ENGLISHPairs of Words

SINCE & FOR (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

SINCE और FOR (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

1. Present Perfect Tense/Present Perfect Continuous Tense with FOR and SINCE

A) ऐसे actions जो past के किसी समय में शुरू हुए हों और अभी भी जारी हों उनके लिए लिए ‘since/for’ का प्रयोग Present Perfect Tense अथवा Present Perfect Continuous Tense के साथ किया जाता है. ‘For’ का प्रयोग किसी समयावधि (period of time) के लिए किया जाता है जबकि ‘since’ का प्रयोग किसी निश्चित समय (point in time) के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

i) I have lived here for five years. (= मैं पांच वर्ष से यहाँ रह रहा हूँ.)

[पांच साल एक समयावधि होती है; कोई निश्चित समय नहीं; इसलिए इस वाक्य में ‘for’ का use हुआ है.]

ii) She has been here since six o’clock. (वह 6 बजे से यहाँ है.)

[6 बजे एक निश्चित समय होता है, समयावधि नहीं; इसलिए इस वाक्य में ‘since’ का use हुआ है.]

iii) Since my accident I have been in hospital. (मेरी दुर्घटना होने से लेकर मैं अस्पताल में हूँ.)

[किसी दुर्घटना होने का समय एक ही होता है, ये किसी अवधि में नहीं होता; इसलिए इस वाक्य में ‘since’ का use हुआ है.]

iv) This room hasn’t been cleaned since February.  (फरवरी से इस कमरे की सफाई नहीं की गयी है.)

[फरवरी एक निश्चित समय है; कोई अवधि नहीं; इसलिए इस वाक्य में ‘since’ का use हुआ है.]

NOTE-I: कुछ verbs के बाद खासतौर पर Be, Live और Wait के बाद For को हटाया भी जा सकता है; जैसे

I’ve been here an hour.
= I’ve been here for an hour.

NOTE-II: ‘All’ से शुरू होने वाली अभिव्यक्तियों (expressions) के पहले ‘for’ का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता; जैसे

INCORRECT: She’s worked for all night.
CORRECT: She’s worked all night.

B) ध्यान रहे कि ‘last’ और ‘the last’ के प्रयोग में अंतर होता है. ‘Last’ के लिए ‘since’ का प्रयोग होता है जबकि ‘the last’ के लिए ‘for’ का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे

i) I haven’t seen her since last week.
ii) I haven’t seen her for the last week.

NOTE: परन्तु जब ‘last’ के साथ शब्द ‘time’ का use हो  और इसके बाद अगर कोई clause दिया हो तो तो ‘since the last time’ का प्रयोग होता है; अगर इसके बाद कोई clause न दिया हो तो ‘for the last time’ का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे

i) She has gained a lot of weight since the last time I saw her.
ii) “She is coming to Delhi for the last time”, says she.

C) Since + clause

जब ‘since’ का प्रयोग किसी time-clause के साथ होता है तो ‘since’ के बाद Past Simple अथवा Present Perfect Tense का use होता है और दूसरे वाले clause (main clause) में Present Perfect Tense का use होता है. Time-clauses में ‘for’ का use नहीं होता; जैसे

He has been in bed since he met with that accident.
= He has been in bed since he has met with that accident.

INCORRECT: She has gained a lot of weight for the last time I saw her.
CORRECT: She has gained a lot of weight since the last time I saw her.

INCORRECT: She has been learning how to dance from she was 7 years old.
CORRECT: She has been learning how to dance since she was 7 years old.

D) It + Be + Time + Since

CASE-I: अगर किसी present situation की बात हो रही हो तो ‘it’ के बाद Present Simple Tense और Present Perfect Tense दोनों का use समान रूप से शुद्ध होता है, और ‘since clause’ में या तो Past Simple Tense या फिर Present Perfect Tense का use होता है; जैसे

a) It is years since I met him.
= It is years since I have met him.
= It has been years since I met him.
= It has been years since I’ve met him.

ii) It is two years since I saw Mohan.
= It is two years since I have seen Mohan
= It has been two years since I saw Mohan.
= It has been two years since I have seen Mohan.

CASE-II: अगर किसी past situation की बात हो रही हो तो ‘it’ के बाद Past Simple Tense और Past Perfect Tense दोनों का use समान रूप से शुद्ध होता है, और ‘since clause’ में Past Perfect Tense का use होता है; जैसे

It was years since I had met him.
= It’d been years since I had met him.

E) Since + ing form

जब किसी वाक्य के दोनों ही clauses का subject एक ही हो तो हम ‘since + ing form’ का use भी कर सकते हैं; जैसे

Since leaving school, I have gone abroad twice.
= Since I left school, I have gone abroad twice.

2. Past Perfect Tense with FOR and SINCE

ऐसे actions जो past में शुरू हुए हों और अभी भी जारी हों उनके लिए ‘since/for’ का प्रयोग Present Perfect Tense अथवा Present Perfect Continuous Tense के साथ किया जाता है. परन्तु ऐसे actions जो कुछ बात कहने के किसी past time से पहले शुरू हुए हों और उस समय भी जारी हों उनके लिए ‘since/for’ का प्रयोग Past Perfect Tense अथवा Past Perfect Continuous Tense के साथ किया जाता है.

i) a) Rohan was a teacher when I met him. He had been a teacher for five years.
b) Rohan was a teacher when I met him. He had been a teacher since he was twenty one.

ii) a) Reshma had lived/had been living in that house for 45 years.
b) Reshma had lived/had been living in that house ever since she was born.

