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WHAT A PHRASAL VERB IS & HOW TO USE THE PHRASAL VERBS (EXPLAINED IN HINDI & ENGLISH)

PHRASAL VERBS क्या होती हैं और इनको वाक्य में USE करने  की विधि (EXPLAINED IN HINDI)

1. Phrasal Verb क्या होती है  

एक phrasal verb ‘pick up’, ‘turn on’ अथवा ‘get on with’ जैसी होती है. ऐसे verbs में  ‘basic verb + कोई एक शब्द या तीन शब्द होते हैं. एक Phrasal Verb का अर्थ उस verb से एकदम भिन्न होता है जिस verb का उस Phrasal Verb में use हुआ है; जैसे

‘Look’ एक verb होती है; और ‘look up’ भी एक verb होती है. लेकिन verb ‘look up’ verb ‘लुक से एकदम भिन्न होती है. इन दोनों ही verbs के अर्थ अलग-अलग होते हैं. verb ‘look’ एक ordinary verb कहलाती है जबकि ‘look up’ एक phrasal verb कहलाती है.

Ordinary verb:

Look = किसी ओर देखना; जैसे

You must look before you leap. (leap = छ्लांग मारना)

Phrasal Verb जो ordinary verb ‘look’ से बनी हैं:

i) Look up (verb + adverb) = किसी book में कोई information ढूँढना; जैसे

You can look up the word in a dictionary.

ii) Look after (verb + preposition) = किसी की देखभाल करना; जैसे

Who is looking after the baby?

iii) Look forward to = (verb + adverb + preposition) = किसी आनंद प्राप्ति के लिए कुछ अनुमान लगाना; जैसे

look forward to meeting you.

Phrasal Verbs के use के कुछ और उदहारण:

i) The book first came out in 1997. (Came out = was published)
ii) The plane took off an hour late. (Took off = flew into the air)
iii) The lecture went on till 6.30.(Went on = continued)
iv) It’s difficult to make out what she’s saying. (Make out = hear/understand)

2. Types of Phrasal Verbs 

There are three types of phrasal verb formed from an ordinary verb.

A) Verb + adverb

इस प्रकार की phrasal verbs को ‘Adverb Phrasal Verb’ भी कहा जाता है. इस तरह की verb निम्नलिखित दो प्रकार की होती हैं:

a) Transitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs (जिनके साथ किसी object का use होता है)

i) Put off = meeting, आदि के समय को टालना; जैसे

We will have to put off the meeting.

ii) Turn down = इंकार करना; जैसे

They turned down my offer.

NOTE: ऐसी transitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs जिनके parts को अलग-अलग किया जा सकता है (separable); और जिनके parts को अलग-अलग नहीं किया जा सकता है (inseparable)

जिन Adverb Phrasal Verbs के साथ किसी object का use होता है उनमें से अधिकतर का object phrasal verb के दोनों parts के बीच में भी use किया जा सकता है और बाद में भी. लेकिन यदि object कोई personal pronoun (me, you, him, us, etc.) हो तो फिर object  दोनों parts के बीच में ही use किया जा सकता है; बाद में नहीं; जैसे

 They turned down my offer. (Object ‘my offer’ एक pronoun नहीं है.)
= They turned my offer down.

John switched on the radio. (Object ‘radio’ एक pronoun नहीं है.)
= John switched the radio on.

i) She brought up three kids all alone.
= She brought three kids up all alone.

ii) Do you want me to take off my shoes?
= Do you want me to take my shoes off?

iii) Do you always look up every new word in a dictionary?
= Do you always look every new word up in a dictionary?

INCORRECT: John switched on it. (Object ‘it’ एक pronoun है.)
CORRECT: John switched it on.

INCORRECT: I’ve made some copies. Would you like me to hand out them? (Object ‘them’ एक pronoun है.)
CORRECT: I’ve made some copies. Would you like me to hand them out?

INCORRECT: Oh, I can’t lift up you any more. You’re too big now. (Object ‘you’ एक pronoun है.)
CORRECT: Oh, I can’t lift you up any more. You’re too big now.

b) Intransitive Phrasal Verbs (जिनके साथ किसी object का use नहीं होता है)

i) Get up = जाग जाना; जैसे

I don’t like to get up early.

ii) Break down = अचानक कार्य करना बंद कर देना; जैसे

He was late because his car broke down.

Intransitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs: के use के कुछ और उदहारण:

i) The taxi broke down on the way to the airport and I thought I nearly missed my flight.
ii) We’d better set off before the rush-hour traffic starts.
iii) What time did you wake up this morning?

NOTE: कुछ Adverb Phrasal Verbs जिनके साथ कोई object use नहीं किया जाता:

break down, carry on, drop off, eat out, get back, go off, hang on, join in, move in/out, run away, set off, wake up

B) Verb + preposition

इस प्रकार की phrasal verbs को ‘Prepositional Phrasal Verb’ भी कहा जाता है. क्योंकि हर preposition के साथ कोई न कोई object use होता है, इसलिए Prepositional Phrasal Verbs के साथ भी कोई न कोई object use होता है; अर्थात ये transitive verbs होती हैं. ऐसी verbs के दोनों ही parts को एक-दूसरे से अलग नहीं किया जा सकता; अर्थात object को verb के parts क बीच में use नहीं किया जा सकता; जैसे

i) Believe in = किसी में विश्वास करना; जैसे

I believe in God.

ii) Look after = देखभाल करना; जैसे

He is looking after the dog.

iii) Talk about = चर्चा करना; जैसे

Did you talk about me?

iv) Wait for = इन्तजार करना; जैसे

Piyush is waiting for Sunita.

