were in her situation, I would never drive. [एक काल्पनिक स्थिति (a hypothetical/imaginary situation)]
g) I wish I were the Prime Minister of India. (an improbable wish; hence verb ‘were’ is used instead of ‘was’.)
h) If I were you, I’d leave. [एक काल्पनिक स्थिति (a hypothetical/imaginary situation)]
i) She demanded Piyush work the night shift. (a demand)
j) If only I were our boss . (a wish)

2. Subjunctive कब-कब use की जाती है?
Subjunctive निम्नलिखित परिदृश्यों में use की जाती है: 

A) कुछ विशिष्ट verbs के साथ that-clauses में 

निम्नलिखित verbs के साथ अगर that-clause का use हो तो उस that-clause में verb की Subjunctive form का use किया जाता है:

advise demand propose recommend suggest urge
ask desire prefer request support wish
order command insist pray instruct require
warn stipulate decree move

i) Mayank asked that Anil submit his papers by the end of this week. (‘submits’ नहीं)
ii) The teacher insists that her students be on time. (‘are’ नहीं)
iii) I suggest that you be careful. (‘are’ नहीं)
iv) I insist that he leave now. (‘leaves’ नहीं)
v) We asked that it be done yesterday. (‘it was to be done’ नहीं)
vi) I support the recommendation that they not be punished. (‘are not punished’ नहीं)
vii) The judge ordered that the first witness be called. ( ‘was called’ नहीं)
viii) I suggest he be told. (‘is’ नहीं)
ix) I demand she have a chance. (‘has’ नहीं)
x) All we ask of a president is that he be likeable. (‘is’ नहीं)
xi) The lawyer requested that the comment be stricken from the record. ‘is stricken’ नहीं)
xii) The DMV is insisting that Sneha repeat the driving exam. (‘repeats’ नहीं)

NOTE-I: ऊपर की table में दी गयी verbs के ‘It is/was + V3 + that’ structure के साथ भी verb की  Subjunctive form का use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him.
ii) It was recommended that you meet the principal.

NOTE-II: ‘That clause’ में ‘that’ का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है.

NOTE-III: Subjunctive form के स्थान पर ‘should + V1‘ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

I suggest that you be careful.
= I suggest that you should be careful.

Diksha recommended that Priya be hired immediately.
= Diksha recommended that Priya should be hired immediately.

B) It is+ adjective + that 

Structure ‘It is + adjective + that’ से शुरू होने वाले कुछ sentence/clause verb की Subjunctive form लेते हैं, लेकिन यह नियम कुछ विशिष्ट adjectives के लिए ही लागू होता है जो ये हैं:

best essential crucial urgent
better important imperative
necessary vital desirable

i) It is best that she stay here tonight.
ii) It’s better that he do it on his own.
iii) It is necessary that he see a doctor.
iv) It’s essential that she be here.
v) It is important she attend the meeting.
vi) It’s absolutely vital that my wife do exactly as I say.
vii) It is crucial that the problem be tackled immediately.
viii) It is imperative that the game begin at once.
ix) For the future well-being of the company, it is imperative that he resign now.
x) It might be desirable that you not publish the story. (‘do not publish’ नहीं)

NOTE-I: Subjunctive form के स्थान पर ‘should + V1‘ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

i) It is essential that you be given your medication by a properly qualified nurse.
= It is essential that you should be given your medication by a properly qualified nurse.

ii) For the future well-being of the company, it is imperative that he resign now.
= For the future well-being of the company, it is imperative that he should resign now.

iii) It is desirable that he be retained in custody, rather than released on bail.
= It is desirable that he should be retained in custody, rather than released on bail.

NOTE-II: उपरोक्त Structure वाले वाक्यों में conjunction ‘that’ को हटा कर ‘for + to-infinitive’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

It is best that she stay here tonight.
= It is best for her to stay here tonight.

It’s vital that my wife do exactly as I say.
It’s vital for my wife to do exactly as I say.

NOTE-III: ‘That clause’ में ‘that’ का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है.

NOTE-IV: Subjunctive का use negative, continuous और passive forms में भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

Negative Examples:

i) The boss insisted that Ranjan not be at the meeting.
ii) The company asked that employees never accept personal phone calls during business hours.

Continuous Examples:

i) It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane.
ii) It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.

Passive Examples:

i) Diksha recommended that Priya be hired immediately.
ii) We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.

