ENGLISHPairs of Words

Need & Dare (Explained in Hindi & English)

Verb ‘need’ और ‘dare’ के प्रयोग का अंतर (Explained in Hindi)

ये दोनों ही verb Semi-modal Verbs कहलाती हैं. इनको ऐसा इसलिए कहा जाता है क्योंकि इन दोनों ही verbs को main verb के रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है और modal verb के रूप में भी. सकारात्मक (affirmative) वाक्यों में ये दोनों ही verb केवल main verb ही हो सकती हैं; जबकि नकारात्मक (negative) और प्रश्नवाचक (interrogative वाक्यों में ये main verb भी हो सकती हैं और modal verb भी.

1. Need

Verb ‘need’ जब main verb होती है तो इसके साथ full infinitives (TO + V1) use की जाती है; और जब ये modal verb होती है तो इसके साथ bare infinitives (V1 without TO) use की जाती है. सकारात्मक (affirmative) वाक्यों में verb ‘need’ केवल main verb ही हो सकती है. लेकिन नकारात्मक (negative) और प्रश्नवाचक (interrogative वाक्यों में ये main verb तभी होती है यदि इसके साथ helping verb ‘do’ का use किया गया हो; अन्यथा ये खुद ही modal/helping verb होती है; जैसे

सकारात्मक वाक्य (Affirmative Sentences)

I need to go to my doctor today in the evening.

[क्योंकि यह वाक्य एक सकारात्मक वाक्य है इसमें ‘need’ main verb है. आप ये भी देख सकते हैं कि इस वाक्य में ‘go’ एक to-infinitive है.]

नकारात्मक वाक्य (Negative Sentences)

a) I do not need to go to my doctor today in the evening.

[ये एक नकारात्मक वाक्य है और इस वाक्य में helping verb ‘do’ का use हुआ है; अतः ‘need’ इसमें main verb है. आप ये भी देख सकते हैं कि इस वाक्य में ‘go’ एक to-infinitive है.]

b) I needn’t go to my doctor today in the evening.

[ये एक नकारात्मक वाक्य है और इस वाक्य में helping verb ‘do’ का use नहीं हुआ है; अतः ‘need’ खुद इस वाक्य की helping/modal  verb है. आप ये भी देख सकते हैं कि इस वाक्य में ‘go’ एक bare infinitive (V1 without ‘to’) है.]

प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य (Interrogative Sentences)

a) Do I need to go to my doctor today in the evening?

[ये एक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य है और इस वाक्य में helping verb ‘do’ का use हुआ है; अतः ‘need’ इसमें main verb है. आप ये भी देख सकते हैं कि इस वाक्य में ‘go’ एक to-infinitive है.]

b) Need I go to my doctor today in the evening?

[ये एक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य है और इस वाक्य में helping verb ‘do’ का use नहीं हुआ है; अतः ‘need’ खुद इस वाक्य की helping/modal  verb है. आप ये भी देख सकते हैं कि इस वाक्य में ‘go’ एक bare infinitive (V1 without ‘to’) है.]

NOTE-I: Modal/helping verb के रूप में ‘need’ की कोई past tense form नहीं होती. यदि हमें past tense चाहिए होता है तो ‘need’ के बदले ‘didn’t need to’ अथवा ‘didn’t have to’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: I needed not to take my wife to the doctor.
CORRECT: I didn’t need to take my wife to the doctor.  OR I didn’t have to take my wife to the doctor.

NOTE-II: जब ‘need’ के पहले No one, Nobody, Anybody अथवा अन्य कोई नकारात्मक subject हो तो bare infinitive (V1 without TO) का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) Nobody need know the name of the person who made the complaint.
b) Not a word need change in this paper.

NOTE-III: जब ‘need’ के साथ शब्द Hardly, Scarcely अथवा Only का use हुआ हो तो भी bare infinitive (V1 without TO) का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) I need hardly say how happy I am to see you here. (‘Say’: bare infinitive)
b) You need only push this button to make this machine run. (‘Push’: bare infinitive)

NOTE-IV: यदि किसी वाक्य का आरम्भ एक नकारात्मक अथवा प्रश्नवाचक clause से हुआ हो तो ‘need’ के साथ bare infinitive (V1 without TO) का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) I don’t suppose I need meet him. (‘I don’t suppose’ एक नकारात्मक clause है.)
b) Do you think I need tell Rajat. (‘Do you think’ एक प्रश्नवाचक clause है.)