INCORRECT: Who is looking the baby after?
CORRECT: Who is looking after the baby?

INCORRECT: Somebody broke his car into and stole his radio.
CORRECT: Somebody broke into his car and stole his radio.

INCORRECT: I don’t like this CD. I don’t want to listen it to any more.
CORRECT: I don’t like this CD. I don’t want to listen to it any more.

INCORRECT: Could you look my bag after while I go and buy the tickets?
CORRECT: Could you look after my bag while I go and buy the tickets?

NOTE: कुछ Prepositional Phrasal Verbs अपने तुरंत बाद एक personal object लेती हैं; और preposition का use इस object के बाद किया जाता है. ऐसी कुछ verb हैं: 

Associate with Protect from Provide with Remind of
Rob of thank for

INCORRECT: Sujata reminds of me a girlfriend of mine.
CORRECT: Sujata reminds me of a girlfriend of mine.

INCORRECT: How can we protect from children dangerous material on the Internet?
CORRECT: How can we protect children from dangerous material on the Internet?

INCORRECT: I’d like to thank for everyone their kindness.
CORRECT: I’d like to thank everyone for their kindness.

C) Verb + adverb + preposition

कुछ phrasal verbs के तीन part होते हैं; एक तो verb, एक adverb और एक preposition. Adverb और preposition को एक-दूसरे से अलग नहीं किया जा सकता है. ऐसी verb adverb का काम भी करती हैं और preposition का भी; जैसे

i) Get on with = किसी के साथ मधुर सम्बन्धों का होना; जैसे

He doesn’t get on with his wife.

ii) Put up with= किसी बात को सहन करना; जैसे

I won’t put up with your attitude.

iii) Look forward to = किसी आनंद प्राप्ति के लिए कुछ अनुमान लगाना; जैसे

I look forward to seeing you.

iv) Run out of = किसी वस्तु का समाप्त होना; जैसे

We have run out of eggs.

ऐसी verbs के कुछ और उदहारण:

i) Raman’s just chatting to a friend. He’ll catch up with us in a minute. (Catch up with  = किसी को join करना)
ii) Do you get on with your neighbours? (Get on with = किस के साथ सम्बन्धों का अच्छा होना)
iii) We look forward to meeting you on the 22nd. (Look forward to = किसी आनंद प्राप्ति के लिए कुछ अनुमान लगाना)

INCORRECT: She was a wonderful teacher. We all looked her up to her.
INCORRECT: She was a wonderful teacher. We all looked up her to.
CORRECT: She was a wonderful teacher. We all looked up to her. (Look up to = respect)

NOTE: ऐसी कुछ verbs के तुरंत साथ में कोई object भी use होता है; और उसके preposition के साथ भी; जैसे

i) She fixed us up with a violin teacher. We’re really grateful to her. (Fixed us up with = किसी व्यक्ति के लिए किसी और का प्रबंध करना)
ii) We just put the accident down to bad luck; there’s no other reason. (Put down to = किसी बात के कारण या परिणाम के बारे में कोई निर्णय लेना)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

WHAT A PHRASAL VERB IS & HOW TO USE THE PHRASAL VERBS (EXPLAINED IN ENGLISH)

1. What are Phrasal Verbs?

A phrasal verb is a verb like ‘pick up’, ‘turn on’ or ‘get on with’. These verbs consists of a ‘basic verb + another word or words’. Because they are made up of two or three words, we call them ‘Phrasal Verbs’.

‘Look’ is a verb; ‘look up’ is also a verb. However ‘look up’ is a different verb. They do not have the same meaning, and they behave differently grammatically.

Ordinary verb:

Look = direct your eyes in a certain direction; e.g.

You must look before you leap.

Phrasal Verb which are formed from the ordinary verb ‘look’:

i) Look up (verb + adverb) = search for and find information in a reference book; e.g.

You can look up the word in a dictionary.

ii) Look after (verb + preposition) = take care of; e.g.

Who is looking after the baby?

iii) Look forward to = (verb + adverb + preposition) = anticipate with pleasure; e.g.

look forward to meeting you.

More examples of Phrasal Verbs:

i) The book first came out in 1997. (Came out = was published)
ii) The plane took off an hour late. (Took off = flew into the air)
iii) The lecture went on till 6.30.(Went on = continued)
iv) It’s difficult to make out what she’s saying. (Make out = hear/understand)

2. Types of Phrasal Verbs 

There are three types of phrasal verb formed from an ordinary verb:

A) Verb + adverb

This type of phrasal verb is also called a ‘Adverb Phrasal Verb’. Such types of phrasal verbs are of two types:

a) Transitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs (that take an object)

i) Put off = postpone; e.g.

