USEFUL VERBS (MARRY TO/MARRY WITH, NEED & DARE, ETC.) PART-1
USEFUL VERBS (Part-1)
Here are some of the very important words and expressions that a candidate of any competitive exam should understand to crack an exam with good marks. They will be very useful for the competitive exams of the Staff Selection Commission (SSC) or Grade-II DASS Exam of the DSSSB, and other similar exams:
1. Combined Graduate Level (CGL) Exam Tier-I & Tier-II
2. Combined Higher Secondary (10+2) Exam (CHSL) Tier-I
3. SI in Delhi Police and CPO Exam Paper-I & Paper-II
4. Stenographers Exam
5. Grade-II DASS Exam conducted by Delhi Staff Subordinate Services (DSSSB)
List of verbs in this post
|1. It is time||4. Need & Dare||7. Lie & Lay||10. Been in & Been to|
|2. Used to||5. Marry to/Marry with||8. Fall & Fell||11. Adjourn, Postpone, Put-off, Cancel|
|3. Had better||6. Wait & Await||9. Be & Become|
1. Use of ‘IT IS TIME’
IT IS TIME can be used in the following two ways:
A) To mean that ‘correct time has arrived to do something (means one should start doing that)
For this meaning either we use TO-INFINITIVE or FOR + OBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE after it; e.g.
a) It’s time to leave.
b) It’s time for us to leave.
B) To mean that it’s a little late; and therefore the person mentioned would have started doing what’s required
For this meaning we use a THAT-CLAUSE after it, and the verb of this clause is in the Past Simple Tense. Use of THAT, though, is not very necessary; e.g.
It is time that we left.
= It is time we left.
[Here the past ‘LEFT’ is correct. It means we are a little late to leave; we should have left by now.]
NOTE: Sometimes the word ‘HIGH’ or ‘ABOUT’ is added to emphasize the idea. If we want to emphasise, the above sentence can also be expressed like this:
It’s high time we left. OR It’s about time we left.
2. USED TO
USED can be used in the following two ways:
A) Subject + Used to
B) Subject + Be/Become/Get + Used to
A) Subject + Used to
to express a discontinued habit; e.g.
a) I used to take singing classes. (means I do not take them now.)
b) I used not to take singing classes. (means I take singing classes now)
c) Used I to take singing classes?
NOTE-I: We cannot make negative or interrogative using DO with USED TO. This use of DO is limited to conversation only; e.g.
INCORRECT: I didn’t use to take singing classes.
CORRECT: I usedn’t to take singing classes.
INCORRECT: Did I use to take singing classes?
CORRECT: Used I to take singing classes?
NOTE-II: Remember that USED TO has no present form. So for present habits or routines we must use the SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (not USED TO); e.g.
INCORRECT: I use to go for a walk daily.
CORRECT: I go for a walk daily.
B) Subject + Be/Become/Get + Used to
In this structure USED is an adjective and TO is a preposition, and followed by a noun/gerund (ing form); remember that the gerund is also a noun. Here USED means ACCUSTOMED. In other words you can say it’s used to talk about something that you are familiar with so that it doesn’t seems new or strange to you; e.g.
1. a) I am used to noise. (here NOISE is a noun).
b) I am used to working in a noisy room. (means I have worked in a noisy room, so the noise doesn’t bother me; I don’t mind it.)
2. a) I’ve gotten used to smart phones.
b) I’ve gotten used to using smart phones. (means after I have used them for a while I’ve found them quite easy to use.)
3. I got used to driving on the right when I was in America.
3. HAD BETTER
Here HAD is UNREAL PAST; the meaning actually is present or future. We use V1 after HAD BETTER (not V3)
A) 1st PERSON as a subject of HAD BETTER is used to say that something would be a good thing to do; e.g.
I had better start taking coaching classes.
= It would be a good thing for me if I start taking coaching classes.
B) 2nd PERSON or 3rd PERSON as a subject of HAD BETTER is used for advice or warning; e.g.
He had better leave for the station at once.
= It would be risky if he doesn’t leave for the station at once.
You had better not go out in the open as it’s very hot.
= I advise/warn you not to go out in the open as it’s very hot.
4. Need & Dare
Both of these verbs are called Semi-modal Verbs. They are called so because they can be used as both main verbs and modal verbs. NEED and DARE can only be used as main verbs in affirmative sentences, in negative and interrogative sentence both of them can be used as main as well as modal verbs.
