USEFUL VERBS (Arise/Rise/Raise & Arouse/Rouse; Deny/Decline/ Refuse/Refrain, ETC.) PART-2
USEFUL VERBS (Part-2)
Here are some of the very important words and expressions that a candidate of any competitive exam should understand to crack an exam with good marks. They will be very useful for the competitive exams of the Staff Selection Commission (SSC) or Grade-II DASS Exam of the DSSSB, and other similar exams:
1. Combined Graduate Level (CGL) Exam Tier-I & Tier-II
2. Combined Higher Secondary (10+2) Exam (CHSL) Tier-I
3. SI in Delhi Police and CPO Exam Paper-I & Paper-II
4. Stenographers Exam
5. Grade-II DASS Exam conducted by Delhi Staff Subordinate Services (DSSSB)
List of verbs in this post
|1. Arise/Rise/Raise & Arouse/Rouse||4. Have||7. Believe||10. Approve|
|2. Deny/Decline/ Refuse/Refrain||5. Will & Shall||8. Avoid||11. Enter|
|3. Be to||6. Agree||9. Assist||12. Can’t help|
1. Arise/Rise/Raise & Arouse/Rouse
A) ARISE = happen or occur. It has no object and we use it with abstract nouns. Its three forms are ARISE AROSE ARISEN
a) He decided to take the job in Kolkata as soon as an opportunity arose.
b) A problem has arisen with my passport.
c) When there is a written agreement, misunderstandings normally do not arise.
d) If the need arises, you’d better buy your own car.
B) RISE = go up. RISE does not take an object, as it is an intransitive verb. Its three forms are RISE ROSE RISEN
a) Rents have risen sharply in this part of city.
b) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
c) Vegetable prices have risen a lot since last year.
C) RAISE = RAISE also can be used in the meaning as that of RISE. But RAISE must have an object as it is a transitive verb. Its three forms are
a) Raise your hand if you know the answer.
b) That restaurant has raised its prices again.
A) AROUSE = to cause someone to have a particular feeling; to cause someone to feel sexual excitement. It’s a transitive verb and hence has an object. Its three forms are AROUSE AROUSED AROUSED; e.g.
a) Both lecturers aroused a lot of interest in the subject of geology.
b) It’s a subject that has aroused a lot of interest.
c) Something he said as he was leaving really aroused my curiosity.
d) Cricket arouses a good deal of passion among its supporters.
B) ROUSE = ‘wake someone up’ or ‘make someone active’. It’s also a transitive verb and hence has an object. Its three forms are ROUSE ROUSED ROUSED; e.g.
The goal roused the supporters and they began to really get behind the team. (get behind = support)
NOTE: We also use rouse as a reflexive verb; e.g.
She finally roused herself at lunchtime and got out of bed.
2. Deny, Decline, Refuse, Refrain
A) DENY = to say that something is not true; e.g.
a) The accused denied all the charges made against him.
b) She denied that she was involved.
c) Suman denied doing anything illegal.
NOTE-I: DENY must be followed by an object, a that-clause, or an -ing form; e.g.
a) He denied it.
b) He denied that he forged the signature.
c) He denied having forged the signature.
INCORRECT: He accused her of stealing but she denied.
CORRECT: He accused her of stealing, but she denied it.
NOTE-II: However, if someone is not ready to do something we don’t use the verb DENY, rather we say REFUSE; e.g.
INCORRECT: I asked one of my friends to give me his bike for a few minutes, but he denied.
CORRECT: I asked one of my friends to give me his bike for a few minutes, but he refused.
INCORRECT: When I denied to bring bread from the refrigerator, I was beaten my brother.
CORRECT: When I refused to bring bread from the refrigerator, I was beaten my brother.
B) DENY = to not allow someone to have something or do something; e.g.
a) I have denied my wife access to my mobile phone.
b) Don’t deny yourself pleasure.
c) Her request for a leave was denied by her employer.
d) No one should be denied a good education.
C) DENY = not to admit that you have knowledge, responsibility, feelings, etc.; e.g.
a) He denied all responsibility for the failure of the plan.
b) Even under torture, he refused to deny his beliefs.