NOTE-V: जब ‘need’ modal/helping verb होती है तो इसके साथ ‘S’ का use नहीं किया जाता चाहे subject third person singular (he, she, it) ही क्यों न हो; जैसे

INCORRECT: He needs not do it.
CORRECT: He need not do it.

[क्योंकि यह वाक्य नकारात्मक है और इसमें helping verb ‘do’ का use नहीं हुआ है; अतः इसमें ‘need’ modal/helping verb है.]

NOTE-VI: Verb ‘need’ का use continuous form में नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

INCORRECT: We are needing some milk.
CORRECT: We need some milk.

NOTE-VII: Verb ‘need’ का subject कोई वस्तु (thing) हो तो इसके साथ gerund (ing form) use की जाती है; infinitive नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: The cooker needs to be cleaned.
CORRECT: The cooker needs cleaning.

2. Dare

Verb ‘need’ की तरह verb ‘dare’ भी एक main verb के रूप में भी use की जा सकती है और एक modal/helping verb के रूप में भी. Verb ‘dare’  के निम्नलिखित दो अर्थ होते हैं:

A) किसी को कोई चुनौती देना अथवा ललकारना
B) कुछ करने का साहस दिखाना अथवा अशिष्ट होना

A) Dare = किसी को कोई चुनौती देना अथवा ललकारना (challenge somebody)

Verb ‘dare’ का जब ये अर्थ होता है तो ये एक main verb होती है; और transitive verb होती है; अर्थात इसके साथ किसी object का होना आवश्यक होता है. यदि इसके साथ कोई अन्य verb form आनी होती है तो वो ‘to-infinitive (to + v1)’ होती है; जैसे

a) I dare you to swim across the lake.
b) She glared at Ankur, daring him to disagree.
c) Some snakes can bite but I dare you to hold this big snake.

B) Dare = कुछ करने का साहस दिखाना अथवा अशिष्ट होना (to be brave enough or rude enough to do something)

Verb ‘dare’ के इस अर्थ में इसको main verb के रूप में भी use किया जा सकता है और modal/helping verb के रूप में भी. इस अर्थ में जब ये main verb होती है तो इसके साथ ‘to-infinitive (to + v1) भी use की जा सकती है और ‘infinitive without TO (v1 without TO) भी; अर्थात इन दोनों का ही use शुद्ध होता है.  और यदि ‘dare’ modal/helping verb होती है तो इसके साथ ‘infinitive without TO’ ही use की जा सकती है; जैसे

Main Verb

a) He doesn’t dare to say anything.
= He doesn’t dare say anything.

b) Does anyone dare to go there?
= Does anyone dare go there?

Modal Verb

a) They dared not laugh.
b) Dare she tell him the truth?

NOTE-I: जब ‘dare’ के पहले No one, Nobody, Anybody अथवा अन्य कोई नकारात्मक subject हो तो full infinitive (to + V1) का use भी शुद्ध होता है और bare infinitive (V1 without TO) का भी; जैसे use किया जाता है; जैसे

No one dares to disturb him.
= No one dares disturb him.

NOTE-II: जब ‘dare’ modal/helping verb होती है तो इसके साथ ‘S’ का use नहीं किया जाता चाहे subject third person singular (he, she, it) ही क्यों न हो; जैसे

INCORRECT: She dares not meet you.
CORRECT: She dare not meet you.

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Difference in use of ‘need’ & ‘dare’ (Explained in English)

Both of these verbs are called Semi-modal Verbs. They are called so because they can be used as both main verbs and modal verbs. In affirmative sentences both these verbs can only be used as main verbs, in negative and interrogative sentence both of them can be used as main as well as modal verbs.

1. Need

As a main verb ‘need’ takes full infinitives (TO + V1), and as a modal/helping verb it takes bare infinitives (V1 without TO). ‘Need’ is the main verb in affirmative sentences, but in negative and interrogative sentences it’s main verb only when ‘do’ is the helping verb with it, otherwise it itself is the helping verb; e.g.