As a main verb NEED takes full infinitives (TO+V1), and as a helping verb it takes bare infinitives (V1 without TO). NEED is a main verb in affirmative sentences, but in negative and interrogative sentences it’s main verb only when DO is the helping verb with it, otherwise it itself is the helping verb; e.g.
I need to go to my doctor today in the evening. (The sentence is affirmative, so NEED is the main verb here. You see GO is to-infinitive.)
a) I do not need to go to my doctor today in the evening. (Here DO is the helping verb, therefore NEED is the main verb; so GO is to-infinitive)
b) I needn’t go to my doctor today in the evening. (DO is not there, so NEED itself is the helping verb here. So GO is bare infinitive.)
a) Do I need to go to my doctor today in the evening? (Here DO is the helping verb, therefore NEED is the main verb; so GO is to-infinitive)
b) Need I go to my doctor today in the evening? (Here NEED is the helping verb, so GO is bare infinitive)
NOTE-I: The modal NEED has no past form. Instead, we use DIDN’T NEED TO or DIDN’T HAVE TO in the past; e.g.
INCORRECT: I needed not to take my wife to the doctor.
CORRECT: I didn’t need to take my wife to the doctor. OR I didn’t have to take my wife to the doctor.
NOTE-II: When NEED is followed by a noun phrase or the gerund (ing form) in negative or interrogative sentences, we must use DO/DID with NEED; e.g.
INCORRECT: I needn’t a bag.
CORRECT: I don’t need a bag.
INCORRECT: Need my shirt washing?
CORRECT: Does my shirt need washing?
NOTE-III: When NEED is preceded by NO ONE, NOBODY, ANYBODY or any negative subject we use bare infinitive (V1 without TO); e.g.
a) Nobody need know the name of the person who made the complaint.
b) Not a word need change in this paper.
NOTE-IV: When words HARDLY, SCARCELY, ONLY are used with the verb NEED, it takes bare infinitive; e.g.
a) I need hardly say how happy I am to see you here. (SAY: bare infinitive)
b) You need only push this button to make this machine run. (PUSH: bare infinitive)
NOTE-V: When a negative or interrogative clause is in the beginning, NEED takes bare infinitive, e.g.
a) I don’t suppose I need meet him. (‘I don’t suppose’ is a negative clause.)
b) Do you think I need tell Rajat. (‘Do you think’ is an interrogative clause.)
NOTE-VI: When NEED is a modal verb, it doesn’t take S with it even if the subject is third person singular (he, she, it); e.g.
INCORRECT: He needs not do it.
CORRECT: He need not do it.
NOTE-VII: We don’t use NEED in the continuous; e.g.
INCORRECT: We are needing some milk.
CORRECT: We need some milk.
NOTE-VIII: When subject of NEED is a thing we use gerund (ing form) after it, we don’t use TO form; e.g.
INCORRECT: The cooker needs to be cleaned.
CORRECT: The cooker needs cleaning.
Dare is both a main verb and a modal verb. DARE has two meanings:
A) challenge somebody
B) to be brave enough or rude enough to do something
A) DARE = challenge somebody
With this meaning, it is a main verb and requires an object, means it’s a transitive verb. If any verb is following it it’s TO-INFINITIVE (to+v1); e.g.
i) I dare you to swim across the lake.
ii) She glared at Ankur, daring him to disagree.
iii) Some snakes can bite but I dare you to hold this big snake.
B) DARE = to be brave enough or rude enough to do something
With this meaning, it can be used both as a main verb and a modal verb. As a main verb, it can be followed by a TO-INFINITIVE (to+v1) or an INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO (v1 without TO). As a modal verb, it’s followed by an INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO; e.g.
a) He doesn’t dare to say anything.
= He doesn’t dare say anything.
b) Does anyone dare to go there?
= Does anyone dare go there?
a) They dared not laugh. (DARE is the helping verb here, so LAUGH is bare infinitive)
b) Dare she tell him the truth? (DARE is the helping verb here, so TELL is bare infinitive)
NOTE-I: When DARE is preceded by NO ONE, NOBODY, ANYBODY or any negative subject we can use any infinitive, means either full infinitive or bare infinitive; e.g.
No one dares to disturb him.
= No one dares disturb him.
NOTE-II: Like other modals DARE when is a modal verb doesn’t take S with it even if the subject is third person singular (he, she, it); e.g.
INCORRECT: She dares not meet you.
CORRECT: She dare not meet you.
