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Verb ‘Wish’ & ‘If only’ (Explained in Hindi & English)

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Verb ‘Wish’ & ‘If only’ (Explained in Hindi)

‘If only’ का प्रयोग ऐसी प्रबल इच्छाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है अगर वे पूरी हो जातीं तो परिस्थितियां बदल जातीं. इस अर्थ में verb ‘wish’ का प्रयोग भी किया जा सकता है. अर्थात ये दोनों एह ही बात है. if only’ अथवा verb ‘wish’ का प्रयोग वर्तमान के समय और भूतकाल के समय की अवास्तविक  इच्छाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है, future की नहीं.

1. वर्तमान की wishes के लिए ‘wish’/’if only’ का use 

संरचना ‘wish/if only + a past form + that-clause’ का प्रयोग वर्तमान समय की ऐसी इच्छाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जिनके पूरा होने पर हमारी वर्तमान परिस्थियाँ जो अब हैं वे बदल जातीं. ध्यान रहे कि जब हम ऐसा करते हैं तो that-clause में Past Simple Tense और Past Continuous Tense में से जिसकी भी आवश्यकता हो उसका use किया जाता है; किसी present या future tense का नहीं; जैसे

INCORRECT: I wish/If only he knows the truth.
CORRECT: I wish/If only he knew the truth. (= उसको सच्चाई का नहीं मालूम, परन्तु मैं चाहता हूँ कि काश उसको सच्चाई पता होती.)

INCORRECT: I wish/If only I have a car.
CORRECT: I wish/If only I had a car. (= मेरे पास कार नहीं है, परन्तु मैं चाहता हूँ कि काश कोई कार मेरे पास होती.)

INCORRECT: I wish/If only there is something she could do or say to help.
CORRECT: I wish/If only there was something she could do or say to help.

a) I never have enough time and I wish/if only I had more.
b) I wish/If only you didn’t live so far away.
c) I wish/If only I could help you, but I can’t.
d) I envy you. I wish/If only I were going away too.
e) If only we knew what to do.
f) He wishes he could afford a holiday.
g) I wish I were going with you. (= but I’m not)

NOTE: That-clause की verb subjunctive mood में होती है, इसलिए verb ‘was’ की अपेक्षा verb ‘were’ का use होता है; जैसे

a) I wish/If only she weren’t so tired.
b) I wish/If only I were going on holiday.

2. भूतकाल की wishes के लिए ‘wish’/’if only’ का use 

संरचना ‘wish/if only + a past perfect form + that-clause’ का प्रयोग past समय की ऐसी की इच्छाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जो अगर उस समय तक पूरी हो चुकी होतीं तो उस समय की हमारी परिस्थियाँ बदली हुई होतीं; जैसे

a) I wish/If only I had sold my bike. (अर्थात काश पहले ही मैंने अपनी bike बेच दी होती.)
b) I wish/If only he had listened to what his friends had been telling him. (= He didn’t listen.)
c) I wish/If only Arun had been able to come. (= Arun wasn’t able to come.)
d) They wish they hadn’t eaten so much chocolate. They’re feeling very sick now.
e) I wish/If only I’d studied harder when I was at school.
f) I wish/If only I had woken up early. (=I didn’t wake up early and I missed my bus.)

NOTE-I: Verb ‘wish’ का tense अगर Past Simple Tense हो तो that-clause में भी verb का tense भी Past Simple Tense ही होता है; जैसे

a) She wished she lived in Delhi.
b) The woman wished she could help them.

NOTE-II: वर्तमान समय के लिए की गयीं wishes के लिए that-clause में Past Perfect Tense के अतिरिक्त  आवश्यकतानुसार किसी भी past tense का use किया जाता है; जबकि किसी past time  की wishes के लिए  that-clause में सिर्फ Past Perfect Tense का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) I wish that she were here now. (present wish)
b) I wish that she had been here yesterday. (past wish)

NOTE-III: यदि आवश्यकता हो तो ‘that-clause’  में  modal verb ‘could’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

a) I wish I could climb that wall.
b) He wished he could believe her.

NOTE-IV: वर्तमान की wishes के लिए आमतौर पर Past Simple Tense का ही use किया जाता है. लेकिन जब हम किसी ऐसी बात के लिए परेशान होते हैं जो हमारे साथ घटित नहीं हुई है और जिसके होने की कोई सम्भावना भी नहीं है; और हम चाहते हैं की ऐसा हो जाये तो तो वर्तमान की wishes के लिए modal verb ‘would’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

a) I wish he would leave early! (अर्थात काश कि वह जल्द ही यहाँ से चला जाता; पर ऐसा लगता नहीं है.)
b) I wish someone would explain it to me.
c) I wish you would find out the facts before you start accusing people.
d) I wish you wouldn’t borrow my clothes without asking.
e) I wish it would rain. The garden really needs some water. (अर्थात काश कि बरसात हो जाती क्योंकि garden को पानी की जरूरत है; पर मुझे लगता नहीं कि बरसात होगी.)
f) She wishes he’d work less. They never spend any time together.
g) I wish you wouldn’t arrive so late all the time (= I’m annoyed because you always come late and I want you to arrive on time)