Affirmative Sentences

I need to go to my doctor today in the evening.

(The sentence is affirmative, so ‘need’ is the main verb here. You see ‘go’ is to-infinitive.)

Negative Sentences

a) I do not need to go to my doctor today in the evening.

(Here ‘do’ is the helping verb, therefore ‘need’ is the main verb; so ‘go’ is to-infinitive)

b) I needn’t go to my doctor today in the evening.

(‘Do’ is not there, so ‘need’ itself is the helping verb here. So ‘go’ is bare infinitive.)

Interrogative Sentences

a) Do I need to go to my doctor today in the evening?

(Here ‘do’ is the helping verb, therefore ‘need’ is the main verb; so ‘go’ is to-infinitive)

b) Need I go to my doctor today in the evening?

(Here ‘need’ is the helping verb, so ‘go’ is bare infinitive)

NOTE-I: The modal ‘need’ has no past form. Instead, we use ‘didn’t need to’ or ‘didn’t have to’ in the past; e.g.

INCORRECT: I needed not to take my wife to the doctor.
CORRECT: I didn’t need to take my wife to the doctor.  OR I didn’t have to take my wife to the doctor.

NOTE-II: When ‘need’ is preceded by No one, Nobody, Anybody or any negative subject we use bare infinitive (V1 without TO); e.g.

a) Nobody need know the name of the person who made the complaint.
b) Not a word need change in this paper.

NOTE-III: When words Hardly, Scarcely, Only are used with the verb ‘need’, it also takes bare infinitive; e.g.

a) I need hardly say how happy I am to see you here. (‘Say’: bare infinitive)
b) You need only push this button to make this machine run. (‘Push’: bare infinitive)

NOTE-IV: When a negative or interrogative clause is in the beginning, ‘need’ takes bare infinitive, e.g.

a) I don’t suppose I need meet him. (‘I don’t suppose’ is a negative clause.)
b) Do you think I need tell Rajat. (‘Do you think’ is an interrogative clause.)

NOTE-V: When ‘need’ is a modal verb, it doesn’t take ‘S’ with it even if the subject is third person singular (he, she, it); e.g.

INCORRECT: He needs not do it.
CORRECT: He need not do it.

NOTE-VI: We don’t use ‘need’ in the continuous; e.g.

INCORRECT: We are needing some milk.
CORRECT: We need some milk.

NOTE-VII: When subject of ‘need’ is a thing we use gerund (ing form) after it, we don’t use ‘to’ form; e.g.

INCORRECT: The cooker needs to be cleaned.
CORRECT: The cooker needs cleaning.

2. Dare

‘Dare’ is both a main verb and a modal verb. ‘Dare’ has two meanings:

A) challenge somebody
B) to be brave enough or rude enough to do something

A) Dare = challenge somebody

With this meaning it is a main verb and it’s a transitive verb, means it requires an object. If any verb is following it it’s ‘to-infinitive (to + v1)’; e.g.

a) I dare you to swim across the lake.
b) She glared at Ankur, daring him to disagree.
c) Some snakes can bite but I dare you to hold this big snake.

B) Dare = to be brave enough or rude enough to do something

With this meaning, it can be used both as a main verb and a modal verb. As a main verb, it can be followed by a ‘to-infinitive (to + v1) or an ‘infinitive without TO (v1 without TO). As a modal verb, it’s always followed by an ‘infinitive without TO’; e.g.

Main Verb

a) He doesn’t dare to say anything.
= He doesn’t dare say anything.

b) Does anyone dare to go there?
= Does anyone dare go there?

Modal Verb

a) They dared not laugh. (‘Dare’ is the helping verb here, so ‘laugh’ is bare infinitive)
b) Dare she tell him the truth? (‘Dare’ is the helping verb here, so ‘tell’ is bare infinitive)

NOTE-I: When ‘dare’ is preceded by No one, Nobody, Anybody or any negative subject we can use any infinitive, means either full infinitive or bare infinitive; e.g.

No one dares to disturb him.
= No one dares disturb him.

NOTE-II: Like other modals ‘dare’ when is a modal verb doesn’t take ‘S’ with it even if the subject is third person singular (he, she, it); e.g.

INCORRECT: She dares not meet you.
CORRECT: She dare not meet you.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

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