C) As if / As though / If /Unless
अवास्तविक तथ्यों के लिए ‘as if’, ‘as though’, ‘if’ and ‘unless’ के साथ Subjunctive का use past form में किया जाता है; जैसे

i) If that were so, things would be very different.
ii) It was as if Mohini were disturbed in some way.
iii) He is behaving as though she were his wife.
iv) If I were taller, I would have been a model.
v) If today were Saturday, I would sleep in.

D) Set phrases

i) Come what may
ii) Far be it from me to
iii) Perish the thought!
iv) So be it
v) Be that as it may
vi) God bless you. (I wish that ‘God bless you’.)
vii) Bless you! (Which means: May God bless you!
viii) God save the Queen. (I wish that “God save the Queen”.)
ix) May The Force be with you.
x) Heaven forbid!
xi) Long live our gracious Queen!
xii) Having to ask permission, as it were, to see her friends.
xiii) Suddenly, as it were overnight, the weather became hot and sultry.
xiv) Be that as it may. (Means whether that is the case.)
xv) So be it.

E) Verb ‘be’ और ‘were’ 

यदि subject को verb के बाद आना हो तो वाक्य के शुरू में verb ‘be’ और ‘were’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) Were I to get drunk, it would help me drown my anguish.
ii) Were I to make a list of my favourite films, this would be in second place.
iii) Be I in Mumbai, I am a great fan of visiting beaches.
iv) All books, be they fiction or non-fiction, should provide entertainment.

F) ‘Lest’ के use वाले clauses
Conjunction ‘lest’ के use वाले clauses में Subjunctive का use किया जाता है; जैसे

i) I am running faster lest she catch me.
ii) I was worried lest she catch me.

NOTE: Subjunctive form के स्थान पर ‘should + V1‘ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

He is anxious lest he become ill.
= He is anxious lest he should become ill.

She was worrying lest her daughter be attacked.
= She was worrying lest her daughter should be attacked.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

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Subjunctive (Explained in English)

1. What is Subjunctive?

In the Subjunctive Mood verb ‘was’ becomes ‘were’ and verb ‘is/are’ becomes ‘be’. And other verbs are used without ‘s’ or ‘es’ whether it’s a third person singular subject or a plural subject, means we use them in their simplest form (base form); e.g.

I wish I were thin.

(Though with ‘I’ we use the verb ‘was’, here we’ve used ‘were’ as because of a wish we require it to be in the Subjunctive Mood.)

The Subjunctive Mood is used to express the following:

suggestions recommendations advice demands
wishes doubts hypothetical (imaginary) situations a thing contrary to fact

Some examples:

a) I only wish that what you say were false. (a wish)
b) I wish my sister were faster at preparing food in the morning. (a wish)
c) Don’t wish it were easier; wish you were better. (a wish)
d) I suggest a chip be put in future robots’ brains to shut them off if they have murderous thoughts. (a suggestion)
e) My mother demanded he prepare the luggage. (a demand)
f) If I were in her situation, I would never drive. [a hypothetical (imaginary)  situation]
g) I wish I were the Prime Minister of India. (an improbable wish; hence verb ‘were’ is used instead of ‘was’.)
h) If I were you, I’d leave. [a hypothetical (imaginary) situation]
i) She demanded Piyush work the night shift. (a demand)
j) If only I were our boss . (a wish)

2. When is the Subjunctive used?
We generally use the subjunctive in the following scenarios:

A) In that-clauses

The subjunctive is most frequent in that-clauses with the following verbs:

advise demand propose recommend suggest urge
ask desire prefer request support wish
order command insist pray instruct require
warn stipulate decree move

i) Mayank asked that Anil submit his papers by the end of this week. (not ‘submits’)
ii) The teacher insists that her students be on time. (not ‘ ‘are’)
iii) I suggest that you be careful. (not ‘are’)
iv) I insist that he leave now. (not ‘leaves’)
v) We asked that it be done yesterday. (not ‘it was to be done’)
vi) I support the recommendation that they not be punished. (not ‘are not punished’)
vii) The judge ordered that the first witness be called. (not ‘was called’)
viii) I suggest he be told.
ix) I demand she have a chance.
x) All we ask of a president is that he be likeable.
xi) The lawyer requested that the comment be stricken from the record.
xii) The DMV is insisting that Sneha repeat the driving exam.