To say that you will not do or accept something. If you refuse to do something, you say firmly that you will not do it, e.g.
a) He refused to accept their advice.
b) She will not refuse if you ask her to go to the bank.
NOTE: If we do not agree with an idea or belief, we do not use the verb REFUSE. We say that we REJECT it; e.g.
INCORRECT: Some people refuse the idea of a mixed economy.
CORRECT: Some people reject the idea of a mixed economy.
INCORRECT: I cannot refuse my family’s religious beliefs.
CORRECT: I cannot reject my family’s religious beliefs.
A) To refuse politely to accept or to do something; e.g.
a) She declined the ice-cream.
b) The authorities declined to comment.
c) Richa declined my invitation to tea.
d) They declined to tell me how they had obtained my address.
e) Our application for a loan was declined by the bank.
f) His request for early retirement was declined by the director..
B) Become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease; deteriorate. In this meaning DECLINE does not have an object; e.g.
a) The birth rate continued to decline.
b) Ironically, tobacco consumption is not declining a bit in the city.
c) Tourism in the area has declined very sharply after 2010.
C) Move downwards, especially of the sun. In this meaning also the verb DECLINE has no object; e.g.
The sun begins to decline here sharply after 4 o’clock in the evening.
To avoid doing or stop yourself from doing something; e.g.
a) We refrained from talking until we knew that it was safe.
b) The sign on the wall said “Please refrain from smoking.”
We see that there is not much difference between REFUSE and DECLINE when they mean ‘to refuse’. However when we refuse something politely we use DECLINE, otherwise REFUSE. In offers and invitations the verb DECLINE is used (not REFUSE).
3. BE TO
‘BE TO’ form can be used in the following two ways:
A) For orders or instructions; e.g.
i) I’m to stay home till my mother returns. (means I must stay)
ii) She is not to leave the office without the permission of her boss. (means She must stay)
NOTE: BE TO is also used in reporting requests for instructions; e.g.
“Where shall I put it, sir?” he asked
= He asked where he was to put it.
B) To say a plan; e.g.
i) He is to leave for Agra tomorrow.
ii) We are to start English classes from Monday.
iii) The Prime Minister was to have laid the foundation stone but he was taken ill so the Home Minister is doing it instead.
NOTE: We can express an idea of destiny by using ‘WAS/WERE TO’; e.g. I met with an accident last week and got a heavy blow on the chest. It didn’t worry me initially but it was to be very serious later, (turned out to be serious)
C) BE ABOUT TO
We use BE ABOUT TO to express the immediate future. We can add JUST or can use BE ON THE POINT + GERUND to emphasize; e.g.
i) I’m about to leave. (means I’ll leave just now)
ii) I’m just about to leave.
iii) I’m on the point of leaving.
iv) He was just about to dive when he saw the crocodile.
A) Have = to possess/own
a) She has a beautiful big house.
b) I have had this car for ten years.
NOTE-I: In this meaning of HAVE we can form the negative and interrogative of sentences in two ways. We can use either DO as helping verb or use HAVE itself in forming such sentences; e.g.
Do you have an extra pencil?
= Have you an extra pencil?
NOTE-II: We don’t use HAVE in the continuous in this meaning; e.g.
INCORRECT: I am having a lot of friends here.
CORRECT: I have a lot of friends here.
INCORRECT: Anita is having a headache.
CORRECT: Anita has a headache.
B) HAVE = to receive someone, to accept, to allow something to happen
a) I’m going to have you at the station.
b) I won’t have you wear my shirt. (= I refuse to allow you to wear my shirt)
c) Let me have Rs 5,000 back just now.
C) HAVE = to take food; to take a bath/a lesson etc., means HAVE = to perform the action mentioned
a) We had a dance and afterwards we took a meal.
b) We are having a party in the evening.
c) We are having a nice holiday here.
d) I always have a walk after dinner.
e) Why don’t you have a rest?
f) May I have a look at your collection of coins?
D) HAVE = to cause something to happen or someone to do something; e.g.
a) I’m having my room washed at the moment.
b) My wife had me help her stop the crying baby.
c) The movie soon had all of us crying.
) Sumit will have it working in no time.
e) Have your trousers altered.