We will have to put off the meeting.

ii) Turn down = refuse; e.g.

They turned down my offer.

NOTE: Separable or inseparable Transitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs

Many Adverb Phrasal Verbs take an object. In most cases, the object may come between the two parts of the Adverb Phrasal Verbs or after that phrasal verb, but if the object is a personal pronoun (me, you, him, us, etc.) it comes in the middle of the two parts; e.g.

They turned down my offer. (The object ‘my offer’ is not a pronoun.)
= They turned my offer down.

John switched on the radio. (The object ‘radio’ is not a pronoun.)
= John switched the radio on.

i) She brought up three kids all alone.
= She brought three kids up all alone.

ii) Do you want me to take off my shoes?
= Do you want me to take my shoes off?

iii) Do you always look up every new word in a dictionary?
= Do you always look every new word up in a dictionary?

INCORRECT: John switched on it. (The object ‘it’ is a pronoun.)
CORRECT: John switched it on.

INCORRECT: I’ve made some copies. Would you like me to hand out them? (The object ‘them’ is a pronoun.
CORRECT: I’ve made some copies. Would you like me to hand them out?

INCORRECT: Oh, I can’t lift up you any more. You’re too big now. (The object ‘you’ is a pronoun.
CORRECT: Oh, I can’t lift you up any more. You’re too big now.

b) Intransitive Phrasal Verbs (that do not take a direct object)

i) Get up = rise from bed; e.g.

I don’t like to get up.

ii) Break down = stop working; e.g.

He was late because his car broke down.

More examples of intransitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs:

i) The taxi broke down on the way to the airport and I thought I nearly missed my flight.
ii) We’d better set off before the rush-hour traffic starts.
iii) What time did you wake up this morning?

NOTE: Some of the Adverb Phrasal Verbs that are intransitive:

break down, carry on, drop off, eat out, get back, go off, hang on, join in, move in/out, run away, set off, wake up

B) Verb + preposition

This type of phrasal verb is also called a ‘Prepositional Phrasal Verb’. Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct objects, means they are transitive. Prepositional verbs cannot be separated. That means that we cannot put the direct object between the two parts; e.g.

i) Believe in = have faith in the existence of; e.g.

I believe in God.

ii) Look after = take care of; e.g.

He is looking after the dog.

iii) Talk about = discuss; e.g.

Did you talk about me?

iv) Wait for = await; e.g.

John is waiting for Mary.

INCORRECT: Who is looking the baby after?
CORRECT: Who is looking after the baby?

INCORRECT: Somebody broke his car into and stole his radio.
CORRECT: Somebody broke into his car and stole his radio.

INCORRECT: I don’t like this CD. I don’t want to listen it to any more.
CORRECT: I don’t like this CD. I don’t want to listen to it any more.

INCORRECT: Could you look my bag after while I go and buy the tickets?
CORRECT: Could you look after my bag while I go and buy the tickets?

NOTE: Some Prepositional Phrasal Verbs take an object referring to persons after the verb followed by the prepositional phrase, some of them are:

Associate with Protect from Provide with Remind of
Rob of thank for

INCORRECT: Sujata reminds of me a girlfriend of mine.
CORRECT: Sujata reminds me of a girlfriend of mine.

INCORRECT: How can we protect from children dangerous material on the Internet?
CORRECT: How can we protect children from dangerous material on the Internet?

INCORRECT: I’d like to thank for everyone their kindness.
CORRECT: I’d like to thank everyone for their kindness.

C) Verb + adverb + preposition

This type of phrasal verb is also called a ‘phrasal-prepositional verb’. Some phrasal verbs have three parts: a verb, an adverb and a preposition. The adverb and the preposition cannot be separated. These phrasal verbs work as both adverbs and prepositions ; e.g.

i) Get on with = have a friendly relationship with; e.g.

He doesn’t get on with his wife.

ii) Put up with= tolerate; e.g.

I won’t put up with your attitude.

iii) Look forward to = anticipate with pleasure; e.g.

I look forward to seeing you.

iv) Run out of = use up, exhaust; e.g.

We have run out of eggs.

More examples of intransitive Adverb Phrasal Verbs:

i) Raman’s just chatting to a friend. He’ll catch up with us in a minute. (Catch up with  = reach/join)
ii) Do you get on with your neighbours? (Get on with = have a good relationship with)
iii) We look forward to meeting you on the 22nd. (Look forward to = anticipate with pleasure)

INCORRECT: She was a wonderful teacher. We all looked her up to her.
INCORRECT: She was a wonderful teacher. We all looked up her to.
CORRECT: She was a wonderful teacher. We all looked up to her. (Look up to = respect)

NOTE: Some of such verbs also take a direct object after the verb as well as an object of the preposition; e.g.

i) She fixed us up with a violin teacher. We’re really grateful to her. (Fixed us up with = arranged for us)
ii) We just put the accident down to bad luck; there’s no other reason. (Put down to = think the cause or reason is)

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY

For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

CLICK HERE TO BUY
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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

1. Maha English Grammar (for Competitive Exams)
2. Maha English Practice Sets (for Competitive Exams)