ENGLISHMain English Grammar

Types of Clauses (Explained in Hindi & English)

Clauses के प्रकार (Explained in Hindi)

वाक्य की तरह एक clause शब्दों का ऐसा समूह होता है जिसमें subject और verb दोनों ही होते हैं; फर्क ये है कि कोई वाक्य एक clause से बना भी हो सकता है और एक से अधिक clause से भी. Clauses मुख्य तौर पर दो तरह के होते हैं; एक तो Independent Clauses/Main Clauses और दूसरे Dependent clauses/Subordinate Clauses. कोई clause एक Simple Sentence भी हो सकता है और किसी Compound Sentence का part भी; जैसे

a) She laughed. (इस वाक्य  में एक clause है.)
b) I waited for him, but he didn’t come. (इस वाक्य में दो clause हैं; एक तो ‘I waited for him’ और दूसरा ‘he didn’t come’.)

Clauses मुख्य तौर पर दो तरह के होते हैं:

a) Independent Clause (Main Clause)
b) Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)

ये समझने के लिए ये वाक्य देखिये:

I saw a man who was crying.

[ऊपर दिए गये वाक्य का part ‘I saw a man’ अगर अकेला एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ दे रहा है. ऐसा clause Independent Clause कहा जाता है. ऐसे clause को Main Clause भी कहा जाता है.

उपरोक्त वाक्य का दूसरा part ‘who was crying’ अगर अकेला एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. अपना अर्थ देने के लिए यह clause वाक्य के main clause पर निर्भर है. ऐसे clause को Dependent Clause कहा जाता है. ऐसे clause को Subordinate Clause भी कहा जाता है.]

1. Independent Clause (Main Clause)

ऐसा clause जिसको अलग से एक वाक्य के रूप में use किया भी जाये तो वह पूरा अर्थ दे; उसको Independent Clause कहते हैं. ऐसे clause को Main Clause भी कहा जाता है. Independent Clause की सबसे अधिक महत्वपूर्ण बात ये होती है कि ऐसा clause अपने आप में अलग से एक sentence के रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[इस वाक्य में एक ही clause है. जिस वाक्य में एक ही clause होता है वही Independent/Main clause होता है.]

b) Mohit left, and Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[इस वाक्य में दो clause हैं; उनमे से एक है ‘Mohit left’, और दूसरा है ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black here’. यदि आप इन दोनों clauses को अलग-अलग वाक्यों में भी use करेंगे तो आप देखेंगे कि ये दोनों पूरा-पूरा अर्थ दे रहे हैं. अतः ये दोनों ही clause Independent Clause (Main clause) हैं.]

NOTE: हर वाक्य में कम से कम एक Independent Clause (Main Clause)अवश्य होता है.

2. Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)

ऐसा clause जिसको अलग से एक वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो वह पूरा अर्थ न दे; उसको Dependent  Clause कहते हैं. ऐसे clause को Subordinate Clause भी कहा जाता है. एक Dependent Clause पूरा अर्थ देने के लिए Main Clause पर निर्भर होता है.

Independent Clause और Dependent clause के अंतर को एक वाक्य द्वारा समझिये:

a) I saw a man who was crying.

[ऊपर दिए गये वाक्य का part ‘I saw a man’ अगर अकेला एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ दे रहा है. ऐसा clause Independent Clause कहा जाता है. ऐसे clause को Main Clause भी कहा जाता है.

उपरोक्त वाक्य का दूसरा part ‘who was crying’ अगर अकेला एक अलग वाक्य के रूप में use किया जाये तो अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. अपना अर्थ देने के लिए यह clause वाक्य के main clause पर निर्भर है. ऐसे clause को Dependent Clause कहा जाता है. ऐसे clause को Subordinate Clause भी कहा जाता है.]

b) I met a friend who helped me a lot.

[इस वाक्य में ‘I met a friend’ Independent Clause (Main Clause) है; और ‘who helped me a lot’ Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है.]

c) He does not like the people who smoke.

[इस वाक्य में ‘He does not like the people’ Independent Clause (Main Clause) है; और ‘Who smoke’ Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है.]

d) After she told Mohit to leave, Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[इस वाक्य में ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black hair’ Independent Clause (Main Clause) है; और ‘after she told Mohit to leave’ Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है.]

e) Sangeeta brushed her long black hair while she waited for Mohit to leave.

[इस वाक्य में ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black hair’ Independent Clause (Main Clause) है; और ‘while she waited for Mohit to leave’ Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है.]