E) HAVE = to experience something
a) We’re having a wonderful time here in Manali.
b) I didn’t have any difficulty locating the office.
c) He hasn’t been having much luck recently.
F) HAVE = to deliver a baby
a) Pooja had her baby in hospital.
b) My wife isn’t planning to have children in near future.
NOTE-I: be having a baby, twins, etc. means to be pregnant; e.g.
I hear she is having a baby.
NOTE-II: HAVE when used as in point B to F above can also be used in the continuous tenses. For these meanings, in the Simple Present Tense and the Simple Past Tense we make negative and interrogative of HAVE with DO/DID; e.g.
a) We are having a good time here.
b) We are having eight people at the meeting.
c) My brother can’t meet you immediately, he is having a bath.
d) I am having a wonderful holiday.
INCORRECT: Has she a difficulty solving this sum.
CORRECT. Does she have a difficulty solving this sum.
INCORRECT: How many classes have you a week?
CORRECT: How many classes do you have a week?
5. Will & Shall
A) We use WILL for all persons, but we often use SHALL with first person; e.g.
a) We shall leave for Mumbai tomorrow.
b) I will arrange everything.
c) He will not go to school today.
NOTE: To express a command, promise, threat, determination, compulsion, or advice, with first person we use WILL (not SHALL) and with second and third person we use SHALL (not WILL); e.g.
a I will help you definitely. (Promise)
b) I will work hard from now on. (Determination)
c) I will have to finish this work today itself. (Compulsion)
d) You shall leave immediately. (Command)
e) You shall be provided with everything at this hotel. (Promise)
f) You shall be here for the meeting. (Compulsion)
g) Trespassers shall be prosecuted. (Threat)
B) WILL/SHALL for commands
For permanent rules and regulations we use SHALL (not WILL) even for third persons; e.g.
a) The president of the society shall be elected every three years.
b) Any entrant shall enter his name and address in the register kept with the guard.
NOTE-I: However, for other type of rules and regulations we use WILL instead of SHALL; e.g.
a) No one will swim here in this pond as it’s prone to very serious accidents.
b) Every team member will report to the coach if there is any problem with them.
NOTE-II: We can also convey orders by BE + TO-INFINITIVE construction; e.g.
a) You are to be here by tomorrow evening.
b) The medical report is to be seen at all times.
NOTE-III: Prohibitions may be expressed in written instructions by ‘MAY NOT’; e.g. No staff may bring mobile phones into the office.
NOTE-IV: We usually express habits in the present by the Simple Present Tense; but we can also use WILL when we wish to emphasize the characteristics of the performer rather than the action performed; e.g.
A policeman will usually show you the way in the street. (It is normal for a policeman to act in this way.)
C) BE GOING TO or WILL?
WILL is often used in a similar way to BE GOING TO. We use WILL for an absolute certainty. We use BE GOING TO when we want to emphasise our decision in the present; e.g.
a) I am now very late so I’m going to take the taxi.
b) I will go by bus today.
A) ‘AGREE WITH’ somebody or something
When the verb AGREE means to have the same opinion, we say AGREE WITH for persons as well as things; e.g.
a) I agree with Jitesh.
b) He agreed with my idea.
c) You can’t expect everyone to agree with you all the time
INCORRECT: In many ways I agree to his statement.
CORRECT: In many ways I agree with his statement.
NOTE-I: In this meaning, the preposition WITH is necessary here, you can’t say AGREE SOMEBODY/SOMETHING. Also you can’t say it in the present tense like this: ARE AGREED WITH; e.g.
INCORRECT: I am agreed with you.
CORRECT: I agree with you.
INCORRECT: I am agreed that students should get enough time for activities other than reading also.
CORRECT: I agree that students should get enough time for activities other than reading also.
NOTE-II: When we use AGREE with the above meaning, we don’t use its continuous form i.e. AGREEING; e.g.
INCORRECT: I am agreeing with Jitesh.
CORRECT: O I agree with Jitesh.
NOTE-III: With THE FACT THAT we use ACCEPT or APPRECIATE, not AGREE; e.g.
INCORRECT: I agree to the fact that smoking is extremely dangerous.