NOTE-V: Future की wishes के लिए verb ‘wish’ का use नहीं किया जाता; बल्कि verb ‘hope’ का use किया जाता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: I wish you’ll have a nice time in Nepal.
CORRECT: I hope you’ll have a nice time in Nepal. OR I hope you have a nice time in Nepal.

a) I hope I’ll see you before you go.
b) I hope you enjoy the play.

Verb ‘wish’ का use future की wishes के लिए भी किया जा सकता है यदि verb ‘wish’ एक ऐसी सकर्मक ( transitive) verb हो जिसके दो object हों; जैसे

a) May I wish you luck in writing your book. (इस वाक्य में verb ‘wish’ के दो object ‘you’ और ‘luck’ हैं.)
b) He wished the newly-wed couple every possible happiness. (इस वाक्य में verb ‘wished’ के दो object ‘the newly-wed couple’ और ‘happiness’ हैं.)

NOTE-VI: ‘If only’ का use question form में नहीं किया जा सकता; जैसे

INCORRECT: If only did he live in a city?
CORRECT: Do you wish I lived in a city?

NOTE-VII: ऊपर के वाक्यों में ‘if only’ और verb ‘wish’ के बाद  दिए गये सभी clause ‘that-clause’ ही हैं क्योंकि ‘if only’ और verb ‘wish’ के बाद दिए गये clauses के साथ ‘that’ का use स्वैच्छिक (optional) होता है; जैसे

I wish/If only I had a car.
= I wish/If only that I had a car.

3. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES में ‘wish’/’if only’ का use

‘Wish’ और ‘if only’ का प्रयोग वर्तमान की किसी काल्पनिक या असम्भव शर्त का उल्लेख करने के लिए भी किया जा सकता है; जिसके बाद दिए गये main clause में उसका काल्पनिक परिणाम दिया होता है; जैसे

A) Type-II Conditional Sentences 

If only I didn’t have a headache, I would/could go to the party tonight.
= I wish I didn’t have a headache, then I would/could go to the party tonight.

(= अर्थात मेरे सिर में दर्द है; इसलिए मेरी वर्तमान की आज रात को party में जाने की जो इच्छा है वो पूरी नहीं हो सकती वो इस कारण से पूरी नहीं हो सकती. अगर मेरे सिर में दर्द नहीं होता तो अवश्य ही मेरी ये इच्छा पूरी हो जाती.)

B) Type-III Conditional Sentences 

If only I’d taken the train, I would have arrived at the destination by now.
= I wish I’d taken the train; I would have arrived at the destination by now.

[= अर्थात मैंने गाड़ी नहीं पकड़ी और इसलिए main गन्तव्य स्थान (destination) पर नहीं पहुँच पाया; अर्थात मेरा गन्तव्य स्थान पर पहुँच जाना एक काल्पनिक परिणाम है.]

NOTE-I: ‘If only’ के प्रयोग वाले वाक्यों के clauses का क्रम बदला जा सकता है; परन्तु verb ‘wish’ के प्रयोग वाले वाक्यों में नहीं; जैसे

If only I didn’t have a headache, I would/could go to the party tonight.
= I would/could go to the party tonight, if only I didn’t have a headache..

If only I’d taken the train, I would have arrived at the destination by now.
= I would have arrived at the destination by now, if only I’d taken the train.

NOTE-II: Verb ‘wish’ का use करते हुए जब हम Type-II Conditional Sentences के दोनों clause को जोड़ते हैं तो दूसरे clause के पहले शब्द ‘then’ का use किया जाता है; परन्तु Verb ‘wish’ का use करते हुए जब हम Type-III Conditional Sentences के दोनों clause को जोड़ते हैं तो दूसरे clause के पहले शब्द ‘then’ का use नहीं किया जाता, बल्कि इसकी जगह semicolon (;) का use किया जाता है.

4. Verb ‘wish’ का प्रयोग wishes के लिए नहीं बल्कि wants के लिए किया जाता है

‘Verb ‘wish’ के इस अर्थ में इसके बाद ‘that-clause’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता.

A) Verb ‘wish’ के साथ जब किसी ‘that-clause’ का use ना करके किसी ‘to-infinitive’ का use किया जाता है तो ‘verb ‘wish’ का अर्थ ‘want’ होता है. ऐसे में verb ‘wish’ को आमतौर पर continuous form में use नहीं होता; जैसे

INCORRECT: I’m wishing to speak to Mr Gupta, please.
CORRECT: I wish to speak to Mr Gupta, please.

i) I wish to attend the meeting. (मैं meeting में जाना चाहता हूँ. ये कोई wish नहीं है बल्कि ये एक कामना है.)
ii) She wishes to attend the meeting.
iii) They don’t wish to attend the meeting.
iv) Does he wish to attend the meeting?