NOTE-I: We also use the above verbs in the Subjunctive Mood with the structure ‘It is/was + V3 + that’; e.g.

i) It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him.
ii) It was recommended that you meet the principal.

NOTE-II: Use of ‘that’ in the ‘that clause’ is optional.

NOTE-III: The Subjunctive can be replaced by ‘should + V1‘; e.g.

I suggest that you be careful.
= I suggest that you should be careful.

Diksha recommended that Priya be hired immediately.
= Diksha recommended that Priya should be hired immediately.

B) It is+ adjective + that 

Some sentences that begin with the structure ‘It is + adjective + that’ take the subjunctive, but this rule only applies for certain adjectives that are given below:

best essential crucial urgent
better important imperative
necessary vital desirable

i) It is best that she stay here tonight.
ii) It’s better that he do it on his own.
iii) It is necessary that he see a doctor.
iv) It’s essential that she be here.
v) It is important she attend the meeting.
vi) It’s absolutely vital that my wife do exactly as I say.
vii) It is crucial that the problem be tackled immediately.
viii) It is imperative that the game begin at once.
ix) For the future well-being of the company, it is imperative that he resign now.
x) It might be desirable that you not publish the story. (not ‘do not publish’)

NOTE-I: The Subjunctive can be replaced by ‘should + V1‘; e.g.

i) It is essential that you be given your medication by a properly qualified nurse.
= It is essential that you should be given your medication by a properly qualified nurse.

ii) For the future well-being of the company, it is imperative that he resign now.
= For the future well-being of the company, it is imperative that he should resign now.

iii) It is desirable that he be retained in custody, rather than released on bail.
= It is desirable that he should be retained in custody, rather than released on bail.

NOTE-II: In sentences following the above structure, we can also use ‘for + to-infinitive’ instead of the Subjunctive form of the verb. If we do this the conjunction ‘that’ is also not used; e.g.

It is best that she stay here tonight.
= It is best for her to stay here tonight.

It’s vital that my wife do exactly as I say.
It’s vital for my wife to do exactly as I say.

NOTE-III: Use of ‘that’ in the ‘that clause’ is optional.

NOTE-IV: The Subjunctive can also be used in negative, continuous and passive forms; e.g.

Negative Examples:

i) The boss insisted that Ranjan not be at the meeting.
ii) The company asked that employees never accept personal phone calls during business hours.

Continuous Examples:

i) It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane.
ii) It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.

Passive Examples:

i) Diksha recommended that Priya be hired immediately.
ii) We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.

C) As if / As though / If /Unless
If things are unreal we should use the past subjunctive after ‘as if’, ‘as though’, ‘if’ and ‘unless’; e.g.

i) If that were so, things would be very different.
ii) It was as if Mohini were disturbed in some way.
iii) He is behaving as though she were his wife.
iv) If I were taller, I would have been a model.
v) If today were Saturday, I would sleep in.

D) Set phrases

i) Come what may
ii) Far be it from me to
iii) Perish the thought!
iv) So be it
v) Be that as it may
vi) God bless you. (I wish that ‘God bless you’.)
vii) Bless you! (Which means: May God bless you!
viii) God save the Queen. (I wish that “God save the Queen”.)
ix) May The Force be with you.
x) Heaven forbid!
xi) Long live our gracious Queen!
xii) Having to ask permission, as it were, to see her friends.
xiii) Suddenly, as it were overnight, the weather became hot and sultry.
xiv) Be that as it may. (Means whether that is the case.)
xv) So be it.

E) Verb ‘be’ and ‘were’ 

‘Be’ and ‘were’ are used at the beginning of sentences or clauses when the subject follows; e.g.

i) Were I to get drunk, it would help me drown my anguish.
ii) Were I to make a list of my favourite films, this would be in second place.
iii) Be I in Mumbai, I am a great fan of visiting beaches.
iv) All books, be they fiction or non-fiction, should provide entertainment.

F) Clauses with ‘lest’
Another use of the Subjunctive is in clauses with the conjunction ‘lest’, which generally expresses a fear only (not reality); e.g.

i) I am running faster lest she catch me.
ii) I was worried lest she catch me.

NOTE: The Subjunctive can be replaced by ‘should + V1‘; e.g.

He is anxious lest he become ill.
= He is anxious lest he should become ill.

She was worrying lest her daughter be attacked.
= She was worrying lest her daughter should be attacked.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

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