CORRECT: I accept the fact that smoking is extremely dangerous.
INCORRECT: I agree with the fact that everybody should go to cast his vote.
CORRECT: I accept the fact that everybody should go to cast his vote.
B) ‘AGREE TO’ something
When the verb AGREE means to accept something, we use AGREE TO for things (not PEOPLE); e.g.
a) He had agreed to the use of force.
b) The bank manager has agreed to our request for a loan.
c) I don’t understand why he doesn’t agree to the divorce.
C) AGREE ON
AGREE ON = to reach a decision. If people reach a decision together about something, we use AGREE ON; e.g.
a) We agreed on a date for the party.
b) We couldn’t agree on what to buy.
NOTE: We can also use AGREE + THAT-CLAUSE instead of AGREE ON; e.g.
They agreed on postponing of the meeting.
= They agreed that the meeting should be postponed.
A) Believe in sth
We use IN with BELIEVE in the following two meanings:
A) Accept that something exists; e.g.
Do you believe in ghosts?
B) Think that something is good; e.g.
a) I don’t believe in capital punishment. (mean Capital punishment is not a good thing in my view.)
b) I believe in getting a good night’s sleep before an examination.
B) Believe sth
We don’t use any preposition with BELIEVE in the following meaning: Accept that something is true or real; e.g.
a) I believe every word she said.
b) I couldn’t believe what I was seeing.
INCORRECT: You should not believe in everything you hear.
CORRECT: You should not believe everything you hear.
INCORRECT: She couldn’t believe in what was happening to her.
CORRECT: She couldn’t believe what was happening to her.
INCORRECT: I could hardly believe in my eyes.
CORRECT: I could hardly believe my eyes.
If the verb AVOID is following an action we use ING form (not INFINITIVE); e.g.
INCORRECT: I avoid to use a computer for personal letters.
CORRECT: I avoid using a computer for personal letters.
If a noun is there after ASSIST, we say ‘ASSIST IN’ or ‘ASSIST WITH’, but if an action is there after ASSIST, we say ‘ASSIST IN DOING’ (not TO DO); e.g.
I’ve been asked to assist him in the birthday party.
= I’ve been asked to assist him with the birthday party.
INCORRECT: One of the prison guards assisted them to escape.
CORRECT: O One of the prison guards assisted them in escaping. OR One of the prison guards assisted them in their escape.
A) Approve sth (without of)= to accept a plan, proposal or application; e.g.
The use of the new drug has yet to be approved by the Medical Research Council.
B) Approve of sb/sth= to think that someone or something is good; e.g.
INCORRECT: Those who approve the death penalty claim that life imprisonment is not effective.
CORRECT: Those who approve of the death penalty claim that life imprisonment is not effective.
INCORRECT: Some husbands do not approve the idea of their wives having a job.
CORRECT: Some husbands do not approve of the idea of their wives having a job.
ENTER = to come or go into a particular place. ENTER is usually a transitive verb; therefore it has an object and is not used with the prepositions TO, INTO or IN; e.g.
INCORRECT: They entered into the building through the front door.
CORRECT: They entered the building through the front door.
INCORRECT: After entering into university, students make a lot of new friends.
CORRECT: After entering university, students make a lot of new friends.
INCORRECT: In the past it was unthinkable that a woman could enter in politics.
CORRECT: In the past it was unthinkable that a woman could enter politics.
NOTE-I: Don’t confuse this use with the phrasal verb ENTER INTO, which means ‘to start agreements, contracts or discussions with someone; e.g.
Today, eighteen-year olds are considered responsible enough to enter into contracts.
NOTE-II: ENTER can be used without an object; e.g.
They stopped talking as soon as they saw Sunita enter.
12. Can’t help
After CAN’T HELP we use the gerund (ing form); e.g.
a) A child can’t bear living alone.
b) She can’t help laughing at your foolishness.
NOTE: However after CAN’T HELP BUT we use the infinitive (V1 without TO); e.g.
I can’t help but laugh.
For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.
Link for buying the above book
For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.
Link for buying the above book
sets-for-competitive-exams/’ icon=’iconic-right’]CLICK HERE TO BUY[/button]