B) किसी और व्यक्ति के लिए future में कुछ होने की कामना करने के लिए verb ‘wish के साथ to-infinitive के पहले जिसके लिए कामना की गयी है वो वाला object आना आवश्यक होता है; जैसे

तुलना कीजिये:
i) I did not wish to know about Richa. (= मैं खुद ही ऋचा के बारे में नहीं जानना चाहता था.) — ये कामना किसी और व्यक्ति के लिए बल्कि खुद के लिए की गयी है.

ii) I did not wish my family to know about Richa, so I told them nothing. (= मैं नहीं चाहता था कि मेरे परिवार को ऋचा के बारे में पता लगे.) — ये कामना किसी और व्यक्ति के लिए (मेरे वालों के बारे में) की गयी है.

NOTE-I: जब भी verb ‘wish’ के बाद कोई object हो तो उस object के पहले to-infinitive का use आवश्यक है. इस use में verb ‘wish’ की अपेक्षा verb ‘want’ अथवा ‘would like’ का use भी किया जा सकता है; जैसे

INCORRECT: We wish a table near the window, please.

CORRECT: We wish to have a table near the window, please.
= We want to have a table near the window, please.
= We would like to have a table near the window, please.

NOTE-II: भूतकाल की किसी कामना (want/desire) के लिए verb ‘wish’ की Past Simple Tense form use की जाती है; जैसे

i) I wished to attend the meeting.
ii) She wished him the best of luck.

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Verb ‘Wish’ & ‘If only’ (Explained in English)

We use ‘if only’ to express a strong wish that things could be different. It means the same as ‘I wish’ but ‘if only’ is stronger. We use it to talk about present  and past unreal wishes.

1. Use of ‘wish’/’if only’ for PRESENT WISHES

We can use ‘wish/if only + a past form + that-clause’ to talk about a present situation we would like to be different (impossible desire or a regret). In other words when we feel sad for a situation we can use either ‘wish’ or ‘if only’ with a that-clause. In the that-clause we use a past tense (simple and continuous), not a present tense or a future tense; e.g.

INCORRECT: I wish/If only he knows the truth.
CORRECT: I wish/If only he knew the truth. (= He doesn’t know the truth, but he wishes he knew it.)

INCORRECT: I wish/If only I have a car.
CORRECT: I wish/If only I had a car. (= I don’t have a car, but I wish I had it.)

INCORRECT: I wish/If only there is something she could do or say to help.
CORRECT: I wish/If only there was something she could do or say to help.

a) I never have enough time and I wish/if only I had more.
b) I wish/If only you didn’t live so far away.
c) I wish/If only I could help you, but I can’t.
d) I envy you. I wish/If only I were going away too.
e) If only we knew what to do.
f) He wishes he could afford a holiday.
g) I wish I were going with you. (= but I’m not)

NOTE: The verb of the that-clause is in the subjunctive mood, hence use ‘were’ instead of ‘was’; e.g.

a) I wish/If only she weren’t so tired.
b) I wish/If only I were going on holiday.

2. Use of ‘wish’/’if only’ for PAST WISHES

We can use ‘wish/if only + a past perfect form + that-clause’ to talk about something we would like to change about the past. In other words we use this to talk about a wish to change something that has already happened, and hence it’s a regret about the past); e.g.

a) I wish/If only I had sold my bike.
b) I wish/If only he had listened to what his friends had been telling him. (= He didn’t listen.)
c) I wish/If only Arun had been able to come. (= Arun wasn’t able to come.)
d) They wish they hadn’t eaten so much chocolate. They’re feeling very sick now.
e) I wish/If only I’d studied harder when I was at school.
f) I wish/If only I had woken up early. (=I didn’t wake up early and I missed my bus.)

NOTE-I: We use the same tense in the that-clause when the verb ‘wish’ is in the past, e.g.

a) She wished she lived in Delhi.
b) The woman wished she could help them.

NOTE-II: For a present wish we use a past tense other than the past perfect, and for a past wish we use the past perfect tense in the that-clause; e.g.

a) I wish that she were here now. (present wish)
b) I wish that she had been here yesterday. (past wish)

NOTE-III: We can also use ‘could’ in the ‘that-clause’; e.g.

a) I wish I could climb that wall.
b) He wished he could believe her.