NOTE-I:  जो समय समाप्त हो गया हो (terminated period of time) उसके लिए हम ‘for’ का use Simple Past Tense के साथ करते हैं; जैसे

I read in this school for five years. (अर्थात मैं इस स्कूल में अब नहीं पढता.)

NOTE-II:  Ever since

‘Since’ और ‘ever since’ एक ही बात होते हैं; ‘since’ के पहले ‘ever’ का use बात पर सिर्फ जोर डालने के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे

i) Ever since we met, we haven’t ever argued.
ii) Mrs Sharma doesn’t go for walks on her own ever since she fell.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

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For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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SINCE & FOR (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

1. The Present Perfect Tense/The Present Perfect Continuous Tense with FOR and SINCE

A) We use ‘since/for’ with the present perfect Tense or the Present Perfect Continuous Tense for an action which began in the past and is still continuing. ‘For’ is used with a ‘period of time’ whereas ‘since’ is used with a ‘point in time’; e.g.

i) I have lived here for five years. (and still live here)
ii) She has been here since six o’clock. (and is still here)
iii) Since my accident I have been in hospital.
iv) This room hasn’t been cleaned since February.

NOTE-I: ‘For’ can sometimes be omitted, especially after the verbs Be, Live and Wait; e.g.

I’ve been here an hour.
= I’ve been here for an hour.

NOTE-II: ‘For’ is not used before time expressions beginning with ‘all’; e.g.

INCORRECT: She’s worked for all night.
CORRECT: She’s worked all night.

B) Note that there is difference between ‘last’ and ‘the last’. With an adjective of a period say minute, week, month, etc. ‘Last’ refers to ‘point in time’ whereas ‘the last’ refers to ‘period of time’, so we use ‘since’ with ‘last’ and we use ‘for’ with ‘the last’; e.g.

i) I haven’t seen her since last week.
ii) I haven’t seen her for the last week.

NOTE: However, when the word ‘time’ has a clause after it, we use ‘since the last time’; if a clause is not there after ‘time’, we use ‘for the last time’; e.g.

i) She has gained a lot of weight since the last time I saw her.
ii) “She is coming to Delhi for the last time”, says she.

C) Since + clause

When we use ‘since’ with a time-clause, we can use the Past Simple or Present Perfect after ‘since’, and we use the Present Perfect in the main clause. We do not use ‘for’ with time clauses; e.g.

He has been in bed since he met with that accident.
= He has been in bed since he has met with that accident.

INCORRECT: She has gained a lot of weight for the last time I saw her.
CORRECT: She has gained a lot of weight since the last time I saw her.

INCORRECT: She has been learning how to dance from she was 7 years old.
CORRECT: She has been learning how to dance since she was 7 years old.

NOTE: But the following sentence is correct as use of ‘from’ is without a clause.

She has been learning how to dance from the age of seven.

D) It + Be + Time + Since

CASE-I: If we are talking about a present situation, the Present Simple Tense and the Present Perfect Tense are equally correct after ‘it’, in such a case we use either the Past Simple Tense or the Present Perfect Tense in the ‘since clause’; e.g.

a) It is years since I met him.
= It is years since I have met him.
= It has been years since I met him.
= It has been years since I’ve met him.

ii) It is two years since I saw Mohan.
= It is two years since I have seen Mohan
= It has been two years since I saw Mohan.
= It has been two years since I have seen Mohan.

CASE-II: If we are talking about a past situation, the Past Simple Tense and the Past Perfect Tense are equally correct after ‘it’, in such a case we use the Past Perfect Tense in the ‘since clause’; e.g.

It was years since I had met him.
= It’d been years since I had met him.

E) Since + ing form 

We can use ‘since + ing form’ form to refer to time when the subject of the verb is the same in the main clause and the other clause; e.g.

Since leaving school, I have gone abroad twice.
= Since I left school, I have gone abroad twice.

2. The Past Perfect Tense with FOR and SINCE

We use The Present Perfect Tense or the Perfect Perfect Continuous Tense with ‘since/for’ for an action which began in the past and is still continuing. But, if an action which began before the time of speaking in the past, and ‘was still continuing that time’ or ‘stopped at that time or just before it’ we use The Past Perfect Tense or the Past Perfect Continuous Tense; e.g.

i) a) Rohan was a teacher when I met him. He had been a teacher for five years.
b) Rohan was a teacher when I met him. He had been a teacher since he was twenty one.

ii) a) Reshma had lived/had been living in that house for 45 years.
b) Reshma had lived/had been living in that house ever since she was born.

NOTE-I:  We use ‘for’ with The Simple Past Tense for a terminated period of time; e.g.

I read in this school for five years. (means don’t read here now)

NOTE-II:  Ever since

‘Since’ and ‘ever since’ are the same thing, we use ‘ever’ before ‘since’ for emphasis only; e.g.

a) Ever since we met, we haven’t ever argued.
b) Mrs Sharma doesn’t go for walks on her own ever since she fell.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)

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