Dependent Clauses (Subordinate Clauses) के प्रकार

कोई Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) एक noun का काम भी कर सकता है, एक adjective का काम भी कर सकता है, अथवा एक adverb का काम भी कर सकता है. इस प्रकार Dependent Clauses को निम्न तीन भागों में बांटा गया है.

A) Noun Clause
b) Adverb Clause
C) Adjective Clause

A) Noun Clause

ऐसा Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) जो किसी वाक्य में एक noun का काम करता है उसको Noun Clause कहा जाता है. ऐसा clause आमतौर पर शब्द That, What, Whatever, Who, Whom, Whoever, अथवा Whomsoever, आदि से शुरू होता है. एक Noun Clause किसी वाक्य में noun के रूप में subject भी हो सकता है और object भी; जैसे

a) Whatever we study increases our knowledge.

[इस वाक्य का clause ‘Whatever we study’ अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; अतः यह एक Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है. दूसरे ये clause verb ‘increases’ का subject भी है; इसलिए यह एक Noun Clause है क्योंकि कोई subject सिर्फ और सिर्फ या तो noun होता है या फिर pronoun.]

b) What you eat determines your body-size.

[उपरोक्त की तरह, clause ‘What you eat’ भी एक Noun Clause है; क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; और ये verb ‘determines’ का subject है.]

c) I buy whatever I need.

[इस वाक्य का clause ‘whatever I need’ अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; अतः यह एक Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है. दूसरे ये clause verb ‘buy’ का object भी है; इसलिए यह एक Noun Clause है क्योंकि subject की तरह कोई object भी सिर्फ और सिर्फ या तो noun होता है या फिर pronoun.]

d) Now I realized what you had thought.

[उपरोक्त की तरह, clause ‘what you had thought’ भी एक Noun Clause है; क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; और ये verb ‘realized’ का object है.]

B) Adjective Clause

ऐसा Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) जो किसी वाक्य में एक adjective का काम करता है उसको Adjective Clause कहा जाता है. एक adjective की तरह कोई Adjective Clause भी किसी noun या pronoun को describe करता है. कोई Adjective clause आमतौर पर एक Relative Pronouns That, Who, Whom, Whose, Which अथवा Whose से शुरू होता है; जैसे

a) I saw a child who was crying.

[इस वाक्य का clause ‘who was crying’ अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; अतः यह एक Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है. इस वाक्य में यह noun ‘child’ की विशेषता बता रहा है. ये बता रहा है कि वो बच्चा जो रो रहा था. अतः ये एक Adjective Clause है.]

b) He hates the people who waste time.

[उपरोक्त की तरह, clause ‘who waste time’ भी एक Adjective Clause है; क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; और ये noun ‘people’ को describe कर रहा है.]

c) I watch a movie which amused me a lot.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, clause ‘which amused me a lot’ भी एक Adjective Clause है; क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; और ये noun ‘movie’ को describe कर रहा है.]

d) The car which I like consumes less fuel.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, clause ‘which I like’ भी एक Adjective Clause है; क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; और ये noun ‘car’ को describe कर रहा है.]

e) The building where he lives consists of many apartments.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, clause ‘where he lives’ भी एक Adjective Clause है; क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; और ये noun ‘building’ को describe कर रहा है.]

C) Adverb Clause

ऐसा Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) जो किसी वाक्य में एक adverb का काम करता है उसको Adverb Clause कहा जाता है. एक adverb की तरह ये भी किसी verb, adjective-clause अथवा किसी अन्य adverb-clause को describe करता है; जैसे

a) Call me when you need my help.

[इस वाक्य का clause ‘when you need my help’ अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है; अतः यह एक Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) है. इस वाक्य में यह verb ‘call’ को को describe कर रहा है. ये बता रहा है कि ‘call’ कब करनी है. अतः ये Adverb Clause है.

क्योंकि ‘when’ को समय को इंगित करने के लिए use किया है; यह एक ‘adverb clause of time’ है.]

b) Unless you avoid sugar, you can’t lose weight.

[उपरोक्त की तरह, इस वाक्य का clause ‘unless you avoid sugar’ भी एक Adverb Clause है क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. इस वाक्य में यह verb phrase ‘can’t lose weight’ को को describe कर रहा है.

क्योंकि ‘unless’ को किसी condition को इंगित करने के लिए use किया है; यह एक ‘adverb clause of condition’ है.]

c) The patient had died before the doctor reached.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, इस वाक्य का clause ‘before the doctor arrived’ भी एक Adverb Clause है क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. इस वाक्य में यह verb ‘had died’ को  describe कर रहा है.