NOTE-IV: For a present wish we can also use ‘would’ in the that-clause. We do this if we want something to happen, and we are annoyed or worried because it has not happened already, in such situations we often feel that they are unlikely or unwilling to change; e.g.

a) I wish he would leave early!
b) I wish someone would explain it to me.
c) I wish you would find out the facts before you start accusing people.
d) I wish you wouldn’t borrow my clothes without asking.
e) I wish it would rain. The garden really needs some water.
f) She wishes he’d work less. They never spend any time together.
g) I wish you wouldn’t arrive so late all the time (= I’m annoyed because you always come late and I want you to arrive on time)

NOTE-V: To express a wish for the future we don’t use the verb ‘wish’ with a that-clause, rather we use ‘hope’; e.g.

INCORRECT: I wish you’ll have a nice time in Nepal.
CORRECT: I hope you’ll have a nice time in Nepal. OR I hope you have a nice time in Nepal.

a) I hope I’ll see you before you go.
b) I hope you enjoy the play.

However, we can sometimes express a wish for the future using ‘wish’ as a transitive verb with two objects; e.g.

a) May I wish you luck in writing your book.
b) He wished the newly-wed couple every possible happiness.

NOTE-VI: We do not use ‘if only’ in question form; e.g.

Do you wish I lived in a city? (We can’t make this question by using ‘if only’.)

NOTE-VII: All the clauses above are that-clauses. To write ‘that’ after ‘wish/if only’  is optional.

3. Use of ‘wish’/’if only’ in CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

We can also use ‘wish’ and ‘if only’ to describe an imagined or impossible condition in the past or present followed by a main clause that describes the imagined result.

A) Type-II Conditional Sentences

If only I didn’t have a headache, I would/could go to the party tonight.
= I wish I didn’t have a headache, then I would/could go to the party tonight.

(= I do have a headache so the desired intention/ability in the present to go to the party is an imagined result.)

B) Type-III Conditional Sentences

If only I’d taken the train, I would have arrived at the destination by now.
= I wish I’d taken the train; I would have arrived at the destination by now.

(= I did not take the train and I have not arrived at the destination so this is an imagined result in the past.

NOTE-I: With ‘if only’ we can change the order of the conditional clauses with no difference in meaning, but we can’t change the order of the clauses while using the verb ‘wish’; e.g.

If only I didn’t have a headache, I would/could go to the party tonight.
= I would/could go to the party tonight, if only I didn’t have a headache..

If only I’d taken the train, I would have arrived at the destination by now.
= I would have arrived at the destination by now, if only I’d taken the train.

NOTE-II: When we join the clauses of a Type-II Conditional Sentence while using the verb ‘wish’; we put the word ‘then’ before the second clause. But when we join the clauses of a Type-III Conditional Sentence while using the verb ‘wish’ we put the semicolon (;) instead of ‘then’ before the second clause.

4. When the verb ‘wish’ is used for wants (not wishes)

(without ‘that-clause’)

A) When we use ‘wish’ followed by ‘to-infinitive’, wish means the same as want. We do not normally use wish in the continuous form when we use it with a to-infinitive; e.g.

INCORRECT: I’m wishing to speak to Mr Gupta, please.
CORRECT: I wish to speak to Mr Gupta, please.

i) I wish to attend the meeting.
ii) She wishes to attend the meeting.
iii) They don’t wish to attend the meeting.
iv) Does he wish to attend the meeting?

B) To express a desire for something in the future for someone else. In this use of ‘wish’ we use an object before the to-infinitive; e.g.

Compare:
i) I did not wish to know about Richa. (= I myself did not want to know about Richa.) — WISH without an object

ii) I did not wish my family to know about Richa, so I told them nothing. (= I did not want my family knew about Richa.) — ‘wish’ with an object

NOTE-I: When we use an object after ‘wish’, we must also use a verb in the to-infinitive form. Alternatively, we can say ‘want’ or ‘would like’ (if we want to be more polite); e.g.:

INCORRECT: We wish a table near the window, please.

CORRECT: We wish to have a table near the window, please.
= We want to have a table near the window, please.
= We would like to have a table near the window, please.

NOTE-II: We use the past simple of ‘wish’ to describe a desire that was expressed in the past; e.g.

i) I wished to attend the meeting.
ii) She wished him the best of luck.

C) Wish = to express good wishes and to hope that good things will happen to people

For this purpose we use ‘wish’ with two objects, an indirect object + a direct object; e.g.

i) I wish you success in your new job.
ii) I’ve got my driving test tomorrow. Wish me luck!
iii) We wish you a long and happy life together.
iv) I wish him the best of luck.

For more chapters/topics on English Grammar read the following book authored by me.

Link for buying the above book

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For English Practice Sets on various topics read the following book authored by me.

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Maha Gupta

Maha Gupta

Founder of www.examscomp.com and guiding aspirants on SSC exam affairs since 2010 when objective pattern of exams was introduced first in SSC. Also the author of the following books:

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