5. ‘MARRY TO’ or ‘MARRY WITH’
A) When MARRY means ‘to become the husband or wife of somebody’, and its use is in the active voice it’s used without a preposition (you cannot use WITH or TO or any other preposition after it in this use); e.g.
INCORRECT: He married to an Indian.
CORRECT: He married an Indian.
INCORRECT: Sonika is going to marry with Rohan.
CORRECT: Sonika is going to marry Rohan.
INCORRECT: He presented a ring to the woman and asked her to marry to him.
CORRECT: He presented a ring to the woman and asked her to marry him.
NOTE: In other words you can say MARRY (someone) is a transitive verb, means it has an object. So, do not say I married with someone. It is not correct. And do not say I married to someone. It is also incorrect.
Correct example: I married Sohan 3 years ago.
B) We use TO after MARRIED (not after MARRY), that too when MARRIED is an adjective or in the passive use; e.g.
i) Ritu is married to Kapil.
ii) I got married to Ram.
NOTE-I: Don’t use the preposition WITH after GET MARRIED or BE MARRIED. Use TO; e.g.
INCORRECT: A girl shouldn’t be forced to get married with a man she doesn’t like. CORRECT: A girl shouldn’t be forced to get married to a man she doesn’t like.
NOTE-II: TO after MARRY is also used when somebody performs a marriage ceremony of somebody with other; e.g.
The priest married Jatan to Reena in the church.
NOTE-III: TO after MARRY is also used when a parent or guardian finds a husband or wife for his/her ward, e.g.
Her parents married her to a tennis player.
i) I am married TO Rajan. (passive or adjectival use)
ii) I married Rajan. (active use)
C) WITH after MARRY can be used in the sense like this only:
I will marry with the consent of my family.
D) MARRY OFF
When we mean to find a husband or wife for someone we use OFF with MARRY; e.g.
i) They tried to marry their daughter off to a doctor.
ii) She was married off to the local doctor by the age of 16.
iii) The father seems relieved as he has married off both of his daughters.
6. Wait & Await
AWAIT = to wait for something that you expect to happen; it’s a transitive verb, so it must have an object; e.g.
i) I am awaiting your reply.
ii) She is awaiting a letter from her mother.
iii) They are awaiting the birth of their first baby.
iv) The bill is awaiting the approval of the government.
INCORRECT: We await for your reply and apologize for any inconvenience.
CORRECT: We await your reply and apologize for any inconvenience.
NOTE: The object of AWAIT is always a thing, not a person; e.g. I am awaiting your response. (BUT NOT I am awaiting you.)
WAIT = to stay in one place because you expect that something will happen
A) With WAIT + TIME we can use it with or without FOR; e.g.
i) Put a tea bag into the cup, then add water and wait a minute or two before taking it out.
= Put a tea bag into the cup, then add water and wait for a minute or two before taking it out.
ii) I phoned the head office but I had to wait five minutes before I spoke to anyone.
= I phoned the head office but I had to wait for five minutes before I spoke to anyone.
iii) We waited hours to get the tickets.
= We waited for hours to get the tickets.
iv) Can you wait five minutes?
= Can you wait for five minutes?
v) We’ve been waiting ages.
= We’ve been waiting for ages.
B) WAIT does not require an object. If it’s a person or thing after WAIT we use ‘WAIT FOR’; e.g.
i) We are all waiting for you. (not We are waiting you.)
ii) We have been waiting for ages.
iii) I have been waiting for a bus for two hours.
iv) We are waiting for his call. OR We are awaiting his call.
C) WAIT can also be followed by an infinitive; e.g.
i) The passengers were waiting to catch the bus.
ii) I am waiting to hear from him.
D) We can use WAIT on its own, but can’t use AWAIT like this; e.g.
INCORRECT: I’ll await until he arrives.
CORRECT: I’ll wait until he arrives.
7. Lie & Lay
Verb LAY is transitive and therefore takes an object; verb LIE is intransitive and thus does not have an object. Three forms of these verbs:
Note the difference in the following sentences:
a) The boy lay on the sofa and slept. (Verb LAY has an object, but there is no object of LAY in the sentence, so it’s 2nd form of LIE here.)
b) Let me lie here. (The verb LIE doesn’t have an object, so it’s 1st form of LIE.)
c) How long had he lain there? (The verb LAIN has no object, so it’s 3rd form of LIE here.)
d) Lay the child on the bed. (The verb has an object, so it’s 1st form of LAY.)
e) I laid the book on the table. (The verb LAID has an object, so it’s 2nd form of LAY.)
f) The hen has laid an egg. (The verb LAID has an object here, so it’s 3rd form of LAY.)