क्योंकि ‘before’ को समय को इंगित करने के लिए use किया है; यह एक ‘adverb clause of time’ है.]

d) You live a happy life as long as you think positively.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, इस वाक्य का clause ‘as long as you think positively’ भी एक Adverb Clause है क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. इस वाक्य में यह verb phrase ‘live a happy life’ को  describe कर रहा है.

क्योंकि clause ‘as long as you think positively’ बात ‘leading a happy life’ का एक cause है; यह एक ‘adverb clause of cause and effect’ है.]

e) I worked in a factory while I was living in London.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, इस वाक्य का clause ‘while I was living in London’ भी एक Adverb Clause है क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. इस वाक्य में यह verb phrase ‘worked in a factory’ को  describe कर रहा है.

क्योंकि ‘while’ को समय को इंगित करने के लिए use किया है; यह एक ‘adverb clause of time’ है.]

f) You can succeed in life provided that you are sincere to your work.

[पहले वाक्य की तरह, इस वाक्य का clause ‘provided that you are sincere to your work’ भी एक Adverb Clause है क्योंकि ये वाला clause भी अपने आप में पूरा अर्थ नहीं दे रहा है. इस वाक्य में यह verb phrase ‘can succeed in life’ को  describe कर रहा है.

क्योंकि ‘provided that’ को किसी condition को इंगित करने के लिए use किया है; यह एक ‘adverb clause of condition’ है.]

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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Types of Clauses (Explained in English)

A clause is a group of words containing both a subject and a verb. There are two major types of clauses: Main Clause or Independent Clause, and Subordinate or dependent clause. It can be a simple sentence or a part of a compound sentence; e.g.

a) She laughed. (one clause)
b) I waited for him, but he didn’t come. (two clauses)

Clauses have two major types:

a) Independent Clause (Main Clause)
b) Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)

See this example to understand it well:

I saw a man who was crying.

[The part of the above sentence ‘I saw a man’ can alone stand as an independent sentence because it gives complete meaning. Such a clause is called Main Clause or Independent Clause.

On the other hand, the remaining part of the above sentence ‘who was crying’ cannot stand as an independent sentence. It cannot give complete meaning because it depends on the main clause to become a complete sentence and give a complete idea. Such a clause is called Subordinate Clause or Dependent Clause.]

1. Main Clause (Independent Clause)

Independent clause or Main clause is that clause which expresses a complete meaning. Two or more Independent Clauses can be joined by using coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet) or by using ‘semicolons’. The most important thing to remember is that an independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence; e.g.

a) Sangeeta brushed her long, black hair.

[In this example, the independent clause is a simple sentence.]

b) Mohit left, and Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[In this example, the coordinating conjunction ‘and’ joins two independent clauses ‘Mohit left’ and ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.]

NOTE: All sentences must include at least one Independent Clause; e.g.

2. Subordinate Clause (Dependent Clause)

Subordinate clause or Dependent clause is that clause which as alone cannot express a complete meaning. It alone cannot stand as a sentence because it depends on the other clause (Main Clause/Independent Clause) to give a complete meaning. It serves a subordinate role in the sentence. A subordinate clause can act as an adjective, a noun or an adverb in a sentence.

To understand both these types of clauses well read these examples:

a) I saw a man who was crying.

[The above sentence has two clauses: ‘I saw a man’ and ‘who was crying’. The first clause ‘I saw a man’ gives a complete meaning and can alone stand as a complete sentence. Such a clause is called Independent Clause (Main Clause). On the other hand, the second clause ‘who was crying’ does not give a complete meaning and cannot stand as a complete sentence. It depends on the main clause to give a complete meaning. Such a clause is called Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause).]

b) I met a friend who helped me a lot.

[‘I met a friend’ is Independent Clause (Main Clause). ‘Who helped me a lot’ is Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause).]

c) He does not like the people who smoke.

[‘He does not like the people’ is Independent Clause (Main Clause. ‘Who smoke’ is Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause).]

d) After she told Mohit to leave, Sangeeta brushed her long black hair.

[In this example ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black hair’ is an Independent Clause. But the clause after she told Mohit to leave’ cannot stand alone, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause).]

e) Sangeeta brushed her long, black hair while she waited for Mohit to leave.

[In this example ‘Sangeeta brushed her long black hair’ is an Independent Clause. But the clause ‘while she waited for Mohit to leave’ cannot stand alone, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause).]