8. Fall & Fell
The verb FELL is transitive and therefore takes an object; the verb FALL is intransitive and thus does not have an object. Three forms of these verbs:
A) FALL = to go down quickly towards the ground by accident
a) The glass fell from my hand and broke.
b) Many balls had fallen to the ground.
c) Many trees have fallen due to the storm.
B) FALL = coming down of rain or snow from the sky; e.g.
Rain is falling at the moment.
C) FALL = dropping of a person standing or walking downwards. When someone who is standing or walking falls, they drop downwards so that they are kneeling or lying on the ground; e.g.
She fell and hurt her leg.
NOTE-I: FALL is an intransitive verb. So it does not have an object. If an object is needed we don’t use FALL, rather we say DROP, etc.; e.g.
INCORRECT: While going to that room she fell the glass.
CORRECT: While going to that room she dropped the glass.
INCORRECT: He bumped into a chair and fell his plate.
CORRECT: He bumped into a chair and dropped his plate.
NOTE-II: Similarly, don’t say that someone ‘falls’ a person; e.g.
INCORRECT: He bumped into the girl and fell her.
CORRECT: He bumped into the girl and knocked her down/over.
A) FELL = to cut down a tree; e.g.
They felled many trees to provide space for the metro project.
B) FELL =to knock someone down, especially in sports; e.g.
He eventually felled his opponent with a punch to the head.
9. Be & Become
When talking about a change in state, we use GET/BECOME/GROW (not BE). BE is used to indicate that someone or something has a particular quality or nature, or is in a particular situation. BECOME is used to say that someone or something changes in some way; e.g.
a) Before he became Mayor he had been a teacher.
b) I’ve put a couple of apples in your bag in case you get hungry.
INCORRECT: Meanwhile, Neeru was beginning to be upset.
CORRECT: Meanwhile, Neeru was beginning to get upset.
INCORECT: When she didn’t arrive, I started to be anxious.
CORRECT: When she didn’t arrive, I started to become anxious.
INCORRECT: After six months he was the general manager.
CORRECT: After six months he became the general manager.
10. Been In & Been To
BEEN IN = living or staying in
BEEN TO = gone to and come back from; visited
a) i) I’ve been in Paris since the beginning of June. (means living there)
ii) I’ve been to Paris three times. (means I went and came back)
b) i) How long has Ritu been in hospital? (means remained there)
ii) I’ve been to the hospital to see Ritu. (means I went and came back)
NOTE: When you are talking about a specific visit or trip that you made in the past, use WENT TO (not HAVE BEEN TO); e.g.
a) I’ve been to England and Italy, but I haven’t been to France.
b) I went to England in 1993 and to Italy in 1994. (particular instance)
INCORRECT: Last year I’ve been to England for a month.
CORRECT: Last year I went to England for a month.
11. Adjourn, Postpone, Put off, Cancel
When a meeting is held at the notified date and put off to a future date is called adjournment; e.g.
a) The district judge adjourned the case for 16 weeks to allow time for experts to give evidence.
b) They adjourned the meeting until after lunch.
c) The meeting adjourned for lunch.
d) The proceedings have now been adjourned until next week.
e) I am afraid the court may not adjourn until three or even later.
When a meeting is put off without holding it at the notified date is called postponement. PUT OFF 0r POSTPONEMENT is the same thing; e.g.
a) They had to postpone/put the wedding off because the bride’s mother had an accident.
b) I’ll postpone/put off going to Mumbai until you’re well enough to look after yourself again.
c) The meeting has been postponed/put off for a week.
d) We’ve had to postpone/put off our wedding until September.
e) He keeps postponing/putting off going to the dentist.
f) The match has been postponed/put off until tomorrow because of bad weather.
g) This is not a decision that can be postponed/put off much longer.
h) We’ve had to postpone/put off going to England because the children are ill.
Difference between Adjournment and Postponement
The difference between adjournment and postponement is that in adjournment a meeting is held at the notified date, time and place and put off to a future date, time and place, while postponement a meeting is put off without holding it at the notified date, time and place.
If you cancel something that was arranged, you decide officially that it will not take place at all.
a) The foreign minister has cancelled his trip to the USA.
b) Over 80 flights were cancelled because of bad weather.
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