Types of Dependent Clauses (Subordinate Clauses)

A dependent Clause (subordinate clause) can act as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence. There are three types of such clauses depending upon its function in a sentence:

A) Noun Clause
b) Adverb Clause
C) Adjective Clause

A) Noun Clause

A dependent clause (subordinate clause) which acts as a noun in a sentence is called a Noun Clause. It usually starts with words such as That, What, Whatever, Who, Whom, Whoever, Whomsoever. It acts exactly like a noun in a sentence. It can work as a noun either at the place of a subject or an object; e.g.

a) Whatever we study increases our knowledge.

[In this sentence ‘Whatever we study’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Also it’s the subject of the verb ‘increases’, hence it’s a Noun Clause.]

b) What you eat determines your body-size.

[Like above ‘What you eat’ is a Noun Clause working as the subject of the verb ‘determines’.]

c) I buy whatever I need.

[In this sentence ‘whatever I need’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Also it’s the object of the verb ‘buy’, hence it’s a Noun Clause.]

d) Now I realized what you had thought.

[Like above ‘what you had thought’ is a Noun Clause working as the object of the verb ‘realized’.]

B) Adjective Clause

A Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) which acts as an adjective in a sentence is called an Adjective Clause. Like an adjective, it describes a noun or pronoun in the sentence. An adjective clause mostly starts with relative pronouns such as That, Who, Whom, Whose, Which or Whose; e.g.

a) I saw a child who was crying.

[In this sentence ‘who was crying’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the noun ‘child’, hence it’s an Adjective Clause.]

b) He hates the people who waste time.

[Like above ‘who waste time’ is an Adjective Clause describing the noun ‘people’.]

c) I watch a movie which amused me a lot.

[Like above ‘which amused me a lot’ is an Adjective Clause describing the noun ‘movie’.]

d) The car which I like consumes less fuel.

[Like above ‘which I like’ is an Adjective Clause describing the noun ‘car’.]

e) The building where he lives consists of many apartments.

[Like above ‘where he lives’ is an Adjective Clause describing the noun ‘building’.]

C) Adverb Clause

A Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause) which acts as an adverb in a sentence is called an Adverb Clause. Like an adverb, it describes a verb, an adjective-clause or another adverb clause in the sentence. It describes a verb (action) of the main clause in terms of time, frequency (i.e. how often), condition, cause and effect; and intensity (i.e. extent). It mostly uses the following subordinating conjunctions:

Time: When, Whenever, Since, Until, Before, After, While, As, By the time, As soon as
Cause and effect: Because, Since, Now that, As long as, So, So that
Contrast: Although, Even, Whereas, While, Though
Condition: If, Unless, Only if, Whether or not, Even if, Providing Or Provided that, In case

Examples:

a) Call me when you need my help.

[In this sentence ‘when you need my help’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the verb ‘call’, hence it’s an Adverb Clause.

As ‘when’ is used to indicate time; it’s an ‘adverb clause of time’.]

b) Unless you avoid sugar, you can’t lose weight.

[In this sentence ‘unless you avoid sugar’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the verb phrase ‘can’t lose weight’, hence it’s an Adverb Clause.

As ‘unless’ is used to indicate a condition; it’s an ‘adverb clause of condition’.]

c) The patient had died before the doctor reached.

[In this sentence ‘before the doctor arrived’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the verb ‘had died’, hence it’s an Adverb Clause.

As ‘before’ is used to indicate time; it’s an ‘adverb clause of time’.]

d) You live a happy life as long as you think positively.

[In this sentence ‘as long as you think positively’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the verb phrase ‘live a happy life’, hence it’s an Adverb Clause.

As the clause ‘as long as you think positively’ is showing a clause of ‘leading a happy life’; it’s an ‘adverb clause of cause and effect’.]

e) I worked in a factory while I was living in London.

[In this sentence ‘while I was living in London’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the verb phrase ‘worked in a factory’; hence it’s an Adverb Clause.

As ‘while’ is used to indicate time; it’s an ‘adverb clause of time’.]

f) You can succeed in life provided that you are sincere to your work.

[In this sentence ‘provided that you are sincere to your work’ cannot stand alone as a sentence, hence it’s a Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause). Here it’s describing the verb phrase ‘can succeed in life’; hence it’s an Adverb Clause.

As ‘provided that’ is used to indicate a condition; it’s an ‘adverb clause of condition’.]

 

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

 

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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